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Lignocellulosic Polymer Composites

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Lignocellulosic Polymer Composites

Lignocellulosic Polymer Composites Book
Author : Vijay Kumar Thakur
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2014-10-30
ISBN : 1118773985
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The book presents emerging economic and environmentally friendly lignocellulosic polymer composites materials that are free from side effects studied in the traditional synthetic materials. This book brings together panels of highly-accomplished leading experts in the field of lignocellulosic polymers & composites from academia, government, as well as research institutions across the globe and encompasses basic studies including preparation, characterization, properties and theory of polymers along with applications addressing new emerging topics of novel issues. Provide basic information and clear understanding of the present state and the growing utility of lignocellulosic materials from different natural resources Includes contributions from world-renowned experts on lignocellulosic polymer composites and discusses the combination of different kinds of lignocellulosic materials from natural resources Discusses the fundamental properties and applications of lignocellulosic polymers in comparison to traditional synthetic materials Explores various processing/ mechanical/ physic-chemical aspects of lignocellulosic polymer composites

Lignocellulosic Composite Materials

Lignocellulosic Composite Materials Book
Author : Susheel Kalia
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-12-23
ISBN : 3319686968
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book comprehensively summarizes important aspects of research in the active field of lignocellulosic (polymer) composites, including polymer materials from or containing cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. It describes how these materials can be produced from forest products and natural fibers from sources such as jute, flax, sisal, and many more, and even from agricultural residues (like wheat straw, corn stover, or sugarcane bagasse). In times of high demand for renewable green materials, lignocellulosic materials from organic matter produced by trees, shrubs and agricultural crops present a highly attractive feedstock. The international authors explain different treatment and fabrication methods for the production of lignocellulosic materials. Other chapters address the properties of these green materials or illustrate specific applications, ranging from food packaging and household products to adsorbents and even conductive polymer composites. In this way, this book offers a broad and comprehensive overview over the entire field of lignocellulosic composite materials.

Lignocellulosic Fibre and Biomass Based Composite Materials

Lignocellulosic Fibre and Biomass Based Composite Materials Book
Author : Mohammad Jawaid,Paridah Md Tahir,Naheed Saba
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2017-06-03
ISBN : 0081009666
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Lignocellulosic Fibre and Biomass-Based Composite Materials reviews the development, characterization and applications of composite materials developed from the effective use of lignocellulosic fibre and biomass. The book gathers together a wide spectrum of cutting-edge research on biomass fillers and reinforcements used for the fabrication and synthesis of composites. The book takes a systematic approach, investigating processing, design, characterization and applications of biocomposites, in order to establish their important relationship as a general guideline for end-user applications. Beginning with an introduction to biomass and its composites, a team of leading experts in the field cover rice husk, kenaf, oil palm, alfa and doum fibres, bamboo, cork, and many other materials, considering a range of applications, along with key issues such as performance and sustainability. The groundbreaking research presented opens the door to obtaining advanced material characteristics and significant enhancements in physical, mechanical, and thermal properties. This will be become an extremely useful reference and technical guide for academic and industrial researchers in composite materials, as well as for advanced students and industrialists working in material commercialization. Gathers together a wide spectrum of research on lignocellulosic fiber and biomass fillers and reinforcements used for the fabrication and synthesis of composites Presents multidisciplinary work in relation to materials engineering, polymer chemistry and physics, materials processing, organic synthesis and industrial design and applications Demonstrates systematic approaches and investigations from processing, design, characterization and applications of biocomposites

