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Introduction To Supercritical Fluids

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Introduction to Supercritical Fluids

Introduction to Supercritical Fluids Book
Author : Richard Smith Jr.,Hiroshi Inomata,Cor Peters
Publisher : Newnes
Release : 2013-12-08
ISBN : 0080931308
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This text provides an introduction to supercritical fluids with easy-to-use Excel spreadsheets suitable for both specialized-discipline (chemistry or chemical engineering student) and mixed-discipline (engineering/economic student) classes. Each chapter contains worked examples, tip boxes and end-of-the-chapter problems and projects. Part I covers web-based chemical information resources, applications and simplified theory presented in a way that allows students of all disciplines to delve into the properties of supercritical fluids and to design energy, extraction and materials formation systems for real-world processes that use supercritical water or supercritical carbon dioxide. Part II takes a practical approach and addresses the thermodynamic framework, equations of state, fluid phase equilibria, heat and mass transfer, chemical equilibria and reaction kinetics of supercritical fluids. Spreadsheets are arranged as Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) functions and macros that are completely (source code) accessible for students who have interest in developing their own programs. Programming is not required to solve problems or to complete projects in the text. Property worksheets/spreadsheets that are easy to use in learning environments Worked examples with Excel VBA Worksheet functions allow users to design their own processes Fluid phase equilibria and chemical equilibria worksheets allow users to change conditions, study new solutes, co-solvents, chemical systems or reactions

Supercritical Fluid Methods and Protocols

Supercritical Fluid Methods and Protocols Book
Author : Tony Clifford
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2000
ISBN : 1592590306
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Because of their unique properties and relatively low environmental impact, supercritical fluids have proven highly useful in the extraction and separation of organic compounds, in particle production, as reaction media, and for the destruction of toxic waste. In Supercritical Fluid Methods and Protocols, experienced practitioners present detailed accounts of a wide variety of techniques using supercritical fluids. These range from the supercritical fluid extraction methods for numerous compounds to the ninhydrin staining of fingerprints on checks and banknotes, and from the detection of impurities in pharmaceuticals to a wide variety of applications throughout environmental and food science, and across analytical, clinical, and medicinal chemistry. Detailed step-by-step instructions enable users to apply these essential techniques successfully the first time, and include modifications that permit their effective adaptation to novel experimental or process conditions. For each application, additional discussions provide needed background information, lists of materials and apparatus, and advice about common pitfalls and how to avoid them. Versatile and comprehensive, Supercritical Methods and Protocols offers both novice and experienced investigators and laboratory analysts powerful tools that will enable successful biological and bioprocess analyses and optimizations today.

Introduction to Supercritical Fluids

Introduction to Supercritical Fluids Book
Author : Richard Smith,Hiroshi Inomata,Cor Peters
Publisher : Elsevier Science
Release : 2013
ISBN : 9780444522153
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This text provides an introduction to supercritical fluids with easy-to-use Excel spreadsheets suitable for both specialized-discipline (chemistry or chemical engineering student) and mixed-discipline (engineering/economic student) classes. Each chapter contains worked examples, tip boxes and end-of-the-chapter problems and projects. Part I covers web-based chemical information resources, applications and simplified theory presented in a way that allows students of all disciplines to delve into the properties of supercritical fluids and to design energy, extraction and materials formation systems for real-world processes that use supercritical water or supercritical carbon dioxide. Part II takes a practical approach and addresses the thermodynamic framework, equations of state, fluid phase equilibria, heat and mass transfer, chemical equilibria and reaction kinetics of supercritical fluids. Spreadsheets are arranged as Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) functions and macros that are completely (source code) accessible for students who have interest in developing their own programs. Programming is not required to solve problems or to complete projects in the text. Property worksheets/spreadsheets that are easy to use in learning environments Worked examples with Excel VBA Worksheet functions allow users to design their own processes Fluid phase equilibria and chemical equilibria worksheets allow users to change conditions, study new solutes, co-solvents, chemical systems or reactions

