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Introduction To Non Equilibrium Physical Chemistry

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Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics

Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics Book
Author : Yasar Demirel
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2007-10-10
ISBN : 9780080551364
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Natural phenomena consist of simultaneously occurring transport processes and chemical reactions. These processes may interact with each other and lead to instabilities, fluctuations, and evolutionary systems. This book explores the unifying role of thermodynamics in natural phenomena. Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics, Second Edition analyzes the transport processes of energy, mass, and momentum transfer processes, as well as chemical reactions. It considers various processes occurring simultaneously, and provides students with more realistic analysis and modeling by accounting possible interactions between them. This second edition updates and expands on the first edition by focusing on the balance equations of mass, momentum, energy, and entropy together with the Gibbs equation for coupled processes of physical, chemical, and biological systems. Every chapter contains examples and practical problems to be solved. This book will be effective in senior and graduate education in chemical, mechanical, systems, biomedical, tissue, biological, and biological systems engineering, as well as physical, biophysical, biological, chemical, and biochemical sciences. Will help readers in understanding and modelling some of the coupled and complex systems, such as coupled transport and chemical reaction cycles in biological systems Presents a unified approach for interacting processes - combines analysis of transport and rate processes Introduces the theory of nonequilibrium thermodynamics and its use in simultaneously occurring transport processes and chemical reactions of physical, chemical, and biological systems A useful text for students taking advanced thermodynamics courses

Non equilibrium Thermodynamics

Non equilibrium Thermodynamics Book
Author : Sybren Ruurds de Groot,Peter Mazur
Publisher : Courier Corporation
Release : 1984-01-01
ISBN : 9780486647418
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Classic monograph treats the irreversible processes and phenomena of thermodynamics: non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Covers statistical foundations and applications of the field with special chapters on fluctuation theory, theory of stochastic processes, kinetic theory of gases, derivation of the Onsager reciprocal relations, more. 4 black-and-white illustrations.

Introduction to Non equilibrium Physical Chemistry

Introduction to Non equilibrium Physical Chemistry Book
Author : R. P. Rastogi
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2007-10-16
ISBN : 9780080551807
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Introduction to Non-equilibrium Physical Chemistry presents a critical and comprehensive account of Non-equilibrium Physical Chemistry from theoretical and experimental angle. It covers a wide spectrum of non-equilibrium phenomena from steady state close to equilibrium to non-linear region involving transition to bistability, temporal oscillations, spatio-temporal oscillations and finally to far from equilibrium phenomena such as complex pattern formation, dynamic instability at interfaces, Chaos and complex growth phenomena (fractals) in Physico-chemical systems. Part I of the book deals with theory and experimental studies concerning transport phenomena in membranes (Thermo-osmosis,Electroosmotic ) and in continuous systems (Thermal diffusion,Soret effect) close to equilibrium Experimental tests provide insight into the domain of validity of Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics ,which is the major theoretical tool for this region. Later developments in Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics and Non-equilibrium Molecular dynamics have been discussed in the Appendix. Part II deals with non-linear steady states and bifurcation to multistability, temporal and spatio- temporal oscillations (Chemical waves). Similarly Part II deals with more complex phenomena such as Chaos and fractal growth occurring in very far from equilibrium region. Newer mathematical techniques for investigating such phenomena along with available experimental studies. Part IV deals with analogous non-equilibrium phenomena occurring in the real systems (Socio-political, Finance and Living systems etc.) for which physico-chemical systems discussed in earlier chapters provide a useful model for development of theories based on non-linear science and science of complexity. The book provides a critical account of theoretical studies on non-equilibrium phenomenon from region close to equilibrium to far equilibrium Experimental studies have been reported which provide test of the theories and their limitations Impacts of the concepts developed in non-equilibrium Physical Chemistry in sociology, economics and other social science and living systems has been discussed

Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics

Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics Book
Author : Robert Zwanzig
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2001-04-19
ISBN : 9780198032151
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This is a presentation of the main ideas and methods of modern nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. It is the perfect introduction for anyone in chemistry or physics who needs an update or background in this time-dependent field. Topics covered include fluctuation-dissipation theorem; linear response theory; time correlation functions, and projection operators. Theoretical models are illustrated by real-world examples and numerous applications such as chemical reaction rates and spectral line shapes are covered. The mathematical treatments are detailed and easily understandable and the appendices include useful mathematical methods like the Laplace transforms, Gaussian random variables and phenomenological transport equations.