Lignocellulosic plastics Composites

Lignocellulosic plastics Composites Book
Author : Alcides Lopes Leaõ,Francisco X. Carvalho,Elisabete Frollini
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1997
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Utilization of natural fibers: characterization, modification and applications. Utilization of natural fibers in plastic composites: problems and opportunities. Interfacial adhesion and dispersion in biobased composites. Molecular interations between cellulose and other polymers. Cold plasma state: a new approach to improve surface adhesion in lignocellulosic-plastic composites. Fire retardants in lignocellulosics composites. Organosolv delignification of lignocellulosic materials: preparation and characterization of lignin and cellulose derivatives. Automotive applications of natural fiber composites. Chemical modification of fibers for plastics reinforcement in composites. Chemical modification of lignocellulosic materials: the utilization of natural fibers as polymer reinforcement. Sisal fiber: morphology and applications in polymer composites. The potential of natural fibers in Europe: industrial applications. Sugar cane bagasse: utilization for production of composites: the state of art in Cuba. Utilization of black wattle bark and tannin liquefied in phenol in the preparation of resol-type adhesives. Natural fibers in Brazil: utilization, perspectives and processing for sisal, ramie, jute kenaf and allied fibers for composites production. Jute/resin/sand blocks for tropical housing. Biomass-cement composites: the Unicamp experience. Potential of utilization of lignocellulosic residues from cassava industrialization for application in composites for packaging.

Handbook on Coal Coke Cotton Lignin Hemicellulose Wood Wood Polymer Composites Lignocellulosic Plastic Composites from Recycled Materials Wood Fiber Rosin and Rosin Derivatives

Handbook on Coal  Coke  Cotton  Lignin  Hemicellulose  Wood  Wood Polymer Composites  Lignocellulosic Plastic Composites from Recycled Materials  Wood Fiber  Rosin and Rosin Derivatives Book
Author : Dr. Himadri Panda
Publisher : NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES
Release : 2018-01-11
ISBN : 9381039860
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Coal is the product of plants, mainly trees that died tens or hundreds of millions of years ago. Coal is a fossil fuel and is the altered remains of prehistoric vegetation that originally accumulated in swamps and peat bogs. The energy we get from coal today comes from the energy that plants absorbed from the sun millions of years ago. Coal is used primarily as an energy source, either for heat or electricity. It was once heavily used to heat homes and power locomotives and factories. Bituminous coal is also used to produce coke for making steel and other industrial process heating. Lignin is a constituent of the cell walls of almost all dry land plant cell walls. It is the second most abundant natural polymer in the world, surpassed only by cellulose. Lignin is found in all vascular plants, mostly between the cells, but also within the cells, and in the cell walls. Wood is an aggregate of cells essentially cellulose in composition, which are cemented together by a substance called lignin. The cells are made of three substances called cellulose (about 50 percent), lignin (which makes up a fifth to a quarter of hardwoods but a quarter to a third of softwoods), and hemicellulose. Rosin refers to an extraction process that utilizes a combination of heat and pressure to nearly instantaneously squeeze resinous sap from your initial starting material In India's energy sector, coal accounts for the majority of primary commercial energy supply. With the economy poised to grow at the rate of 8-10% per annum, energy requirements will also rise at a reasonable level. The Indian coal industry aspires to reach the 1.5 billion tonne (BT) mark by FY 2020. In fore-coming years, the industry will naturally need to focus on building on the success, and be on track for reaching the FY 2020 goal. One of the primary goals of the Government of India is to ensure that it is able to meet the country's power generation needs. Another aim is to lower the country's reliance on coal imports by boosting the coal production quickly. The Major contents of the book are Coal, Analysis of Coal and Coke, Cotton, Lignin and Hemicelluloses, Degradation of Wood, CCA-Treated Wood, Wood-Polymer Composites, Lignocellulosic-Plastic Composites from Recycled Materials, Chemical Modification of Wood Fiber, Delignification of Wood with Pernitric Acid, Rosin and Rosin Derivatives, Polymerizable Half Esters of Rosin and Photographs of Plant & Machinery with Supplier’s Contact Details. It will be a standard reference book for professionals, entrepreneurs, those studying and researching in this important area and others interested in the field of these industries.

