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Innate Immunity

Innate Immunity Book
Author : Jonathan Ewbank,Eric Vivier
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2008
ISBN : 1588297462
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Immunologists today are interested in all of the diverse cell-types involved in host defense and have a deeper appreciation of the importance of innate immune mechanisms as a first line of protection against pathogens. This volume thus discusses the isolation and functional characterization of cells involved in innate immunity in mouse and man, including mast cells and eosinophils. Other focuses include natural killer cells, methods in statistics, in vivo imaging, genome engineering, and mutagenesis and culture that are adapted to the study of innate immunity in these hosts. These are complemented with a series of chapters dealing with alternative models: plants, worms, mosquitoes, flies, and fish. Together, these approaches and models are being used to dissect the complex interplay between hosts and pathogens and contribute to developing strategies to help fight infection. With chapters written by experts on the cutting-edge of this technology, Innate Immunity is an essential reference for immunologists, histologists, geneticists, and molecular biologists.

Innate Immunity

Innate Immunity Book
Author : Yves Carton
Publisher : Iste Press - Elsevier
Release : 2019-11-15
ISBN : 1785483080
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Innate immunity is a new branch of immunology, confirmed by three Nobel Prize winners in 2011. It is the first line of defense against pathogens and is in a way the preliminary step of adaptive immunity which occurs later, and only present in vertebrates. This book examines the way in which innate immunity was discovered in invertebrates. As a starting point, it looks at the work of Louis Pasteur on silkworm disease and the findings of Ilya Metchnikov, discoverer of phagocytosis. It also investigates André Paillot, who in 1920 demonstrated the existence of humoral immunity in insects, unrelated to the type of immunity that was initially thought to be present in all vertebrates. Finally, Innate Immunity shows how the group directed by Jules Hoffmann found strong similarities between the innate immunity response of insects and mammals. The discovery of a receptor protein in Drosophila, which is also found in humans, was what led to Jules Hoffmann being awarded the Nobel Prize in 2011. Presents the transformations experienced by the domains of innate immunity Shows the lineage of these results Bridges the gap between innate immunity of invertebrates and that of vertebrates

The Biology and Pathology of Innate Immunity Mechanisms

The Biology and Pathology of Innate Immunity Mechanisms Book
Author : Yona Keisari,Itzhak Ofek
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2013-03-26
ISBN : 9781475786477
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In recent years increased scientific attention has been given to immediate defense mechanisms based on non-clonal recognition of microbial components. These mechanisms constitute the innate immunity arm of the body s defense. Identification of pathogens by these mechanisms involves primarily receptors recognizing sugar moieties of various microorganisms. Innate immunity based mechanisms are essential for the existence of multicellular organisms. They are evolutionarily conserved and designed to provide immediate protection against microbial pathogens to eradicate infection. Activation of innate immunity is crucial for transition to specific immunity and for its orientation, and to assist the specific immune response in the recognition of pathogens and their destruction. Innate immunity is regularly involved in the arrest of bacterial, mycotic, viral and parasitic infections, giving the specific immune response time to become effective. It becomes critically essential in immunocompromised patients who fail to mount specific immune responses due to congenital or acquired immunodeficiencies as a result of chemotherapy, dialysis, immunosuppressive drugs, or HIV infection. The Innate Immunity arsenal constitutes polymorphonuclear and mononuclear phagocytes, mast cells, the complement system, Natural Killer cells, antimicrobial peptides, and presumably a subset of T lymphocytes with TCRl receptors.

Innate Immunity Resistance and Disease Promoting Principles

Innate Immunity  Resistance and Disease Promoting Principles Book
Author : G. Hartmann,H. Wagner
Publisher : Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers
Release : 2013-06-05
ISBN : 3318023485
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Our understanding of the complex innate immune response is increasing rapidly. Its role in the protection against viral or bacterial pathogens is essential for the survival of an organism. However, it is equally important to avoid unregulated inflammation because innate immune responses can cause or promote chronic autoinflammatory diseases such as gout, atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes or certain aspects of the metabolic syndrome. In this book leading international experts in the field of innate immunity share their findings, define the ‚state of the art‘ in this field and evaluate how insight into the molecular basis of these diseases could help in the design of new therapies. A tremendous amount of work on the innate immune response has been done over the last fifteen years, culminating in the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physiology/Medicine awarded for the discoveries of Toll genes in immunity in flies, membrane-bound Toll-like receptors in mammals, and dendritic cells as initiators of adaptive immunity.

