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iPSCs from Diverse Species

iPSCs from Diverse Species Book
Author : ALEXANDER BIRBRAIR
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-10-12
ISBN : 0323851851
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The series Advances in Stem Cell Biology is a timely and expansive collection of comprehensive information and new discoveries in the field of stem cell biology. iPSCs from Diverse Species, Volume 2 addresses how induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be derived from different species. The volume teaches the reader about modern state-of-the-art methodologies to derive iPSCs from distinct species. This volume will cover how to derive iPSCs from species like nonhuman primates, horses, dogs, pigs, rats, rabbits, and others. It also discusses the importance of iPSCs in species conservation. Detailed description on methods used to obtain iPSCs from humans and other species expands the knowledge and understanding of stem cell biology and provides a potent tool to model diseases. The volume is written for researchers and scientists in stem cell biology, and regenerative medicine and is contributed by world-renowned authors in the field. Provides overview of the fast-moving field of stem cell biology and function, regenerative medicine and therapeutics Covers the following signaling pathways: notch, hedgehog, TGFβ, PAR2 and more Contributions from stem cell leaders around the world

Epigenetics and Regeneration

Epigenetics and Regeneration Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-05-24
ISBN : 0128148802
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Epigenetics and Regeneration compiles the first foundational reference on epigenetic mechanisms governing tissue development, repair, homeostasis, and regeneration, as well as pathways to employ these mechanisms in clinical practice and translational science. In this book, life science researchers, clinicians, and students will discover an interdisciplinary resource bringing together common themes in the field, background overviews, research methods, recent advances, and opportunities for drug discovery. Throughout this volume, special attention is paid to pre-clinical and first clinical studies aimed at increasing the regenerative potential of damaged tissues by epigenetic drugs, as well as innovative, discipline spanning strategies to enhance cell reprogramming. As an all-inclusive, evidence-based volume, Epigenetics and Regeneration will stimulate discussion and boost new research in this fascinating and impactful area of translational epigenetics. Provides a foundational overview of epigenetics in regenerative medicine Examines epigenetic components of tissue regeneration for a variety of organ systems and tissue types, as well as current attempts to employ these mechanisms in clinical practice Offers researchers, students, clinicians, and pharmacologists the tools they need to enhance tissue development, repair, homeostasis, and regeneration and explore new epigenetic therapeutic pathways Features chapter contributions from leading international researchers and clinicians in the fields of epigenetics and regenerative medicine

The SAGE Encyclopedia of Stem Cell Research

The SAGE Encyclopedia of Stem Cell Research Book
Author : Eric E. Bouhassira
Publisher : SAGE Publications
Release : 2015-06-15
ISBN : 1483347672
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The SAGE Encyclopedia of Stem Cell Research, Second Edition is filled with new procedures and exciting medical breakthroughs, including executive orders from the Obama administration reversing barriers to research imposed under the Bush administration, court rulings impacting NIH funding of research based on human embryonic stem cells, edicts by the Papacy and other religious leaders, and the first success in cloning human stem cells. Stem cell biology is clearly fueling excitement and potential in traditional areas of developmental biology and in the field of regenerative medicine, where they are believed to hold much promise in addressing any number of intractable medical conditions. This updated second edition encyclopedia will expand on information that was given in the first edition and present more than 270 new and updated articles that explore major topics in ways accessible to nonscientists, thus bringing readers up-to-date with where stem cell biology stands today, including new and evolving ethical, religious, legal, social, and political perspectives. This second edition reference work will serve as a universal resource for all public and academic libraries. It is an excellent foundation for anyone who is interested in the subject area of stem cell biology. Key Features: Reader’s Guide, Further Readings, Cross References, Chronology, Resource Guide, Index A Glossary will elucidate stem cell terminology for the nonscientist Statistics and selected reprints of major journal articles that pertain to milestones achieved in stem cell research Documents from Congressional Hearings on stem cells and cloning Reports to the President’s Council on Bioethics, and more