Supercritical Fluids

Supercritical Fluids Book
Author : E. Kiran,Johanna M.H. Levelt Sengers
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-11-11
ISBN : 9401582955
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Supercritical fluids which are neither gas nor liquid, but can be compressed gradually from low to high density, are gaining increasing importance as tunable solvents and reaction media in the chemical process industry. By adjusting the pressure, or more strictly the density, the properties of these fluids are customized and manipulated for the particular process at hand, be it a physical transformation, such as separation or solvation, or a chemical transformation, such as a reaction or reactive extraction. Supercritical fluids, however, differ from both gases and liquids in many respects. In order to properly understand and describe their properties, it is necessary to know the implications of their nearness to criticality, to be aware of the complex types of phase separation (including solid phases) that occur when the components of the fluid mixture are very different from each other, and to develop theories that can cope with the large differences in molecular size and shape of the supercritical solvent and the solutes that are present.

Introduction to Supercritical Fluids

Introduction to Supercritical Fluids Book
Author : Richard Smith,Cor Peters,Hiroshi Inomata
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-12-08
ISBN : 012807695X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Introduction to Supercritical Fluids book written by Richard Smith,Cor Peters,Hiroshi Inomata, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Gas Extraction

Gas Extraction Book
Author : Gerd Brunner
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-06-29
ISBN : 3662073803
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Application of compressed gases as solvents has found widespread interest within the scientific community. Its processes have industrial applications. Gas Extraction deals with the possibilities of supercritical gases as solvents for separation processes. The volume combines physico-chemical aspects with chemical engineering methods. The text generalizes as far as possible, and treats examples in detail. Gas Extraction covers, for the first time, the subject in textbook form. Most of the examples provide new results that will be helpful for practicing scientists, engineers, and students who want to make use of the techniques.

Introduction to Supercritical Fluids

Introduction to Supercritical Fluids Book
Author : Richard Smith,Cor Peters,Hiroshi Inomata
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-12-08
ISBN : 0128076879
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Introduction to Supercritical Fluids book written by Richard Smith,Cor Peters,Hiroshi Inomata, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications

Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications Book
Author : Vladimir Anikeev,Maohong Fan I
Publisher : Newnes
Release : 2013-12-21
ISBN : 0444626972
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications covers the fundamental principles involved in the preparation and characterization of supercritical fluids (SCFs) used in the energy production and other environmental applications. Energy production from diversified resources — including renewable materials — using clean processes can be accomplished using technologies like SCFs. This book is focused on critical issues scientists and engineers face in applying SCFs to energy production and environmental protection, the innovative solutions they have found, and the challenges they need to overcome. The book also covers the basics of sub- and supercritical fluids, like the thermodynamics of phase and chemical equilibria, mathematical modeling, and process calculations. A supercritical fluid is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its critical point where distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist. At this state the compound demonstrates unique properties, which can be "fine-tuned," making them suitable as organic solvents in a range of industrial and laboratory processes. This volume enables readers to select the most appropriate medium for a specific situation. It helps instructors prepare course material for graduate and postgraduate courses in the area of chemistry, chemical engineering, and environmental engineering. And it helps professional engineers learn supercritical fluid-based technologies and use them in solving the increasingly challenging environmental issues. Relates theory, chemical characteristics, and properties of the particular supercritical fluid to its various applications Covers the fundamentals of supercritical fluids, like thermodynamics of phase and chemical equilibria, mathematical modeling, and process calculations Includes the most recent applications of supercritical fluids, including energy generation, materials synthesis, and environmental protection

Introduction to Supercritical Fluids

Introduction to Supercritical Fluids Book
Author : Richard Smith,Cor Peters,Hiroshi Inomata
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-12-08
ISBN : 0128076895
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Introduction to Supercritical Fluids book written by Richard Smith,Cor Peters,Hiroshi Inomata, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Introduction to Supercritical Fluids

Introduction to Supercritical Fluids Book
Author : Richard Smith,Cor Peters,Hiroshi Inomata
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-12-08
ISBN : 0128076887
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Introduction to Supercritical Fluids book written by Richard Smith,Cor Peters,Hiroshi Inomata, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Supercritical Fluid Extraction

Supercritical Fluid Extraction Book
Author : Mark A. McHugh,Val J. Krukonis
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1986
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Supercritical Fluid Extraction book written by Mark A. McHugh,Val J. Krukonis, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Introduction to Supercritical Fluids