Non equilibrium thermodynamics and physical kinetics

Non equilibrium thermodynamics and physical kinetics Book
Author : Halid Bikkin,Igor I. Lyapilin
Publisher : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Release : 2014-08-22
ISBN : 3110373009
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This graduate textbook covers contemporary directions of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics as well as classical methods of kinetics. Starting from phenomenological non-equilibrium thermodynamics, the kinetic equation method discussed and demonstrated with electrons and phonons in conducting crystals. Linear response theory as well as the non-equilibrium statistical operator and the master equation approach are discussed in the course of the book. With one of the main propositions being to avoid terms such as "obviously" and "it is easy to show", this treatise is an easy-to-read introduction into this traditional, yet vibrant field. Problems and their well-documented solutions included at appropriate points of the narrative allow the reader to actively develop essential parts of the theory himself. From the content: Phenomenological thermodynamics of irreversible processes Brownian motion Kinetic equations in non-equilibrium thermodynamics Kinetic equation for electrons and phonons in conducting crystals Theory of non-linear response to an external mechanical pertubation Non-equilibrium statistical operator method Response of a highly non-equilibrium system to a weakly measuring field Master equation approach

Non equilibrium Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics

Non equilibrium Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics Book
Author : Phil Attard
Publisher : OUP Oxford
Release : 2012-10-04
ISBN : 019163977X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

`Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics: Foundations and Applications' builds from basic principles to advanced techniques, and covers the major phenomena, methods, and results of time-dependent systems. It is a pedagogic introduction, a comprehensive reference manual, and an original research monograph. Uniquely, the book treats time-dependent systems by close analogy with their static counterparts, with most of the familiar results of equilibrium thermodynamics and statistical mechanics being generalized and applied to the non-equilibrium case. The book is notable for its unified treatment of thermodynamics, hydrodynamics, stochastic processes, and statistical mechanics, for its self-contained, coherent derivation of a variety of non-equilibrium theorems, and for its quantitative tests against experimental measurements and computer simulations. Systems that evolve in time are more common than static systems, and yet until recently they lacked any over-arching theory. 'Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics' is unique in its unified presentation of the theory of non-equilibrium systems, which has now reached the stage of quantitative experimental and computational verification. The novel perspective and deep understanding that this book brings offers the opportunity for new direction and growth in the study of time-dependent phenomena. 'Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics' is an invaluable reference manual for experts already working in the field. Research scientists from different disciplines will find the overview of time-dependent systems stimulating and thought-provoking. Lecturers in physics and chemistry will be excited by many fresh ideas and topics, insightful explanations, and new approaches. Graduate students will benefit from its lucid reasoning and its coherent approach, as well as from the chem12physof mathematical techniques, derivations, and computer algorithms.

Beyond Equilibrium Thermodynamics

Beyond Equilibrium Thermodynamics Book
Author : Hans Christian Öttinger
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2005-05-13
ISBN : 0471727911
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Beyond Equilibrium Thermodynamics fills a niche in the market by providing a comprehensive introduction to a new, emerging topic in the field. The importance of non-equilibrium thermodynamics is addressed in order to fully understand how a system works, whether it is in a biological system like the brain or a system that develops plastic. In order to fully grasp the subject, the book clearly explains the physical concepts and mathematics involved, as well as presenting problems and solutions; over 200 exercises and answers are included. Engineers, scientists, and applied mathematicians can all use the book to address their problems in modelling, calculating, and understanding dynamic responses of materials.