Recent Advances in iPSC Derived Cell Types Volume 4

Recent Advances in iPSC Derived Cell Types  Volume 4 Book
Author : Alexander Birbrair
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-02-21
ISBN : 0128224541
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The series Advances in Stem Cell Biology is a timely and expansive collection of comprehensive information and new discoveries in the field of stem cell biology. Recent Advances in iPSC-derived Cell Types, Volume 4 addresses how different cell types can be derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. Somatic cells can be reprogrammed into Induced pluripotent stem cells by the expression of specific transcription factors. These cells are transforming biomedical research in the last 15 years. The volume teaches readers about current advances in the field. This book describes the use of induced pluripotent stem cells to form different cell types which can be used in cell therapy as well as to model several diseases in vitro, enabling us to study the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in different pathologies. In recent years, remarkable progress has been made in the obtention of induced pluripotent stem cells and their differentiation into several cellular populations, tissues and organs using state-of-art techniques. This volume will cover what we know so far about the use of iPSCs to derive different cell types, such as: erythroid cells, mucosal-associated invariant T cells, megakaryocytes, cerebral cortical neurons, inner ear cell types, airway epithelial cells, male germ cells, trophoblasts, cardiomyocytes, βpancreatic cells, and more. The volume is written for researchers and scientists interested in stem cell therapy, cell biology, regenerative medicine, and organ transplantation; and is contributed by world-renowned authors in the field. Provides overview of the fast-moving field of induced pluripotent stem cell technology, regenerative medicine and therapeutics. Covers the following cell types derived from iPSCs: erythroid cells, mucosal-associated invariant T cells, megakaryocytes, cerebral cortical neurons, inner ear cell types, airway epithelial cells, male germ cells, trophoblasts, cardiomyocytes, βpancreatic cells, and more. Contributions from stem cell leaders around the world

Reproductive Sciences in Animal Conservation

Reproductive Sciences in Animal Conservation Book
Author : William V. Holt,Janine L. Brown,Pierre Comizzoli
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2014-08-04
ISBN : 1493908200
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Reproductive biology is more than the development of techniques for helping with too little or too much breeding. While some of the relevant techniques are useful for individual species, technical developments have to be backed up by thorough biological understanding of the background behind the problems. This book is therefore threefold; (1) it provides a snapshot of the state of the art in terms of species-specific reproductive technologies, whether for individual animals or whole taxonomic groups; (2) it sets the reproductive problems in context and emphasizes the links between animal-based problems and the wider world, e.g. reproductive fitness and (3) it looks forward and presents realistic assessments of how effective some of the more recently developed techniques in reproductive technology might be at combating extinctions. This is a wide-ranging book that will be relevant to anyone involved in reproductive biology or in species conservation and provides provide them some useful perspectives about the real utility of current and emerging technologies. It has contributions from experts in reproduction and related fields.

Recent Advances in iPSC Technology Volume 5

Recent Advances in iPSC Technology  Volume 5 Book
Author : Alexander Birbrair
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-03-31
ISBN : 012822326X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The series Advances in Stem Cell Biology is a timely and expansive collection of comprehensive information and new discoveries in the field of stem cell biology. Recent Advances in iPSC Technology, Volume 5 addresses the progress in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) technologies. Somatic cells can be reprogrammed into iPSCs by the expression of specific transcription factors. These cells are transforming biomedical research in the last 15 years. The volume teaches readers about current advances in the field. This book describes different technologies and strategies to use iPSCs for biological and clinical benefit. In recent years, remarkable progress has been made in the obtention of iPSCs and their differentiation into several cell types, tissues, and organs using state-of-the-art techniques. These advantages facilitated identification of key targets and definition of the molecular basis of several disorders. This volume will cover hot topics in the iPSC field, such as iPSCs for modeling the cardiovascular toxicities of anticancer therapies, iPSC differentiation through the lens of the noncoding genome, modeling of blood–brain barrier with iPSCs, mathematical modeling of iPSCs, iPSCs to study human brain evolution, selfrenewal in iPSCs, differences and similarities between iPSCs and embryonic stem cells, and more. The volume is written for researchers and scientists interested in stem cell therapy, cell biology, regenerative medicine, and organ transplantation and is contributed by world-renowned authors in the field. Provides overview of the fast-moving field of induced pluripotent stem cell technology, regenerative medicine, and therapeutics. Covers the following topics: iPSCs for modeling the cardiovascular toxicities of anticancer therapies, iPSC differentiation through the lens of the non-coding genome, modeling of blood-brain barrier with iPSCs, mathematical modelling of iPSCs, iPSCs to study human brain evolution, self-renewal in iPSCs, differences and similarities between iPSCs and embryonic stem cells, and more. Contributed by world-renown experts in the field