Innate Immunity of Plants Animals and Humans

Innate Immunity of Plants  Animals and Humans Book
Author : Holger Heine
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-12-07
ISBN : 3540739300
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book has been cunningly designed to provide an overview of our current knowledge about the innate immune systems of these three types of organisms. It not only covers the innate immune mechanisms and responses of such diverse organisms as plants, Cnidaria, Drosophila, urochordates and zebrafish, but also the major receptor systems in mammalians and humans. It delves too into the central defense mechanisms, antimicrobial peptides and the complement system.

Innate Immune System of Skin and Oral Mucosa

Innate Immune System of Skin and Oral Mucosa Book
Author : Nava Dayan,Philip W. Wertz
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2011-08-23
ISBN : 0470437774
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

An in-depth look at cutting-edge research on the body's innate immune system Innate immunity is the body's first line of protection against potential microbial, viral, and environmental attacks, and the skin and oral mucosa are two of the most powerful barriers that which we rely on to stay well. The definitive book on the subject, Innate Immune System of Skin and Oral Mucosa: Properties and Impact in Pharmaceutics, Cosmetics, and Personal Care Products provides a comprehensive overview of these systems, including coverage of antimicrobial peptides and lipids and microbial challenges and stressors that can influence innate immunity. Designed to help experts and newcomers alike in fields like dermatology, oral pathology, cosmetics, personal care, and pharmaceuticals, the book is filled with suggestions to assist research and development. Looking at the many challenges facing the innate immune system, including the impact of topically applied skin products and medications, Innate Immune System of Skin and Oral Mucosa paves the way for next generation treatment avenues, preventative approaches, and drug development.

Mouse Models of Innate Immunity

Mouse Models of Innate Immunity Book
Author : Irving C. Allen
Publisher : Humana Press
Release : 2019-02-24
ISBN : 9781493991662
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This second edition presents methods and protocols to aid readers in the design and execution of experiments used to define critical elements associated with innate immune system function. New and updated chapters detail protocols on in vitro and ex vivo studies in key cell types associated with innate immunity and with in vivo protocols used to study immune system function in the mouse. Additionally, chapters describe methods to evaluate innate immune function and new protocols associated with autism, cancer, microfluidics platforms, and CRISPR systems. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and easy to use, Mouse Models of Innate Immunity: Methods and Protocols, Second Edition will serve the research community by providing expert advice and protocols that allow both experienced and novice investigators to successfully plan, implement, and assess disease processes associated with the innate immune system.

Current Topics in Innate Immunity II

Current Topics in Innate Immunity II Book
Author : John D. Lambris,George Hajishengallis
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2013-10-25
ISBN : 9781461429524
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Mounting evidence in the past decade indicates that innate immunity mediates functions above and beyond first-line defense against infection. It is now appreciated that innate immune mechanisms are critically involved in the development of adaptive immunity and, moreover, the regulation of diverse physiological and homeostatic processes. The latter explains why deregulation of innate immunity may lead to pathological disorders that are not necessarily or directly related to host defense. This Volume compiles the latest advances in this rapidly evolving field as presented by eminent scientists at the 7th International Aegean Conference on Innate Immunity in Rhodes, Greece. It includes topics related to the biology and function of Toll-like and other pattern-recognition receptors, complement and its crosstalk with other physiological systems, inflammatory mechanisms and diseases, natural killer cells, and the cooperative interplay between innate and adaptive immune cells. This book is an excellent source of information for researchers and clinicians with interests in immunology, host-microbe interactions, and infectious and inflammatory diseases.