Cellulose Fibers Bio and Nano Polymer Composites

Cellulose Fibers  Bio  and Nano Polymer Composites Book
Author : Susheel Kalia,B. S. Kaith,Inderjeet Kaur
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-04-11
ISBN : 9783642173707
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Because we are living in an era of Green Science and Technology, developments in the field of bio- and nano- polymer composite materials for advanced structural and medical applications is a rapidly emerging area and the subject of scientific attention. In light of the continuously deteriorating environmental conditions, researchers all over the world have focused an enormous amount of scientific research towards bio-based materials because of their cost effectiveness, eco-friendliness and renewability. This handbook deals with cellulose fibers and nano-fibers and covers the latest advances in bio- and nano- polymer composite materials. This rapidly expanding field is generating many exciting new materials with novel properties and promises to yield advanced applications in diverse fields. This book reviews vital issues and topics and will be of interest to academicians, research scholars, polymer engineers and researchers in industries working in the subject area. It will also be a valuable resource for undergraduate and postgraduate students at institutes of plastic engineering and other technical institutes.

Cellulose Reinforced Nanofibre Composites

Cellulose Reinforced Nanofibre Composites Book
Author : Mohammad Jawaid,Sami Boufi,Abdul Khalil H.P.S.
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2017-06-06
ISBN : 0081009658
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cellulose-Reinforced Nanofibre Composites: Production, Properties and Applications presents recent developments in, and applications of, nanocellulose as reinforcement in composite and nanocomposite materials. Written by leading experts, the book covers properties and applications of nanocellulose, including the production of nanocellulose from different biomass resources, the usefulness of nanocellulose as a reinforcement for polymer and paper, and major challenges for successful scale-up production in the future. The chapters draw on cutting-edge research on the use of nanosized cellulose reinforcements in polymer composites that result in advanced material characteristics and significant enhancements in physical, mechanical and thermal properties. The book presents an up-to-date review of the major innovations in the field of nanocellulose and provides a reference material for future research in biomass based composite materials, which is timely due to the sustainable, recyclable and eco-friendly demand for highly innovative materials made from biomass. This book is an ideal source of information for scientific and industrial researchers working in materials science. Gathers together a broad spectrum of research on nanocellulose, with emphasis on the outstanding reinforcing potential when nanocellulose is included into a polymer matrix or as an additive to paper Demonstrates systematic approaches and investigations from processing, design, characterization and applications of nanocellulose Presents a useful reference and technical guide for nanocomposite materials R&D sectors, university academics and postgraduate students (Masters and PhD) and industrialists working in material commercialization

Nanostructured Polymer Composites for Biomedical Applications

Nanostructured Polymer Composites for Biomedical Applications Book
Author : Sarat Kumar Swain,Mohammad Jawaid
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2019-06-15
ISBN : 0128168927
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nanostructured Polymer Composites for Biomedical Applications addresses the challenges researchers face regarding the creation of nanostructured polymer composites that not only have superior performance and mechanical properties, but also have acceptable biological function. This book discusses current efforts to meet this challenge by discussing the multidisciplinary nature of nanostructured polymer composite biomaterials from various fields, including materials science, polymer science, biomedical engineering and biomedicine. This compilation of existing knowledge will lead to the generation of new terminology and definitions across individual disciplines. As such, this book will help researchers and engineers develop new products and devices for use in effective medical treatment. Summarizes the most recent strategies to develop nanostructured polymer composite biomaterials for biomedicine Outlines the major preparation and characterization techniques for a range of polymer nanocomposites used in biomedicine Explores the design of new types of nanostructured polymer composites for applications in drug delivery, tissue engineering, gene therapy and bone replacement

Natural Polymers

Natural Polymers Book
Author : Maya J. John,Sabu Thomas
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2012
ISBN : 184973402X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This two volume set provides a valuable reference on natural polymer composites, including both natural and protein fibres, and natural polymer nanocomposites.