Using Assisted Reproductive Technologies for the Conservation of Endangered Wild Cats

Using Assisted Reproductive Technologies for the Conservation of Endangered Wild Cats Book
Author : Rajneesh Verma
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2013
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The advent of induced pluripotency has opened alternate avenues to produce ES-like cells from somatic cells, that provide a unique tool to elucidate both pluripotency and lineage assignment. To investigate whether this technology could be applied to endangered species, where the limited availability of gametes makes production of and research on embryonic stem cells difficult, we first investigated the appropriate species transcription factors to use for induction of pluripotency in wild cats. Octamer binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4), also known as POU5F1, is a protein critically involved in stem cell renewal and pluripotency and a key factor involved in reprograming. To identify the suitability of using either mouse or human Oct4 constructs, which pre-existed in the laboratory to derive induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSC) from endangered cats, the coding sequence of domestic cat Oct4 was compared with that from other known species. Cat Oct4 protein has 94.44% and 83.33% sequences similarity compared with human and mouse Oct4, respectively. (Publication 1- paper submitted). In addition, the coding sequence for Oct4 were successfully amplified and cloned from fibroblasts of the three wild cats and compared in silico. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that although the sequences of coding regions vary slightly between snow leopard, Bengal tiger and jaguar, the predicted theoretical protein consist of 360 amino acids and is identical between these species. By contrast to the exons, introns and 5' region close to the exon1 are less conserved in the three species. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the neighbour-joining method based on the alignment of the coding sequences of Oct4 gene. As Oct4 is usually expressed in oocytes/early embryos, which are difficult to obtain from endangered species, the verification of the mRNA sequence of the gene posed obvious challenges. In conclusion, this study is the first to describe the molecular cloning and bioinformatics analysis of snow leopard, Bengal tiger and jaguar Oct4 gene (Publication 1- submitted). Information on the specific sequences of Oct4 in these endangered big cats will be useful to understand and manipulate pluripotency in these species. This has an exciting potential to contribute to real-life species preservation, particularly for endangered felids. Therefore we determined to use human sequences for induction of pluripotency in snow leopard (Panthera uncia) fibroblasts by retroviral transfection with Moloney-based retroviral vectors (pMXs) encoding four human factors (OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and cMYC). This resulted in the formation of small colonies of cells, which could not be maintained beyond four passages (P4). We hypothesized the addition of NANOG, another transcription factor critically linked to Oct4 mediated pluripotency, to the transfection cocktail would enhance generation and maintenance of stable iPSC colonies, which formed as early as Day3 (D3). Colonies of cells were selected at D5 and expanded in vitro. The resulting cell line was positive for alkaline phosphatase (AP), OCT4, NANOG, and Stage-Specific Embryonic Antigen-4 (SSEA-4) at P14. Reverse Transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) also confirmed that endogenous OCT4 and NANOG were expressed by snow leopard iPSC from P4. All five human transgenes were transcribed at P4, but OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG transgenes were silenced as early as P14; signifying reprogramming of the endogenous pluripotent genes had occurred. When injected into severe combined immuno-deficient (SCID) mice, snow leopard iPSC formed teratomas containing tissues representative of the three germ layers. In conclusion, this was the first report on derivation of iPSC from an endangered felid and the first report on induced pluripotency in felid species and it demonstrated the addition of NANOG to the reprogramming cocktail was essential for derivation of stable iPSC lines in this felid (Publication 2- published).Next, to examine whether the importance of Nanog for generation of iPSC was restricted to snow leopard or more generally applicable to wild felids globally, we studied 3 geographically diverse and evolutionarily divergent felids from Asia (Bengal tiger, Panthera tigris), Africa (serval, Leptailurus serval), and the Americas (jaguar, Panthera onca). Dermal fibroblasts were transduced with genes encoding the human transcription factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and cMYC with or without NANOG. Both four- and five-factor induction resulted in colony formation at day 3 in all three species tested; however, we were not able to maintain colonies that were generated without NANOG beyond passage (P) 7. Five-factor induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) colonies from wild cats were expanded in vitro on feeder layers and were positive for alkaline phosphatase and protein expression of OCT-4, NANOG, and stage-specific embryonic antigen-4 at P4 and P14. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmed that all five human transgenes were transcribed at P4; however, OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG transgenes were silenced by P14. Endogenous OCT4 and NANOG transcripts were detected at P4 and P14 in all cell lines confirming successful reprogramming. At P14, the iPSC from all three species remained euploid and differentiated in vivo and in vitro into derivatives of the three germ layers. Our study demonstrated unequivocally that iPSC from the three felids examined all required the addition of Nanog to the reprogramming cocktail to ensure derivation of stable iPSC lines. Interestingly iPSC from all three species silenced the reprogramming transgenes (OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG), but not the transgenes implicated in proliferation (KLF4 and cMYC) (Publication 3- published).This thesis investigated induced pluripotency in endangered felids and reports successes in effectively inducing pluripotency in four endangered wild cats from across the globe and importantly identifies Nanog as an essential factor in the reprogramming cocktail. Efficient production of iPSC from endangered felids creates a unique opportunity to preserve these species using these iPSC in future gamete production, nuclear transfer and embryo complementation.

