Publisher : Stanford University
Release : 2011
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De
Book Description :
Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs), have been widely studied in academia and industry over the last decade. CMUTs provide many benefits over traditional piezoelectric transducers including improvement in performance through wide bandwidth, and ease of electronics integration, with the potential to batch fabricate very large 2D arrays with low-cost and high-yield. Though many aspects of CMUT technology have been studied over the years, packaging the CMUT into a fully practical system has not been thoroughly explored. Two important interfaces of packaging that this thesis explores are device encapsulation (the interface between CMUTs and patients) and full electronic integration of large scale 2D arrays (the interface between CMUTs and electronics). In the first part of the work, I investigate the requirements for the CMUT encapsulation. For medical usage, encapsulation is needed to electrically insulate the device, mechanically protect the device, and maintain transducer performance, especially the access of the ultrasound energy. While hermetic sealing can protect many other MEMS devices, CMUTs require mechanical interaction to a fluid, which makes fulfilling the previous criterion very challenging. The proposed solution is to use a viscoelastic material with the glass-transition-temperature lower than room temperature, such as Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), to preserve the CMUT static and dynamic performance. Experimental implementation of the encapsulated imaging CMUT arrays shows the device performance was maintained; 95 % of efficiency, 85% of the maximum output pressure, and 91% of the fractional bandwidth (FBW) can be preserved. A viscoelastic finite element model was also developed and shows the performance effects of the coating can be accurately predicted. Four designs, providing acoustic crosstalk suppression, flexible substrate, lens focusing, and blood flow monitoring using PDMS layer were also demonstrated. The second part of the work, presents contributions towards the electronic integration and packaging of large-area 2-D arrays. A very large 2D array is appealing for it can enable advanced novel imaging applications, such as a reconfigurable array, and a compression plate for breast cancer screening. With these goals in mind, I developed the first large-scale fully populated and integrated 2D CMUTs array with 32 by 192 elements. In this study, I demonstrate a flexible and reliable integration approach by successfully combining a simple UBM preparation technique and a CMUTs-interposer-ASICs sandwich design. The results show high shear strength of the UBM (26.5 g), 100% yield of the interconnections, and excellent CMUT resonance uniformity (σ = 0.02 MHz). As demonstrated, this allows for a large-scale assembly of a tile-able array by using an interposer. Interface engineering is crucial towards the development of CMUTs into a practical ultrasound system. With the advances in encapsulation technique with a viscoelastic polymer and the combination of the UBM technique to the TSV fabrication for electronics integration, a fully integrated CMUT system can be realized.