Chemical Thermodynamics

Chemical Thermodynamics Book
Author : Byung Chan Eu,Mazen Al-Ghoul
Publisher : World Scientific Publishing Company
Release : 2010-08-06
ISBN : 9814365181
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Thermodynamics is an ever evolving subject. This book aims to introduce to advanced undergraduate students and graduate students the fundamental ideas and notions of the first and second laws of thermodynamics in a manner unavailable in the usual textbooks on the subject of thermodynamics. For example, it treats the notions of unavailable work, compensated and uncompensated heats, and dissipation, which make it possible to formulate the thermodynamic laws in more broadened forms than those in the conventional treatment of equilibrium thermodynamics. It thus strives to prepare students for more advanced subjects of irreversible processes, which are encountered in our everyday scientific activities. In addition, it also aims to provide them with functional and practical knowledge of equilibrium chemical thermodynamics of reversible processes in real fluids. It discusses temperature, work and heat, thermodynamic laws, equilibrium conditions and thermodynamic stability, thermodynamics of reversible processes in gases and liquids, in surfaces, chemical equilibria, reversible processes in electrolyte solutions and dielectrics in static electric and magnetic fields. A couple of examples for irreversible processes associated with fluid flows and chemical pattern formation and wave propagations are discussed as examples for applications of broader treatments of the thermodynamic laws in the realm of irreversible phenomena.

Non Equilibrium Thermodynamics in Multiphase Flows

Non Equilibrium Thermodynamics in Multiphase Flows Book
Author : Roberto Mauri
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-11-08
ISBN : 9400754612
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Non-equilibrium thermodynamics is a general framework that allows the macroscopic description of irreversible processes. This book introduces non-equilibrium thermodynamics and its applications to the rheology of multiphase flows. The subject is relevant to graduate students in chemical and mechanical engineering, physics and material science. This book is divided into two parts. The first part presents the theory of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, reviewing its essential features and showing, when possible, some applications. The second part of this book deals with how the general theory can be applied to model multiphase flows and, in particular, how to determine their constitutive relations. Each chapter contains problems at the end, the solutions of which are given at the end of the book. No prior knowledge of statistical mechanics is required; the necessary prerequisites are elements of transport phenomena and on thermodynamics. “The style of the book is mathematical, but nonetheless it remains very readable and anchored in the physical world rather than becoming too abstract. Though it is up-to-date and includes recent important developments, there is a lot of classical material in the book, albeit presented with unprecedented clarity and coherence. The first six chapters are actually a very good introduction to the theory underlying many phenomena in soft matter physics, beyond the focus on flow and transport of the later chapters of the book.” Prof Richard A.L. Jones FRS, Pro-Vice-Chancellor for Research and Innovation, University of Sheffield

Physical Nonequilibrium in Soils

Physical Nonequilibrium in Soils Book
Author : H. Magdi Selim,Liwang Ma
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 1998-06-01
ISBN : 9781575040493
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Physical Nonequilibrium in Soils provides cutting-edge knowledge on physical nonequilibrium phenomena in soils, offering unique insight into the complexity of our physical world. With 18 chapters comprising the book, topics cover soil properties fluid properties mechanistic models transfer function geostatistics fractal analysis cellular-automation fluids coupling of physical and chemical nonequilibrium models confirming and quantifying physical nonequilibrium in soils analytical solutions field-scale research environmental impacts.

Non Equilibrium Dynamics in Chemical Systems

Non Equilibrium Dynamics in Chemical Systems Book
Author : C. Vidal,A. Pacault
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 3642701965
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Markedly apart from elementary particle physics, another current has been building up and cont i nuous ly growi ng within contemporary phys i cs for severa 1 decades, and even expanding into many other disciplines, especially chemistry, biology and, quite recently, economics. Several reasons account for this: presumably the most impor tant one lies in the fact that, whatever the specific problem, model or material concerned, the same basic mathematical features are always involved. In this way, a general phenomenology has emerged which, unlike thermodynamics, is no longer depen dent upon the details or specifics: what largely prevails is the nonlinear charac ter of the underlying dynamics. Perhaps we are witnessing the emergence of a "non linear physics"--In a way similar to the birth of "quantum physics" in the twen ties - a physics which deals with the general behaviour of systems, whatever they are or may be. Over the past fifteen years, chemical systems evolving sufficiently far from equilibrium have proved to be particularly well fitted to experimental research on nonlinear behaviour: oscillation, multistability, birhythmicity, chaotic evolution, spatial self-organization and hysteresis are displayed by chemical reactions whose number is growing each year. In this volume are collected the lectures, communica tions and posters (abstracts) presented at an international meeting entitled: "Non-Equilibrium Dynamics in Chemical Systems", held in Bordeaux (France), Septem ber 3 rd-lth, 1984.