Proceedings of IPSC 2019 2nd International Plant Spectroscopy Conference

Proceedings of IPSC 2019   2nd International Plant Spectroscopy Conference Book
Author : Lisbeth Garbrecht Thygesen,Andras Gorzsas,Hartwig Schulz
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2020-12-28
ISBN : 2889662802
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Proceedings of IPSC 2019 2nd International Plant Spectroscopy Conference book written by Lisbeth Garbrecht Thygesen,Andras Gorzsas,Hartwig Schulz, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Stem Cell Maintenance in Naked Mole Rats and Other Longevity Mechanisms in Rodents

Stem Cell Maintenance in Naked Mole Rats and Other Longevity Mechanisms in Rodents Book
Author : Zhonghe Ke
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"This thesis investigated the stem cell biology of the longest-lived rodent the naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber, NMR), compared to the short-lived laboratory mouse. The NMR is one of only two eusocial mammals, shows extreme longevity with a maximum lifespan of 32 years and negligible age-associated degeneration. During aging, stem cells play a pivotal role in maintaining tissue homeostasis by replenishing damaged and dead cells with newly differentiated functional cells. Age-associated stem cell dysfunction is a driving force of aging. What stem cell capacity the NMR has and how the NMR maintains their stem cell pool is unknown. In this thesis, I comparatively studied the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) properties in the NMR and the mouse. I employed BrdU label retention assays to label HSC and track the HSC turnover. I was able to show that the BrdU label-retaining cells were responsive to fluorouracil induced bone marrow injury. I have discovered that the NMR HSC localizes to a niche with extremely high levels of high molecular weight hyaluronic acid (HA), displays slow turnover and extreme quiescence, compared to the mouse HSC. I have demonstrated that the niche HA levels reversely relate to HSC reactive oxidative species (ROS) levels. In addition, overexpressing NMR HAS2 in mice reduces ROS in the HSC and expands the HSC pool by about 3-fold. I have also shown the inhibition of HA synthesis by 4-MU impaired hematopoiesis in NMRs. With these findings, I propose a model of HSC maintenance that highlights the key role of niche HA in maintaining the quiescent HSC pool. Additionally, I describe the NMR iPSC reprogramming done with extensive collaboration with Dr. Li Tan. We have found the NMR fibroblasts are resistant to both the mouse and the NMR defined factors induced reprogramming, either in primed or nav̐e culture conditions. We have screened factors enhancing reprogramming and found the large T antigen drastically increased iPSC reprogramming efficiency. We have found that the NMR fibroblasts have a more repressive Rb signal pathway and large T induces massive opening of more closed promoter regions in the NMR, compared to the mouse. These results suggest that NMR displays a more stable epigenome that resists iPSC reprogramming. In another study that I collaborated with Dr. Jorge Azpurua, we have discovered that the NMR shows about 10 times higher translation fidelity than the mouse. However, whether the translation fidelity correlates with species maximum lifespan is unknown. Thus, I