Nucleic Acids in Innate Immunity

Nucleic Acids in Innate Immunity Book
Author : Ken J. Ishii,Shizuo Akira
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2008-05-22
ISBN : 9781420068269
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Until recently, innate immunity was regarded as a relatively nonspecific system designed to engulf and destroy pathogens. However, new studies show that the innate immune system is highly developed in its ability to discriminate between self and foreign entities. Understanding this mechanism can lead to therapeutic strategies based on manipulation of this previously unexploited branch of the immune system. Drawing on the research of leading experts, Nucleic Acids in Innate Immunity provides insight in this new area of immunology. The book begins by explaining the roles of nucleic acids in immunity, describing the mechanism of discrimination based on pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), including Toll-like receptors (TLRs), Nod-like receptors (NLR), and RIG-I-like receptors (RLR). Chapters discuss how these PRRs recognize and respond to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by activating specific signaling pathways. The second section focuses on the therapeutic applications of immunomodulatory DNA by manipulating released pathogenic nucleic acids as immune system stimulants. The book introduces novel therapeutics developed to prevent or treat infectious diseases, allergic disorders, and cancer, as well as clearing unnecessary or abnormal host molecules. The final section addresses how the immune system discriminates self and non-self RNA. Recent findings that host (self) nucleic acids are not inert in the immune system beg the question of exactly what elements within DNA or RNA are recognized by the innate immune system. Contributions review recent advances to understand innate immune recognition of nucleic acids and describe the resulting immune modulation. Providing a comprehensive review of nucleic acid recognition and regulation by the innate immune system, this seminal work reveals new directions for future research in immune modulation.

The Innate Immune Response to Noninfectious Stressors

The Innate Immune Response to Noninfectious Stressors Book
Author : Massimo Amadori
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-02-23
ISBN : 0128019743
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Innate Immune Response to Non-infectious Stressors: Human and Animal Models highlights fundamental mechanisms of stress response and important findings on how the immune system is affected, and in turn affects such a response. In addition, this book covers the crucial link between stress response and energy metabolism, prompts a re-appraisal of some crucial issues, and helps to define research priorities in this fascinating, somehow elusive field of investigation. Provides insights into the fundamental homeostatic processes vis-à-vis stressors to help in investigation Illustrates the depicted tenets and how to offset them against established models of response to physical and psychotic stressors in both animals and humans Covers the crucial issue of the immune response to endocrine disruptors Includes immunological parameters as reporter system of environmental adaptation Provides many illustrative examples to foster reader understanding

Innate Immunity

Innate Immunity Book
Author : R. Alan B. Ezekowitz,Jules A. Hoffmann
Publisher : Humana
Release : 2012-08-08
ISBN : 9781468497465
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The concept of innate immunity refers to the first-line host defense that serves to limit infection in the early hours after exposure to microorganisms. Recent data have highlighted similarities between pathogen recognition, signaling pathways, and effector mechanisms of innate immunity in Drosophila and mammals, pointing to a common ancestry of these defenses. In addition to its role in the early phase of defense, innate immunity in mammals appears to playa key role in stimulating the subsequent clonal response of adaptive immunity. Recent exciting information has determined that the templates that are laid down in primitive life forms, like flowering plants and insects, form the basic principles of first line host defense that are conserved in mammalian systems. The next frontier in the field is to understand the dynamic adaptive changes that occur as a result of the inter play between host defenses and infectious agents. One emerging theme is that microorganisms are constantly seeking ways to co-opt host defenses. On the other hand, host defense to infection is mediated by the coordinate action of pattern recognition molecules and receptors that, in mammals, are important and probably necessary antecedents to the development of an adaptive immune response. Innate Immunity aims to explore the intersection between host pathogen interactions across an evolutionary spectrum that will inform our understanding of the dynamic interplay between infectious agents and host defense in man.

Experimental Approaches For The Investigation Of Innate Immunity The Human Innate Immunity Handbook

Experimental Approaches For The Investigation Of Innate Immunity  The Human Innate Immunity Handbook Book
Author : Richard Bucala,Ruth R Montgomery
Publisher : World Scientific
Release : 2016-01-15
ISBN : 9814678740
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The recent explosion of information in innate immune pathways for recognition, effect or responses, and genetic regulation has given impetus to investigations into analogous pathways in the human immune response, which in turn has produced attendant insights into both normal physiology and immunopathology. This volume presents a compendium of methods and protocols for the investigation of human innate immunity with application to the study of normal immune function, immunosenescence, autoimmunity and infectious diseases. Among the topics covered are quantitative flow cytometry for Toll-like receptor expression and function; multidimensional single cell mass cytometry (CyTOF) in complex immune interactions and tumor immunity; imaging techniques such as Imagestream high resolution microscopy coupled to flow cytometry, immune cell infiltration of organotypic, biomimetic organs; high-throughput single cell secretion profiling; multiplexed transcriptomic profiling; microsatellite and microRNA methodologies, RNA interference; and the latest bioinformatics and biostatistical methodologies, including in-depth statistical modeling, genetic mapping, and systems approaches.