Nonequilibrium Many Body Theory of Quantum Systems

Nonequilibrium Many Body Theory of Quantum Systems Book
Author : Gianluca Stefanucci,Robert van Leeuwen
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2013-03-07
ISBN : 0521766176
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A pedagogical introduction to nonequilibrium theory, time-dependent phenomena and excited state properties, for graduate students and researchers.

Self Organization in Nonequilibrium Systems

Self Organization in Nonequilibrium Systems Book
Author : Gregoire Nicolis,Ilya Prigogine
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons Incorporated
Release : 1977-05-13
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Membranes, Dissipative Structures, and Evolution Edited by G. Nicolis & R. Lefever Focuses on the problem of the emergence/maintenance of biological order at successively higher levels of complexity. Covers the spatiotemporal organization of simple biochemical networks; the formation of pluricellular or macromolecular assemblies; the evolution of these structures; and the functions of specific biological structures. Volume 29 in Advances in Chemical Physics Series, I. Prigogine & Stuart A. Rice, Editors. 1975 Theory and Applications of Molecular Paramagnetism Edited by E. A. Boudreaux & L. N. Mulay Comprehensively treats the basic theory of paramagnetic phenomena from both the classical and mechanical vantages. It examines the magnetic behavior of Lanthanide and Actinide elements as well as traditional transition metals. For each class of compounds, appropriate details of descriptive and mathematical theory are given before their applications. 1976 Theory and Aapplications of Molecular Diamagnetism Edited by L. N. Mulay & E. A. Boudreaux An invaluable reference for solving chemical problems in magnetics, magnetochemistry, and related areas where magnetic data are important, such as solid-state physics and optical spectroscopy. 197

Soft and Fragile Matter

Soft and Fragile Matter Book
Author : Michael E. Cates,M.R Evans
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2000-01-01
ISBN : 9781420033519
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Covering colloids, polymers, surfactant phases, emulsions, and granular media, Soft and Fragile Matter: Nonequilibrium Dynamics, Metastability and Flow (PBK) provides self-contained and pedagogical coverage of the rapidly advancing field of systems driven out of equilibrium, with a strong emphasis on unifying conceptual principles rather than material-specific details. Written by internationally recognized experts, the book contains introductions at the level of a graduate course in soft condensed matter and statistical physics to the following areas: experimental techniques, polymers, rheology, colloids, computer simulation, surfactants, phase separation kinetics, driven systems, structural glasses, slow dynamics, and granular materials. These topics lead to a range of exciting applications at the forefront of current research, including microplasticity of emulsions, sequence design of copolymers, branched polymer dynamics, nucleation kinetics in colloids, multiscale modeling, flow-induced surfactant textures, fluid demixing under shear, two-time correlation functions, chaotic sedimentation dynamics, and sound propagation in powders. Balancing theory, simulation, and experiment, this broadly-based, pedagogical account of a rapidly developing field is an excellent compendium for graduate students and researchers in condensed matter physics, materials science, and physical chemistry.