Introduction to Supercritical Fluids Book
Author : Richard Smith,Cor Peters,Hiroshi Inomata
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-12-08
ISBN : 0128076925
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Introduction to Supercritical Fluids book written by Richard Smith,Cor Peters,Hiroshi Inomata, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Introduction to Supercritical Fluids

Introduction to Supercritical Fluids Book
Author : Richard Smith,Cor Peters,Hiroshi Inomata
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-12-08
ISBN : 0128076860
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Introduction to Supercritical Fluids book written by Richard Smith,Cor Peters,Hiroshi Inomata, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Supercritical Fluid Extraction and its Use in Chromatographic Sample Preparation

Supercritical Fluid Extraction and its Use in Chromatographic Sample Preparation Book
Author : S.A. Westwood
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 9401121648
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

by Professor D. E. Games, Mass Spectrometry Research Unit, University College of Swansea Sample preparation can be viewed as occupying a Cinderella role in analytical science. However, the quality of sample preparation plays a key role in high In the past decade, there has been quality analysis and deserves higher stature. considerable interest in the use of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) as an alternative to conventional procedures for the preparation of samples for ana lysis. The driving force for this development is the need for automated, sim pler, faster, non-destructive and selective methods for extraction, preferably using non-toxic extraction media which are easily disposed of. Utilization of supercritical fluids for extraction fulfils these requirements because of their unique physical chemical properties and usually low toxicity. Selectivity can be achieved by suitable selection of pressure (density), temperature and modi fier conditions which enable solvating power to be varied. The high diffusivity of supercritical fluids provides rapid sample penetration and extraction. Use of fluids with low critical temperatures enables extraction to be conducted under mild thermal conditions ensuring that thermally labile compounds do not decompose. The technique can be used off-line, and the extracts analysed by appropriate techniques, or it can be used on-line, by coupling with a variety of chromatographic techniques. These can then, if necessary, be coupled fur ther with spectroscopic techniques, such as Fourier transform infrared, ultra violet or mass spectrometry, to provide specific identification or structural information.

Hydrothermal and Supercritical Water Processes

Hydrothermal and Supercritical Water Processes Book
Author : Gerd Brunner
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2014-04-04
ISBN : 0444594183
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Hydrothermal and Supercritical Water Processes presents an overview on the properties and applications of water at elevated temperatures and pressures. It combines fundamentals with production process aspects. Water is an extraordinary substance. At elevated temperatures (and pressures) its properties change dramatically due to the modifications of the molecular structure of bulk water that varies from a stable three-dimensional network, formed by hydrogen bonds at low and moderate temperatures, to an assembly of separated polar water molecules at high and supercritical temperatures. With varying pressure and temperature, water is turned from a solvent for ionic species to a solvent for polar and non-polar substances. This variability and an enhanced reactivity of water have led to many practical applications and to even more research activities, related to such areas as energy transfer, extraction of functional molecules, unique chemical reactions, biomass conversion and fuel materials processing, destruction of dangerous compounds and recycling of useful ones, growth of monolithic crystals, and preparation of metallic nanoparticles. This book provides an introduction into the wide range of activities that are possible in aqueous mixtures. It is organized to facilitate understanding of the main features, outlines the main applications, and gives access to further information Summarizes fundamental properties of water for engineering applications Compares process and reactor designs Evaluates processes from thermodynamic, economic, and social impact viewpoints

Supercritical Fluids and Organometallic Compounds

Supercritical Fluids and Organometallic Compounds Book
Author : Can Erkey
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2011
ISBN : 0080453295
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Organometallic compounds are utilized as reagents in the preparation and processing of advanced nanostructured materials, as catalysts in the production of a wide variety of specialty chemicals and polymers, and as drugs. Supercritical fluid science and technology has a wide variety of applications ranging from extraction of pharmaceutically active compounds to the synthesis of advanced materials. The combination of organometallic chemistry and supercritical fluids has significant potential. This book covers the fundamental aspects and related applications in this rapidly growing area. Covers the preparation of nanostructured composite materials using supercritical fluids Focuses on the intersection of organometallic chemistry and supercritical fluids Addresses the behavior of organometallic compounds in supercritical fluid environments