Failure Analysis in Biocomposites Fibre Reinforced Composites and Hybrid Composites

Failure Analysis in Biocomposites  Fibre Reinforced Composites and Hybrid Composites Book
Author : Mohammad Jawaid,Mohamed Thariq,Naheed Saba
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2018-09-17
ISBN : 0081023014
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Failure Analysis in Biocomposites, Fibre-Reinforced Composites and Hybrid Composites covers key aspects of fracture and failure in natural/synthetic fiber reinforced polymer based composite materials, ranging from crack propagation, to crack growth, and from notch-size effect, to damage-tolerant design. The book describes a broad range of techniques and strategies for the compositional and failure analysis of polymeric materials and products. It also illustrates the application of analytical methods for solving commonly encountered problems. Topics of interest include failure analysis, mechanical and physical properties, structural health monitoring, durability and life prediction, modelling of damage processes of natural fiber, synthetic fibers, and more. Written by leading experts in the field, and covering composite materials developed from different natural fibers and their hybridization with synthetic fibers, the book's chapters provide cutting-edge, up-to-date research on the characterization, analysis and modelling of composite materials. Contains contributions from leading experts in the field Discusses recent progress on failure analysis, SHM, durability, life prediction and the modelling of damage in natural fiber-based composite materials Covers experimental, analytical and numerical analysis Provides detailed and comprehensive information on mechanical properties, testing methods and modelling techniques

Lignocellulose

Lignocellulose Book
Author : Ryohei Tanaka,L. H. Cheng
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2005
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Environment and energy resources ; Pulp, paper and cellulose derivatives ; Bio-based composites ; New technological developments ; Resources, properties and characterization

Adhesives for Wood and Lignocellulosic Materials

Adhesives for Wood and Lignocellulosic Materials Book
Author : R. N. Kumar,A. Pizzi
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2019-07-17
ISBN : 1119605539
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The book is a comprehensive treatment of the subject covering a wide range of subjects uniquely available in a single source for the first time. A material science approach has been adopted in dealing with wood adhesion and adhesives. The approach of the authors was to bring out hierarchical cellular and porous characteristics of wood with polymeric cell wall structure, along with the associated non-cell wall extractives, which greatly influence the interaction of wood substrate with polymeric adhesives in a very unique manner not existent in the case of other adherends. Environmental aspects, in particular formaldehyde emission from adhesive bonded wood products, has been included. A significant feature of the book is the inclusion of polymeric matrix materials for wood polymer composites.

Hybrid Natural Fiber Composites

Hybrid Natural Fiber Composites Book
Author : Anish Khan,Sanjay M.R.,Suchart Siengchin,Mohammad Jawaid,Abdullah M. Asiri
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2021-01-21
ISBN : 0128203862
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Research on natural fiber composites is an emerging area in the field of polymer science with tremendous growth potential for commercialization. Hybrid Natural Fiber Composites: Material Formulations, Processing, Characterization, Properties, and Engineering Applications provides updated information on all the important classes of natural fibers and their composites that can be used for a broad range of engineering applications. Leading researchers from industry, academia, government, and private research institutions from across the globe have contributed to this highly application-oriented book. The chapters showcase cutting-edge research discussing the current status, key trends, future directions, and opportunities. Focusing on the current state of the art, the authors aim to demonstrate the future potential of these materials in a broad range of demanding engineering applications. This book will act as a one-stop reference resource for academic and industrial researchers working in R&D departments involved in designing composite materials for semi structural engineering applications. Presents comprehensive information on the properties of hybrid natural fiber composites that demonstrate their ability to improve the hydrophobic nature of natural fiber composites Reviews recent developments in the research and development of hybrid natural fiber composites in various engineering applications Focuses on modern technologies and illustrates how hybrid natural fiber composites can be used as alternatives in structural components subjected to severe conditions