examined translation fidelity in 17 rodent species with diverse maximum lifespans. I have found that the fidelity at the first and second codon positions strongly correlates with species maximum lifespan, and that correlation remains significant after phylogenetic correction. This finding suggests that translation fidelity plays a novel role in longevity. Lastly, I had been managing the NMR colonies during my study and developed strategies to improve the husbandry and breeding of captive NMR colonies. As breeding and keeping NMRs in captivity is challenging to researchers, the slow breeding and low survival of NMRs under laboratory condition limits the NMR research. I have optimized the colony setting which allows NMR colonies to settle down more rapidly and established different chambers for different functions. I have found that pairing young NMRs, but not younger than 2 years old, could result in higher successful rate of establishing new colonies. I have also successfully cross-fostered NMR pups in a foreign colony. All of these strategies will help researchers struggling with breeding NMRs in captivity."--Pages ix-x.

Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease

Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease Book
Author : P. Michael Conn
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2013-05-29
ISBN : 0124159125
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease identifies important animal models and assesses the advantages and disadvantages of each model for the study of human disease. The first section addresses how to locate resources, animal alternatives, animal ethics and related issues, much needed information for researchers across the biological sciences and biomedicine.The next sections of the work offers models for disease-oriented topics, including cardiac and pulmonary diseases, aging, infectious diseases, obesity, diabetes, neurological diseases, joint diseases, visual disorders, cancer, hypertension, genetic diseases, and diseases of abuse. Organized by disease orientation for ease of searchability Provides information on locating resources, animal alternatives and animal ethics Covers a broad range of animal models used in research for human disease

Diversity in the Neuronal Machine

Diversity in the Neuronal Machine Book
Author : Ivan Soltesz
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2006
ISBN : 0195177010
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Aims to provide insights into the striking degree of cellular diversity found in the interneuronal microcircuits in the brain's neocortex and hippocampus. This book elaborates on different ideas about interneuronal diversity that rest upon theoretical and experimental results and is useful for neuroscientists.

Frontiers in Pluripotent Stem Cells Research and Therapeutic Potentials Bench to Bedside

Frontiers in Pluripotent Stem Cells Research and Therapeutic Potentials Bench to Bedside Book
Author : Kuldip S. Sidhu
Publisher : Bentham Science Publishers
Release : 2012
ISBN : 1608052893
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"Pluripotent stem cells have garnered tremendous interest in recent years, which is primarily driven by the hope of finding a cure for several debilitating human diseases. Cell transplantation (regeneratve medicine) offers considerable therapeutic potentia"