The Biology and Pathology of Innate Immunity Mechanisms

The Biology and Pathology of Innate Immunity Mechanisms Book
Author : Yona Keisari,Itzhak Ofek
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2000-06-30
ISBN : 0306464098
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In recent years increased scientific attention has been given to immediate defense mechanisms based on non-clonal recognition of microbial components. These mechanisms constitute the innate immunity arm of the body s defense. Identification of pathogens by these mechanisms involves primarily receptors recognizing sugar moieties of various microorganisms. Innate immunity based mechanisms are essential for the existence of multicellular organisms. They are evolutionarily conserved and designed to provide immediate protection against microbial pathogens to eradicate infection. Activation of innate immunity is crucial for transition to specific immunity and for its orientation, and to assist the specific immune response in the recognition of pathogens and their destruction. Innate immunity is regularly involved in the arrest of bacterial, mycotic, viral and parasitic infections, giving the specific immune response time to become effective. It becomes critically essential in immunocompromised patients who fail to mount specific immune responses due to congenital or acquired immunodeficiencies as a result of chemotherapy, dialysis, immunosuppressive drugs, or HIV infection. The Innate Immunity arsenal constitutes polymorphonuclear and mononuclear phagocytes, mast cells, the complement system, Natural Killer cells, antimicrobial peptides, and presumably a subset of T lymphocytes with TCRl receptors.

The Innate Immune System

The Innate Immune System Book
Author : Tom Monie
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2017-02-16
ISBN : 0081007582
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Innate Immune System: A Compositional and Functional Perspective focuses on the components and functionality of the innate immune system, detailing how they work in their own right, and then progressing to cover their relevance to disease and how they interface with the adaptive response. Despite the growing appreciation of the importance of the innate immune system, many classical immunology books still focus predominantly on the adaptive immune response. Not only is this unbalanced, but it fails to reflect the growing synergy between the activation and function of the innate response and the final nature of adaptive response. This book fills the gap in knowledge that is needed to fully understand and appreciate the topic. Provides a clear, but simple picture of the main principle of innate immunity and the interlink with adaptive responses Fulfills an unmet need in the area of innate immunity Gives a constructive and progressive approach to introducing and explaining the key players in the innate immune response Introduces and explains the key players in the innate immune response with a constructive and progressive approach Presents the components of the innate response and shows how these interrelated areas connect with one another from a functional perspective Enables the reader to gradually increase their level of understanding and knowledge without the risk of becoming confused, thereby ensuring they fully comprehend the integrated signaling pathways

From Innate Immunity to Immunological Memory

From Innate Immunity to Immunological Memory Book
Author : Bali Pulendran,Rafi Ahmed
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2010-11-22
ISBN : 9783642069086
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The ability to remember an antigenic encounter for several decades, even for a life time, is one of the fundamental properties of the immune system. This book assembles a collection of essays from leading experts that span the entire spectrum of immunological research, from understanding the molecular mechanisms of innate immune recognition, to dendritic cell function, to the generation and maintenance of antigen-specific B and T-cell responses.

Antibody Fc

Antibody Fc  Book
Author : Margaret Ackerman,Falk Nimmerjahn
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2013-08-06
ISBN : 0123948185
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Antibody Fc is the first single text to synthesize the literature on the mechanisms underlying the dramatic variability of antibodies to influence the immune response. The book demonstrates the importance of the Fc domain, including protective mechanisms, effector cell types, genetic data, and variability in Fc domain function. This volume is a critical single-source reference for researchers in vaccine discovery, immunologists, microbiologists, oncologists and protein engineers as well as graduate students in immunology and vaccinology. Antibodies represent the correlate of protection for numerous vaccines and are the most rapidly growing class of drugs, with applications ranging from cancer and infectious disease to autoimmunity. Researchers have long understood the variable domain of antibodies, which are responsible for antigen recognition, and can provide protection by blocking the function of their target antigen. However, recent developments in our understanding of the protection mediated by antibodies have highlighted the critical nature of the antibody constant, or Fc domain, in the biological activity of antibodies. The Fc domain allows antibodies to link the adaptive and innate immune systems, providing specificity to a wide range of innate effector cells. In addition, they provide a feedback loop to regulate the character of the immune response via interactions with B cells and antigen-presenting cells. Clarifies the different mechanisms of IgG activity at the level of the different model systems used, including human genetic, mouse, and in vitro Covers the role of antibodies in cancer, infectious disease, and autoimmunity and in the setting of monoclonal antibody therapy as well as naturally raised antibodies Color illustrations enhance explanations of the immune system