Introduction to Wood and Natural Fiber Composites

Introduction to Wood and Natural Fiber Composites Book
Author : Douglas D. Stokke,Qinglin Wu,Guangping Han
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2013-10-21
ISBN : 1118676076
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Over the past two decades, there has been a shift in research and industrial practice, and products traditionally manufactured primarily from wood are increasingly combined with other nonwood materials of either natural or synthetic origin. Wood and other plant-based fiber is routinely combined with adhesives, polymers, and other "ingredients" to produce composite materials. Introduction to Wood and Natural Fiber Composites draws together widely scattered information concerning fundamental concepts and technical applications, essential to the manufacture of wood and natural fiber composites. The topics addressed include basic information on the chemical and physical composition of wood and other lignocellulosic materials, the behavior of these materials under thermocompression processes, fundamentals of adhesion, specific adhesive systems used to manufacture composite materials, and an overview of the industrial technologies used to manufacture major product categories. The book concludes with a chapter on the burgeoning field of natural fiber-plastic composites. Introduction to Wood and Natural Fiber Composites is a valuable resource for upper-level undergraduate students and graduate students studying forest products and wood science, as well as for practicing professionals working in operational areas of wood- and natural-fiber processing. For more information on the Wiley Series in Renewable Resources, visit www.wiley.com/go/rrs Topics covered include: Overview of lignocellulosic material, their chemical and physical composition Consolidation behavior of wood and fiber in response to heat and pressure Fundamentals of adhesion Adhesives used to bond wood and lignocellulosic composites Manufacturing technology of major product types Fiber/plastic composites

Wood Reinforced Polymer Composites

Wood Reinforced Polymer Composites Book
Author : Anil Akdogan
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2017
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The importance of protection of natural resources, recycling and biodegrability are the basic reasons behind the increased use of lignocellulosic (LC) material-reinforced polymer composites. This chapter investigates wood filler-reinforced polymer composites, which have gained attention among the researchers and in the market in woody applications having aesthetic and low service costs. Most polymers have the increasing cost of petrochemical products while LC materials are obtained from different national resources such as different types of wood powder. LC materials are available in light, cheap, environment-friendly forms with easy maintenance. The main disadvantages of LC-reinforced composites are moisture sensitivity and poor dimensional stability, besides changing wood fiber characteristics in time and poor adhesion to basically all kind of matrix polymers. Additive usage in manufacturing is an increasing trend of wood-based LC material-reinforced polymer composite parts to penetrate new markets, with better performance requirements and long-term stability. This chapter investigates description, classification, production with common additive types and usage of wood-polymer composite materials. In addition, it approaches preprocesses to reach high productivity and high-quality product manufacturing. Finally, some experimental manufacturing results of wood-reinforced polymer composites are presented.

Durability and Life Prediction in Biocomposites Fibre Reinforced Composites and Hybrid Composites

Durability and Life Prediction in Biocomposites  Fibre Reinforced Composites and Hybrid Composites Book
Author : Mohammad Jawaid,Mohamed Thariq,Naheed Saba
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2018-09-13
ISBN : 0081022980
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Durability and Life Prediction in Biocomposites, Fibre-Reinforced Composites and Hybrid Composites focuses on the advanced characterization techniques used for the analysis of composite materials developed from natural fiber/biomass, synthetic fibers and a combination of these materials used as fillers and reinforcements to enhance materials performance and utilization in automotive, aerospace, construction and building components. The book presents key aspects of fracture and failure in natural/synthetic, fiber reinforced, polymer based composite materials, ranging from crack propagation, to crack growth, and from notch-size effect, to damage-tolerant design. Written by leading experts in the field, and covering composite materials developed from different natural fibers and their hybridization with synthetic fibers, the book's chapters provide cutting-edge, up-to-date research on the characterization, analysis and modelling of composite materials. Contains contributions from leading experts in the field Discusses recent progress on failure analysis, SHM, durability, life prediction and the modelling of damage in natural fiber-based composite materials Covers experimental, analytical and numerical analysis Provides detailed and comprehensive information on mechanical properties, testing methods and modelling techniques

Modelling of Damage Processes in Biocomposites Fibre Reinforced Composites and Hybrid Composites