Supercritical and Other High pressure Solvent Systems

Supercritical and Other High pressure Solvent Systems Book
Author : Andrew J Hunt,Thomas M Attard
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2018-08-24
ISBN : 1788015185
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Exploring the range and utility of high-pressure solvent systems across a variety of different chemical applications, this book brings together recent advances in supercritical technology and other pressurised-solvent systems. It provides an in-depth overview of the latest advances and developments and discusses the limitations and drawbacks that need to be addressed. Wherever possible, the greenness and economic viability of the different solvent systems is highlighted. This book is ideal for researchers and industrialists working in environmental science, green chemistry and biorefineries.

The Application of Green Solvents in Separation Processes

The Application of Green Solvents in Separation Processes Book
Author : Francisco Pena-Pereira,Marek Tobiszewski
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2017-02-28
ISBN : 0128054433
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Application of Green Solvents in Separation Processes features a logical progression of a wide range of topics and methods, beginning with an overview of green solvents, covering everything from water and organic solvents, to ionic liquids, switchable solvents, eutectic mixtures, supercritical fluids, gas-expanded solvents, and more. In addition, the book outlines green extraction techniques, such as green membrane extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, and surfactant-mediated extraction techniques. Green sampling and sample preparation techniques are then explored, followed by green analytical separations, including green gas and liquid capillary chromatography, counter current chromatography, supercritical fluid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, and other electrical separations. Applications of green chemistry techniques that are relevant for a broad range of scientific and technological areas are covered, including the benefits and challenges associated with their application. Provides insights into recent advances in greener extraction and separation processes Gives an understanding of alternatives to harmful solvents commonly used in extraction and separation processes, as well as advanced techniques for such processes Written by a multidisciplinary group of internationally recognized scientists

Advanced Supercritical Fluids Technologies

Advanced Supercritical Fluids Technologies Book
Author : Igor Pioro
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2020-05-20
ISBN : 183880708X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Using SuperCritical Fluids (SCFs) in various processes is not new, because Mother Nature has been processing minerals in aqueous solutions at critical and supercritical pressures for billions of years. Somewhere in the 20th century, SCFs started to be used in various industries as working fluids, coolants, chemical agents, etc. Written by an international team of experts and complete with the latest research, development, and design, Advanced Supercritical Fluids Technologies is a unique technical book, completely dedicated to modern and advanced applications of supercritical fluids in various industries.Advanced Supercritical Fluids Technologies provides engineers and specialists in various industries dealing with SCFs as well as researchers, scientists, and students of the corresponding departments with a comprehensive overview of the current status, latest trends and developments of these technologies.Dr Igor Pioro is a professor at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Canada, and the Founding Editor of the ASME Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science.

Supercritical Fluid Cleaning

Supercritical Fluid Cleaning Book
Author : Samuel P. Sawan,Samuel P Sawan
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 1998-12-31
ISBN : 0815519168
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Although supercritial fluid (SCF) technology is now widely used in extraction and purification processes (in the petrochemical, food and pharmaceuticals industries), this book is the first to address the new application of cleaning. The objective is to provide a roadmap for readers who want to know whether SCF technology can meet their own processing and cleaning needs. It is particularly helpful to those striving to balance the requirements for a clean product and a clean environment. The interdisciplinary subject matter will appeal to scientists and engineers in all specialties ranging from materials and polymer sciences to chemistry and physics. It is also useful to those developing new processes for other applications, and references given at the end of each chapter provide links to the wider body of SCF literature. The book is organized with topics progressing from the fundamental nature of the supercritical state, through process conditions and materials interactions, to economic considerations. Practical examples are included to show how the technology has been successfully applied. The first four chapters consider principles governing SCF processing, detailing issues such as solubility, design for cleanability, and the dynamics of particle removal. The next three chapters discuss surfactants and microemulsions, SCF interaction with polymers, and the use of supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) as a cleaning solvent. The closing chapters focus on more practical considerations such as scaleup, equipment costs, and financial analysis.