An Introduction to the Physical Chemistry of Food

An Introduction to the Physical Chemistry of Food Book
Author : John N. Coupland
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2014-06-30
ISBN : 1493907611
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Familiar combinations of ingredients and processing make the structures that give food its properties. For example in ice cream, the emulsifiers and proteins stabilize partly crystalline milk fat as an emulsion, freezing (crystallization) of some of the water gives the product its hardness and polysaccharide stabilizers keep it smooth. Why different recipes work as they do is largely governed by the rules of physical chemistry. This textbook introduces the physical chemistry essential to understanding the behavior of foods. Starting with the simplest model of molecules attracting and repelling one another while being moved by the randomizing effect of heat, the laws of thermodynamics are used to derive important properties of foods such as flavor binding and water activity. Most foods contain multiple phases and the same molecular model is used to understand phase diagrams, phase separation and the properties of surfaces. The remaining chapters focus on the formation and properties of specific structures in foods – crystals, polymers, dispersions and gels. Only a basic understanding of food science is needed, and no mathematics or chemistry beyond the introductory college courses is required. At all stages, examples from the primary literature are used to illustrate the text and to highlight the practical applications of physical chemistry in food science.

Synergetics

Synergetics Book
Author : Hermann Haken
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 3642963633
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The spontaneous formation of well organized structures out of germs or even out of chaos is one of the most fascinating phenomena and most challenging problems scientists are confronted with. Such phenomena are an experience of our daily life when we observe the growth of plants and animals. Thinking of much larger time scales, scientists are led into the problems of evolution, and, ultimately, of the origin of living matter. When we try to explain or understand in some sense these extremely complex biological phenomena it is a natural question, whether pro cesses of self-organization may be found in much simpler systems of the un animated world. In recent years it has become more and more evident that there exist numerous examples in physical and chemical systems where well organized spatial, temporal, or spatio-temporal structures arise out of chaotic states. Furthermore, as in living of these systems can be maintained only by a flux of organisms, the functioning energy (and matter) through them. In contrast to man-made machines, which are to exhibit special structures and functionings, these structures develop spon devised It came as a surprise to many scientists that taneously-they are self-organizing. numerous such systems show striking similarities in their behavior when passing from the disordered to the ordered state. This strongly indicates that the function of such systems obeys the same basic principles. In our book we wish to explain ing such basic principles and underlying conceptions and to present the mathematical tools to cope with them.

High Temperature Phenomena in Shock Waves

High Temperature Phenomena in Shock Waves Book
Author : Raymond Brun
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-01-24
ISBN : 3642251196
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The high temperatures generated in gases by shock waves give rise to physical and chemical phenomena such as molecular vibrational excitation, dissociation, ionization, chemical reactions and inherently related radiation. In continuum regime, these processes start from the wave front, so that generally the gaseous media behind shock waves may be in a thermodynamic and chemical non-equilibrium state. This book presents the state of knowledge of these phenomena. Thus, the thermodynamic properties of high temperature gases, including the plasma state are described, as well as the kinetics of the various chemical phenomena cited above. Numerous results of measurement and computation of vibrational relaxation times, dissociation and reaction rate constants are given, and various ionization and radiative mechanisms and processes are presented. The coupling between these different phenomena is taken into account as well as their interaction with the flow-field. Particular points such as the case of rarefied flows and the inside of the shock wave itself are also examined. Examples of specific non-equilibrium flows are given, generally corresponding to those encountered during spatial missions or in shock tube experiments.

Transport Properties in Non Equilibrium and Anomalous Systems

Transport Properties in Non Equilibrium and Anomalous Systems Book
Author : Dario Villamaina
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-10-19
ISBN : 3319017721
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The study of fluctuations in statistical physics has a long history, and a general theory is well established, connecting fluctuations to response properties of equilibrium systems. Remarkably, this framework fails as soon as some current is flowing across the system, driving it out of equilibrium. The presence of currents is quite common in nature and produces rich phenomena which are far from being included in a general framework. This thesis focuses on this general problem by studying different models such as granular materials and systems exhibiting anomalous diffusion and shows how the generalized response techniques can be successfully used to catch the relevant degrees of freedom that drive the systems out of equilibrium. This study paves the way to the use of the generalized fluctuation relations in an operative way, in order to extract information from a non-equilibrium system and to build the corresponding phenomenological theory.