Modelling of Damage Processes in Biocomposites  Fibre Reinforced Composites and Hybrid Composites Book
Author : Mohammad Jawaid,Mohamed Thariq,Naheed Saba
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2018-11-23
ISBN : 0081022972
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Modelling of Damage Processes in Biocomposites, Fibre-Reinforced Composites and Hybrid Composites focuses on the advanced characterization techniques used for the analysis of composite materials developed from natural fiber/biomass, synthetic fibers and a combination of these materials used as fillers and reinforcements to enhance materials performance and utilization in automotive, aerospace, construction and building components. It will act as a detailed reference resource to encourage future research in natural fiber and hybrid composite materials, an area much in demand due to the need for more sustainable, recyclable, and eco-friendly composites in a broad range of applications. Written by leading experts in the field, and covering composite materials developed from different natural fibers and their hybridization with synthetic fibers, the book's chapters provide cutting-edge, up-to-date research on the characterization, analysis and modelling of composite materials. Contains contributions from leading experts in the field Discusses recent progress on failure analysis, SHM, durability, life prediction and the modelling of damage in natural fiber-based composite materials Covers experimental, analytical and numerical analysis Provides detailed and comprehensive information on mechanical properties, testing methods and modelling techniques

Plasma Induced Surface Modifiction of Lignocellulosic and Synthetic Polymers

Plasma Induced Surface Modifiction of Lignocellulosic and Synthetic Polymers Book
Author : Zhong-Qiang Hua
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1996
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Plasma Induced Surface Modifiction of Lignocellulosic and Synthetic Polymers book written by Zhong-Qiang Hua, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Self Healing Composite Materials

Self Healing Composite Materials Book
Author : Anish Khan,Mohammad Jawaid,Shiju N. Raveendran,Abdullah Mohammed Ahmed Asiri
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2019-10-30
ISBN : 0128173556
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Self-Healing Composite Materials: From Designs to Applications provides a unique resource on self-healing composites for materials scientists and engineers in academia, as well as researchers involved in the aerospace, automotive, wind-generation, construction, consumer goods and marine industries. There is a huge demand for self-healing composites that respond to their environment like living matter. Unlike other composites, self-healing composites are combined with carbon materials and resins to form a recoverable composite material. This book covers the manufacturing, design and characterization of self-healing composites, including their morphological, structural, mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. The title begins with mathematical background and then considers innovative approaches to physical modeling, analysis and design techniques, providing a robust knowledge of modern self-healing composites with commercial applications. Covers composite fabrication from polymer, nano oxides, epoxy and plastics Gives detailed examples on how self-healing composites may be used Provides readers with a robust knowledge of self-healing composites Presents a unified approach to these human-friendly, commercially valuable materials

Structural Health Monitoring of Biocomposites Fibre Reinforced Composites and Hybrid Composites

Structural Health Monitoring of Biocomposites  Fibre Reinforced Composites and Hybrid Composites Book
Author : Mohammad Jawaid,Mohamed Thariq,Naheed Saba
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2018-11-23
ISBN : 0081022999
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Structural Health Monitoring of Biocomposites, Fibre-Reinforced Composites and Hybrid Composites provides detailed information on failure analysis, mechanical and physical properties, structural health monitoring, durability and life prediction, modelling of damage processes of natural fiber, synthetic fibers, and natural/natural, and natural/synthetic fiber hybrid composites. It provides a comprehensive review of both established and promising new technologies currently under development in the emerging area of structural health monitoring in aerospace, construction and automotive structures. In addition, it describes SHM methods and sensors related to specific composites and how advantages and limitations of various sensors and methods can help make informed choices. Written by leading experts in the field, and covering composite materials developed from different natural fibers and their hybridization with synthetic fibers, the book's chapters provide cutting-edge, up-to-date research on the characterization, analysis and modelling of composite materials. Contains contributions from leading experts in the field Discusses recent progress on failure analysis, SHM, durability, life prediction and the modelling of damage in natural fiber-based composite materials Covers experimental, analytical and numerical analysis Provides detailed and comprehensive information on mechanical properties, testing methods and modelling techniques