Cell Therapy

Cell Therapy Book
Author : Dwaine F. Emerich,Gorka Orive
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-08-25
ISBN : 3319571532
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume provides a comprehensive, state-of-the art review of the field of cell therapy. The volume begins with an overview of the breadth of the field and then turns to overviews of imaging technologies that can aid in both safety and efficacy evaluations. The book then turns to numerous contributions detailing the rapidly growing field of stem cell therapies. These sections cover our understanding of the natural roles of stem cells in biology and human disease and then touches on several of the more prominent areas where stem cells are moving rapidly into clinical evaluation including neurodegenerative diseases, muscular dystrophy, cardiac repair, and diabetes. The volume concludes with contributions from experts in oncology, ophthalmology, stem cells, 3-D printing, and biomaterials where the convergence of expertise is leading to unprecedented insights into how to minutely control the in vivo fate and function of transplanted and/or endogeneously mobilized cells. Finally, the book provides insights into the pivotal relationship between academic and industrial partnerships. This volume is designed to touch on the major areas where the field will make its greatest and most immediate clinical impacts. This text will provide a useful resource for physicians and researchers interested in the rapidly changing filed of cell therapy.

Engineering in Translational Medicine

Engineering in Translational Medicine Book
Author : Weibo Cai
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-12-19
ISBN : 1447143728
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book covers a broad area of engineering research in translational medicine. Leaders in academic institutions around the world contributed focused chapters on a broad array of topics such as: cell and tissue engineering (6 chapters), genetic and protein engineering (10 chapters), nanoengineering (10 chapters), biomedical instrumentation (4 chapters), and theranostics and other novel approaches (4 chapters). Each chapter is a stand-alone review that summarizes the state-of-the-art of the specific research area. Engineering in Translational Medicine gives readers a comprehensive and in-depth overview of a broad array of related research areas, making this an excellent reference book for scientists and students both new to engineering/translational medicine and currently working in this area. The ability for engineering approaches to change biomedical research are increasing and having significant impact. Development of basic assays and their numerous applications are allowing for many new discoveries and should eventually impact human health. This book brings together many diverse yet related topics to give the reader a solid overview of many important areas that are not found together elsewhere. Dr. Weibo Cai has taken great care to select key research leaders of many sub-disciplines who have put together very detailed chapters that are easy to read yet highly rich in content. _______________ This book brings together many diverse yet related topics to give the reader a solid overview of many important areas that are not found together elsewhere. Dr. Weibo Cai has taken great care to select key research leaders of many sub-disciplines who have put together very detailed chapters that are easy to read yet highly rich in content. It is very exciting to see such a great set of chapters all together to allow one to have a key understanding of many different areas including cell, gene, protein, and nano engineering as well as the emerging field of theranostics. I am sure the readers will find this collection of important chapters helpful in their own research and understanding of how engineering has and will continue to play a critical role in biomedical research and clinical translation. Sanjiv Sam Gambhir M.D., Ph.D. Stanford University, USA Engineering in Translational Medicine is a landmark book bridging the fields of engineering and medicine with a focus on translational technologies and methods. In a single, well-coordinated volume, this book brings together contributions from a strong and international scientific cast, broadly covering the topics. The book captures the tremendous opportunities made possible by recent developments in bioengineering, and highlights the potential impact of these advances across a broad spectrum of pressing health care needs. The book can equally serve as a text for graduate level courses, a reference source, a book to be dipped into for pleasure by those working within the field, or a cover-to-cover read for those wanting a comprehensive, yet readable introduction to the current state of engineering advances and how they are impacting translational medicine. Simon R. Cherry, Ph.D. University of California, Davis, USA

