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Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy

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Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy

Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy Book
Author : Valeri V. Afanas'ev
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2014-03-01
ISBN : 9780080999296
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The second edition of Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy thoroughly updates this vital, practical guide to internal photoemission (IPE) phenomena and measurements. The book's discussion of fundamental physical and technical aspects of IPE spectroscopic applications is supplemented by an extended overview of recent experimental results in swiftly advancing research fields. These include the development of insulating materials for advanced SiMOS technology, metal gate materials, development of heterostructures based on high-mobility semiconductors, and more. Recent results concerning the band structure of important interfaces in novel materials are covered as well. Internal photoemission involves the physics of charge carrier photoemission from one solid to another, and different spectroscopic applications of this phenomenon to solid state heterojunctions. This technique complements conventional external photoemission spectroscopy by analyzing interfaces separated from the sample surface by a layer of a different solid or liquid. Internal photoemission provides the most straightforward, reliable information regarding the energy spectrum of electron states at interfaces. At the same time, the method enables the analysis of heterostructures relevant to modern micro- and nano-electronic devices as well as new materials involved in their design and fabrication. First complete model description of the internal photoemission phenomena Overview of the most reliable energy barrier determination procedures and trap characterization methods Overview of the most recent results on band structure of high-permittivity insulating materials and their interfaces with semiconductors and metals

Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy

Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy Book
Author : Valeri V. Afanas'ev
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2010-07-07
ISBN : 9780080555898
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The monographic book addresses the basics of the charge carrier photoemission from one solid to another - the internal photoemission, (IPE) - and different spectroscopic applications of this phenomenon to solid state heterojunctions. This is the first book in the field of IPE, which complements the conventional external photoemission spectroscopy by analysing interfaces separated from the sample surface by a layer of a different solid or liquid. IPE is providing the most straightforward and, therefore, reliable information regarding the energy spectrum of electron states at interfaces. At the same time, the method provides the unique capability of analysing the heterostructures relevant to the modern micro- and nano-electronic devices as well as new materials involved in their design and fabrication. In addition to the discussion of fundamental physical and technical aspects of IPE spectroscopic applications, several “hot topics are addressed. These include development of new insulating materials for advances Si MOS technology (both high-k gate insulators and low-k dielectrics for interconnect insulation), metal gate materials, development of heterostructures based on high-mobility semiconductors, etc. Thanks to a considerable activity in this field over the last few years, the recent results concerning band structure of most important interfaces involving novel materials can now be documented. - First complete description of the internal photoemission phenomena - A practical guide to internal photoemission measurements - Describes reliable energy barrier determination procedures - Surveys trap spectroscopy methods applicable to thin insulating layers - Provides an overview of the most recent results on band structure of high-permittivity insulating materials and their interfaces - Contains a complete collection of reference data on interface band alignment for wide-bandgap insulating materials in contact with metals and semiconductors

Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy

Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy Book
Author : V. V. Afanasʹev
Publisher : Elsevier Science Limited
Release : 2008
ISBN : 9780080451459
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The monographic book addresses the basics of the charge carrier photoemission from one solid to another - the internal photoemission, (IPE) - and different spectroscopic applications of this phenomenon to solid state heterojunctions. This is the first book in the field of IPE, which complements the conventional external photoemission spectroscopy by analysing interfaces separated from the sample surface by a layer of a different solid or liquid. IPE is providing the most straightforward and, therefore, reliable information regarding the energy spectrum of electron states at interfaces. At the same time, the method provides the unique capability of analysing the heterostructures relevant to the modern micro- and nano-electronic devices as well as new materials involved in their design and fabrication. In addition to the discussion of fundamental physical and technical aspects of IPE spectroscopic applications, several "hot" topics are addressed. These include development of new insulating materials for advances Si MOS technology (both high-k gate insulators and low-k dielectrics for interconnect insulation), metal gate materials, development of heterostructures based on high-mobility semiconductors, etc. Thanks to a considerable activity in this field over the last few years, the recent results concerning band structure of most important interfaces involving novel materials can now be documented. - First complete description of the internal photoemission phenomena - A practical guide to internal photoemission measurements - Describes reliable energy barrier determination procedures - Surveys trap spectroscopy methods applicable to thin insulating layers - Provides an overview of the most recent results on band structure of high-permittivity insulating materials and their interfaces - Contains a complete collection of reference data on interface band alignment for wide-bandgap insulating materials in contact with metals and semiconductors

Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy Principles and Applications

Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy  Principles and Applications Book
Author : Valeri V. Afanas'ev
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2017-11-13
ISBN : 9780081015315
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The second edition of "Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy" thoroughly updates this vital, practical guide to internal photoemission (IPE) phenomena and measurements. The book's discussion of fundamental physical and technical aspects of IPE spectroscopic applications is supplemented by an extended overview of recent experimental results in swiftly advancing research fields. These include the development of insulating materials for advanced SiMOS technology, metal gate materials, development of heterostructures based on high-mobility semiconductors, and more. Recent results concerning the band structure of important interfaces in novel materials are covered as well. Internal photoemission involves the physics of charge carrier photoemission from one solid to another, and different spectroscopic applications of this phenomenon to solid state heterojunctions. This technique complements conventional external photoemission spectroscopy by analyzing interfaces separated from the sample surface by a layer of a different solid or liquid. Internal photoemission provides the most straightforward, reliable information regarding the energy spectrum of electron states at interfaces. At the same time, the method enables the analysis of heterostructures relevant to modern micro- and nano-electronic devices as well as new materials involved in their design and fabrication. First complete model description of the internal photoemission phenomenaOverview of the most reliable energy barrier determination procedures and trap characterization methodsOverview of the most recent results on band structure of high-permittivity insulating materials and their interfaces with semiconductors and metals

Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy of Semiconductor insulator Interfaces

Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy of Semiconductor insulator Interfaces Book
Author : V. K. Adamchuk,V. V. Afanasʹev
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1992
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy of Semiconductor insulator Interfaces book written by V. K. Adamchuk,V. V. Afanasʹev, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Electric Field Penetration in Au Nb

Electric Field Penetration in Au Nb Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2011
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Electric field penetration into the metallic side of a Schottky junction is in principle a universal phenomenon, the magnitude of which increases with the semiconductor permittivity. Here, we quantitatively probe this effect using bias-dependent internal photoemission spectroscopy at the Schottky junction between a large dielectric permittivity semiconductor SrTiO3 and gold. A clear linear reduction of the barrier height with increasing interface electric field was observed, highlighting the importance of field penetration into the gold. The interfacial permittivity of SrTiO3 at the interface is reduced from the bulk value, reflecting intrinsic suppression at the interface.

Photoelectron Spectroscopy

Photoelectron Spectroscopy Book
Author : Stephan Hüfner
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-03-09
ISBN : 3662092808
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The author, S. Hüfner, presents an authoritative and up-to-date introduction to the field by comprehensively treating the electronic structures of atoms, molecules, solids, and surfaces. Brief descriptions are given of inverse photoemission, spin-polarized photoemission and photoelectron diffraction. Experimental aspects are considered throughout the third edition book and the results are carefully interpreted in terms of the theory. A wealth of measured data is presented in tabulator form for easy use by experimentalists. The reader will learn about the basic technique of photoemission spectroscopy and obtain the necessary background for work based on this book.

Assessment of Barrier Heights Between ZrCuAlNi Amorphous Metal and SiO2 Al2O3 HfO2 and ZrO2 Using Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy

Assessment of Barrier Heights Between ZrCuAlNi Amorphous Metal and SiO2  Al2O3  HfO2  and ZrO2 Using Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy Book
Author : Tyler D. Klarr
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

As scaling of silicon (Si) based devices approaches fundamental limits, thin film metal-insulator-metal (MIM) tunnel diodes are attracting interest due to their potential for high speed operation. Because operation of these devices is based on tunneling, electrode / interfacial roughness is critical. Recently, it was shown that combining ultra-smooth bottom electrodes with insulators deposited via atomic layer deposition (ALD) enables reproducible fabrication of MIM diodes with stable I-V behavior. Key performance parameters of MIM diodes include high I-V asymmetry and low turn-on voltage. The standard way to achieve asymmetry relies on the use of non-equivalent work function metal electrodes to induce a built-in field that creates polarity dependent electron tunneling barrier. Thus the electrical performance of MIM diodes are directly impacted by the nature of the energy barriers at the interfaces. In this work, we report the first use of internal photoemission spectroscopy (IPE) to measure barrier heights between an amorphous zirconium copper aluminum nickel (ZCAN) metal alloy bottom electrode and several high-k dielectrics deposited via ALD. In IPE, the conduction band offset between two materials is characterized by measuring the additional current created by photo-excitation of carriers under an applied bias (V[subscript app]). Devices were tested in a custom built IPE system.

Hard X ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy HAXPES

Hard X ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy  HAXPES  Book
Author : Joseph Woicik
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-12-26
ISBN : 3319240439
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides the first complete and up-to-date summary of the state of the art in HAXPES and motivates readers to harness its powerful capabilities in their own research. The chapters are written by experts. They include historical work, modern instrumentation, theory and applications. This book spans from physics to chemistry and materials science and engineering. In consideration of the rapid development of the technique, several chapters include highlights illustrating future opportunities as well.

Metrology and Diagnostic Techniques for Nanoelectronics

Metrology and Diagnostic Techniques for Nanoelectronics Book
Author : Zhiyong Ma,David G. Seiler
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2017-03-27
ISBN : 135173394X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nanoelectronics is changing the way the world communicates, and is transforming our daily lives. Continuing Moore’s law and miniaturization of low-power semiconductor chips with ever-increasing functionality have been relentlessly driving R&D of new devices, materials, and process capabilities to meet performance, power, and cost requirements. This book covers up-to-date advances in research and industry practices in nanometrology, critical for continuing technology scaling and product innovation. It holistically approaches the subject matter and addresses emerging and important topics in semiconductor R&D and manufacturing. It is a complete guide for metrology and diagnostic techniques essential for process technology, electronics packaging, and product development and debugging—a unique approach compared to other books. The authors are from academia, government labs, and industry and have vast experience and expertise in the topics presented. The book is intended for all those involved in IC manufacturing and nanoelectronics and for those studying nanoelectronics process and assembly technologies or working in device testing, characterization, and diagnostic techniques.

Catalog of National Bureau of Standards Publications 1966 1976

Catalog of National Bureau of Standards Publications  1966 1976 Book
Author : United States. National Bureau of Standards
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1978
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Catalog of National Bureau of Standards Publications 1966 1976 book written by United States. National Bureau of Standards, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

High k Gate Dielectrics for CMOS Technology

High k Gate Dielectrics for CMOS Technology Book
Author : Gang He,Zhaoqi Sun
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2012-08-10
ISBN : 3527646361
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A state-of-the-art overview of high-k dielectric materials for advanced field-effect transistors, from both a fundamental and a technological viewpoint, summarizing the latest research results and development solutions. As such, the book clearly discusses the advantages of these materials over conventional materials and also addresses the issues that accompany their integration into existing production technologies. Aimed at academia and industry alike, this monograph combines introductory parts for newcomers to the field as well as advanced sections with directly applicable solutions for experienced researchers and developers in materials science, physics and electrical engineering.

Metal semiconductor Interfaces

Metal semiconductor Interfaces Book
Author : Akio Hiraki
Publisher : IOS Press
Release : 1995
ISBN : 9789051992052
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume is a collection of papers written by the authors who were selected among the members of a project on ``Metal-Semiconductor Interfaces'' sponsored by the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture of Japan (MON-BUSHO). The M-S Interface is a problem which stems from the 1930's when the concept of surface states was first proposed by Tamm, shortly later by Shockley, and then clearly by Bardeen in 1947 to catalyze the invention of the transistor, and still exists today when one can count almost one billion M-S interfaces or contacts in a Si chip whose size is less than 1 cm square. Consequently, there have been plenty of research activities all over the world, especially over the last 15 years. The ``M-S Interfaces'' project was composed of four research branches to tackle the following subjects to be reported in the book: Theoretical Approaches, Initial Stage of M-S Interface Formation, Interface Structure of M-S Systems, Realization and Control of Contact Characterization, and Novel Characterization Techniques of Buried Interfaces.

Publications of the National Bureau of Standards 1976 Catalog

Publications of the National Bureau of Standards  1976 Catalog Book
Author : United States. National Bureau of Standards
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1977
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Publications of the National Bureau of Standards 1976 Catalog book written by United States. National Bureau of Standards, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Einstein s Photoemission

Einstein s Photoemission Book
Author : Kamakhya Prasad Ghatak
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2014-11-19
ISBN : 3319111884
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This monograph solely investigates the Einstein's Photoemission(EP) from Heavily Doped(HD) Quantized Structures on the basis of newly formulated electron dispersion laws. The materials considered are quantized structures of HD non-linear optical, III-V, II-VI, Ge, Te, Platinum Antimonide, stressed materials, GaP, Gallium Antimonide, II-V, Bismuth Telluride together with various types of HD superlattices and their Quantized counterparts respectively. The EP in HD opto-electronic materials and their nanostructures is studied in the presence of strong light waves and intense electric fields that control the studies of such quantum effect devices. The suggestions for the experimental determinations of different important physical quantities in HD 2D and 3D materials and the importance of measurement of band gap in HD optoelectronic materials under intense built-in electric field in nano devices and strong external photo excitation (for measuring physical properties in the presence of intense light waves which alter the electron energy spectra) have also been discussed in this context. The influence quantizing magnetic field, on the EP of the different HD quantized structures (quantum wells, quantum well HD superlattices and nipi structures) under different physical conditions has been investigated. This monograph contains 100 open research problems which form the integral part of the text and are useful for both Ph.D aspirants and researchers in the fields of materials science, condensed matter physics, solid-state sciences, nano-science and technology and allied fields in addition to the graduate courses in modern semiconductor nanostructures offered in different Universities and Institutes.