Using 21st Century Science to Improve Risk Related Evaluations

Using 21st Century Science to Improve Risk Related Evaluations Book
Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,Committee on Incorporating 21st Century Science into Risk-Based Evaluations
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2017-02-16
ISBN : 0309453518
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Over the last decade, several large-scale United States and international programs have been initiated to incorporate advances in molecular and cellular biology, -omics technologies, analytical methods, bioinformatics, and computational tools and methods into the field of toxicology. Similar efforts are being pursued in the field of exposure science with the goals of obtaining more accurate and complete exposure data on individuals and populations for thousands of chemicals over the lifespan; predicting exposures from use data and chemical-property information; and translating exposures between test systems and humans. Using 21st Century Science to Improve Risk-Related Evaluations makes recommendations for integrating new scientific approaches into risk-based evaluations. This study considers the scientific advances that have occurred following the publication of the NRC reports Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy and Exposure Science in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy. Given the various ongoing lines of investigation and new data streams that have emerged, this publication proposes how best to integrate and use the emerging results in evaluating chemical risk. Using 21st Century Science to Improve Risk-Related Evaluations considers whether a new paradigm is needed for data validation, how to integrate the divergent data streams, how uncertainty might need to be characterized, and how best to communicate the new approaches so that they are understandable to various stakeholders.

The Routledge Handbook of Animal Ethics

The Routledge Handbook of Animal Ethics Book
Author : Bob Fischer
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2019-12-06
ISBN : 1351602373
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

There isn’t one conversation about animal ethics. Instead, there are several important ones that are scattered across many disciplines.This volume both surveys the field of animal ethics and draws professional philosophers, graduate students, and undergraduates more deeply into the discussions that are happening outside of philosophy departments. To that end, the volume contains more nonphilosophers than philosophers, explicitly inviting scholars from other fields—such as animal science, ecology, economics, psychology, law, environmental science, and applied biology, among others—to bring their own disciplinary resources to bear on matters that affect animals. The Routledge Handbook of Animal Ethics is composed of 44 chapters, all appearing in print here for the first time, and organized into the following six sections: I. Thinking About Animals II. Animal Agriculture and Hunting III. Animal Research and Genetic Engineering IV. Companion Animals V. Wild Animals: Conservation, Management, and Ethics VI. Animal Activism The chapters are brief, and they have been written in a way that is accessible to serious undergraduate students, regardless of their field of study. The volume covers everything from animal cognition to the state of current fisheries, from genetic modification to intersection animal activism. It is a resource designed for anyone interested in the moral issues that emerge from human interactions with animals.

Advances in Animal Biotechnology

Advances in Animal Biotechnology Book
Author : Birbal Singh,Gorakh Mal,Sanjeev K. Gautam,Manishi Mukesh
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-07-09
ISBN : 3030213099
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book entitled, “Advances in Animal Biotechnology,” is a compilation of state-of-the-art in the field of Animal Biotechnology including fishery, that are not sheltered in depth in earlier publications. It offers an update on avant-garde technologies and advances in key aspects of genetic engineering, metagenomics, assisted reproduction, animal genomics, biotechnology in veterinary health, as well as the role of gut and marine microbial ecosystems in livestock and industrial development. The book is divided broadly into five different sections, viz., Gut Microbiome and Nutritional Biotechnology, Assisted Reproduction Biotechnology, Livestock Genomics, Health Biotechnology, and Animal Biotechnology in Global Perspective. The book covers the syllabi of Animal Biotechnology courses in various universities, academia and competitive examinations at various levels. Researchers, Continuing Graduates, and Academicians, Research Institutions, and Biotech Companies will be benefited from this valuable compilation of research. Its broad spectrum makes this work a valuable resource for professionals, researchers, academics and students in the field of veterinary and animal production as well as the biotechnology industry.

Principles of Tissue Engineering

Principles of Tissue Engineering Book
Author : Robert Lanza,Robert Langer,Joseph P. Vacanti
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2013-10-17
ISBN : 0123983703
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Now in its fourth edition, Principles of Tissue Engineering has been the definite resource in the field of tissue engineering for more than a decade. The fourth edition provides an update on this rapidly progressing field, combining the prerequisites for a general understanding of tissue growth and development, the tools and theoretical information needed to design tissues and organs, as well as a presentation by the world’s experts of what is currently known about each specific organ system. As in previous editions, this book creates a comprehensive work that strikes a balance among the diversity of subjects that are related to tissue engineering, including biology, chemistry, material science, and engineering, among others, while also emphasizing those research areas that are likely to be of clinical value in the future. This edition includes greatly expanded focus on stem cells, including induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, stem cell niches, and blood components from stem cells. This research has already produced applications in disease modeling, toxicity testing, drug development, and clinical therapies. This up-to-date coverage of stem cell biology and other emerging technologies –such as brain-machine interfaces for controlling bionics and neuroprostheses– is complemented by a series of new and updated chapters on recent clinical experience in applying tissue engineering, as well as a new section on the application of tissue-engineering techniques for food production. The result is a comprehensive textbook that will be useful to students and experts alike. Includes new chapters on biomaterial-protein interactions, nanocomposite and three-dimensional scaffolds, skin substitutes, spinal cord, vision enhancement, and heart valves Offers expanded coverage of adult and embryonic stem cells of the cardiovascular, hematopoietic, musculoskeletal, nervous, and other organ systems Full-color presentation throughout

Principles of Cloning

Principles of Cloning Book
Author : Jose Cibelli,Ian Sir Wilmut,Rudolf Jaenisch,John Gurdon,Robert Lanza,Michael West,Keith H.S. Campbell
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2013-09-24
ISBN : 0123865425
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Principles of Cloning, Second Edition is the fully revised edition of the authoritative book on the science of cloning. The book presents the basic biological mechanisms of how cloning works and progresses to discuss current and potential applications in basic biology, agriculture, biotechnology, and medicine. Beginning with the history and theory behind cloning, the book goes on to examine methods of micromanipulation, nuclear transfer, genetic modification, and pregnancy and neonatal care of cloned animals. The cloning of various species—including mice, sheep, cattle, and non-mammals—is considered as well. The Editors have been involved in a number of breakthroughs using cloning technique, including the first demonstration that cloning works in differentiated cells done by the Recipient of the 2012 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine – Dr John Gurdon; the cloning of the first mammal from a somatic cell – Drs Keith Campbell and Ian Wilmut; the demonstration that cloning can reset the biological clock - Drs Michael West and Robert Lanza; the demonstration that a terminally differentiated cell can give rise to a whole new individual – Dr Rudolf Jaenisch and the cloning of the first transgenic bovine from a differentiated cell – Dr Jose Cibelli. The majority of the contributing authors are the principal investigators on each of the animal species cloned to date and are expertly qualified to present the state-of-the-art information in their respective areas. First and most comprehensive book on animal cloning, 100% revised Describes an in-depth analysis of current limitations of the technology and research areas to explore Offers cloning applications on basic biology, agriculture, biotechnology, and medicine

Neural Stem Cells and Adult Neurogenesis

Neural Stem Cells and Adult Neurogenesis Book
Author : Arie S. Mobley
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-02-28
ISBN : 0128110155
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Neural Stem Cells and Adult Neurogenesis provides graduate students and neuroscientists with a basic understanding of what neural stem cells are and the cell types they produce. This early graduate level reference describes their physiology and potential for medicine and provides students with fundamental stem cell information. An overview of stem cell sources in the human body and a brief mention of relevant diseases provide context for the value of this knowledge. The book also includes chapters on induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), the methods used to obtain them, and a review of the ethical challenges associated with stem cell research. For each region, the book provides a description of its neurogenic niche, cellular and molecular biology, and information on the neurons’ contribution to normal and diseased brain function. The level of information is appropriate for early graduate students, introducing technology and molecular biology in an accessible format. Provides a basic understanding of what a stem cell is, the different types, and their potential in health and research Details adult neurogenesis and its role in behavior, stroke and disease Includes walkthrough and technology boxes that illustrate experimental concepts, new approaches and techniques