Quantum Effects Heavy Doping And The Effective Mass

Quantum Effects  Heavy Doping  And The Effective Mass Book
Author : Ghatak Kamakhya Prasad
Publisher : World Scientific
Release : 2016-12-08
ISBN : 9813146532
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The importance of the effective mass (EM) is already well known since the inception of solid-state physics and this first-of-its-kind monograph solely deals with the quantum effects in EM of heavily doped (HD) nanostructures. The materials considered are HD quantum confined nonlinear optical, III-V, II-VI, IV-VI, GaP, Ge, PtSb2, stressed materials, GaSb, Te, II-V, Bi2Te3, lead germanium telluride, zinc and cadmium diphosphides, and quantum confined III-V, II-VI, IV-VI, and HgTe/CdTe super-lattices with graded interfaces and effective mass super-lattices. The presence of intense light waves in optoelectronics and strong electric field in nano-devices change the band structure of semiconductors in fundamental ways, which have also been incorporated in the study of EM in HD quantized structures of optoelectronic compounds that control the studies of the HD quantum effect devices under strong fields. The importance of measurement of band gap in optoelectronic materials under intense external fields has also been discussed in this context. The influences of magnetic quantization, crossed electric and quantizing fields, electric field and light waves on the EM in HD semiconductors and super-lattices are discussed. The content of this book finds twenty-eight different applications in the arena of nano-science and nano-technology. This book contains 200 open research problems which form the integral part of the text and are useful for both PhD aspirants and researchers in the fields of condensed matter physics, materials science, solid state sciences, nano-science and technology and allied fields in addition to the graduate courses in semiconductor nanostructures. The book is written for post-graduate students, researchers, engineers and professionals in the fields of condensed matter physics, solid state sciences, materials science, nanoscience and technology and nanostructured materials in general.

Nanomaterials

Nanomaterials Book
Author : Engg Kamakhya Prasad Ghatak,Madhuchhanda Mitra
Publisher : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Release : 2018-11-05
ISBN : 3110610817
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The work studies under different physical conditions the carrier contribution to elastic constants in heavily doped optoelectronic materials. In the presence of intense photon field the authors apply the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle to formulate electron statistics. Many open research problems are discussed and numerous potential applications as quantum sensors and quantum cascade lasers are presented.

CMOS Nanoelectronics

CMOS Nanoelectronics Book
Author : Nadine Collaert
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2012-09-19
ISBN : 9814364029
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book covers one of the most important device architectures that have been widely researched to extend the transistor scaling: FinFET. Starting with theory, the book discusses the advantages and the integration challenges of this device architecture. It addresses in detail the topics such as high-density fin patterning, gate stack design, and source/drain engineering, which have been considered challenges for the integration of FinFETs. The book also addresses circuit-related aspects, including the impact of variability on SRAM design, ESD design, and high-T operation. It discusses a new device concept: the junctionless nanowire FET.

Publications

Publications Book
Author : United States. National Bureau of Standards
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1975
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Publications book written by United States. National Bureau of Standards, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Characterization of Nanoparticles

Characterization of Nanoparticles Book
Author : Vasile-Dan Hodoroaba,Wolfgang Unger,Alexander Shard
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2019-10-05
ISBN : 0128141832
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Characterization of Nanoparticles: Measurement Processes for Nanoparticles surveys this fast growing field, including established methods for the physical and chemical characterization of nanoparticles. The book focuses on sample preparation issues (including potential pitfalls), with measurement procedures described in detail. In addition, the book explores data reduction, including the quantitative evaluation of the final result and its uncertainty of measurement. The results of published inter-laboratory comparisons are referred to, along with the availability of reference materials necessary for instrument calibration and method validation. The application of these methods are illustrated with practical examples on what is routine and what remains a challenge. In addition, this book summarizes promising methods still under development and analyzes the need for complementary methods to enhance the quality of nanoparticle characterization with solutions already in operation. Helps readers decide which nanocharacterization method is best for each measurement problem, including limitations, advantages and disadvantages Shows which nanocharacterization methods are best for different classes of nanomaterial Demonstrates the practical use of a method based on selected case studies