Plant Hormone Signaling Systems in Plant Innate Immunity

Plant Hormone Signaling Systems in Plant Innate Immunity Book
Author : P. Vidhyasekaran
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2014-10-01
ISBN : 9401792852
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Plants are endowed with innate immune system, which acts as a surveillance system against possible attack by pathogens. Plant innate immune systems have high potential to fight against viral, bacterial, oomycete and fungal pathogens and protect the crop plants against wide range of diseases. However, the innate immune system is a sleeping system in unstressed healthy plants. Fast and strong activation of the plant immune responses aids the host plants to win the war against the pathogens. Plant hormone signaling systems including salicylate (SA), jasmonate (JA), ethylene (ET), abscisic acid (ABA), auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins and brassinosteroids signaling systems play a key role in activation of the sleeping immune systems. Suppression or induction of specific hormone signaling systems may result in disease development or disease resistance. Specific signaling pathway has to be activated to confer resistance against specific pathogen in a particular host. Two forms of induced resistance, systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and induced systemic resistance (ISR), have been recognized based on the induction of specific hormone signaling systems. Specific hormone signaling system determines the outcome of plant-pathogen interactions, culminating in disease development or disease resistance. Susceptibility or resistance against a particular pathogen is determined by the action of the signaling network. The disease outcome is often determined by complex network of interactions among multiple hormone signaling pathways. Manipulation of the complex hormone signaling systems and fine tuning the hormone signaling events would help in management of various crop diseases. The purpose of the book is to critically examine the potential methods to manipulate the multiple plant hormone signaling systems to aid the host plants to win the battle against pathogens.

Innate Immunity to Pulmonary Infection

Innate Immunity to Pulmonary Infection Book
Author : Derek J. Chadwick,Jamie A. Goode
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2007-01-11
ISBN : 0470035382
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Part of the prestigious Novartis Foundation series, this volume uniquely addresses the use of innate immunity to treat or prevent infectious diseases of the lung. Innate Immunity to Pulmonary Infection: Provides a comprehensive overview of pulmonary infectious diseases, including basic pathology, current and potential therapies, and detailed consideration of the innate biological resistance mechanisms in the lung Thoroughly examines the major topic of innate immunity in immunology, which is now seen as key to the pathogenesis of and vaccination strategies for infectious diseases Describes the genetic and environmental factors which determine the outcome of infection, such as latency of Tuberculosis, blood stream invasion from local infection, and local target tissue damage Covers the roles of cells such as neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells and of molecular components such as Toll-like receptors Discusses the clinical applications of the new knowledge regarding innate immunity and how this can be used in both treatment and prevention (vaccination) strategies Includes contributions from an international and interdisciplinary group of experts Innate Immunity to Pulmonary Infection is an essential resource for researchers in both industry and academia. It is of interest for all those interested in the disciplines of immunology, virology, biology, biotechnology and genetics.

Plant Innate Immunity

Plant Innate Immunity Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2009-09-16
ISBN : 9780080888798
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Plant innate immunity is a collective term to describe a complex of interconnected mechanisms that plants use to withstand potential pathogens and herbivores. The last decade has seen a rapid advance in our understanding of the induction, signal transduction and expression of resistance responses to oomycetes, fungi, bacteria, viruses, nematodes and insects. This volume aims at providing an overview of these processes and mechanisms. Edited by Jean-Claude Kader and Michel Delseny and supported by an international Editorial Board, Advances in Botanical Research publishes in-depth and up-to-date reviews on a wide range of topics in plant sciences. * Multidisciplinary reviews written from a broad range of scientific perspectives * For over 40 years, series has enjoyed a reputation for excellence * Contributors internationally recognized authorities in their respective fields

PAMP Signals in Plant Innate Immunity

PAMP Signals in Plant Innate Immunity Book
Author : P. Vidhyasekaran
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-10-30
ISBN : 9400774265
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Plant innate immunity is a potential surveillance system of plants and is the first line of defense against invading pathogens. The immune system is a sleeping system in unstressed healthy plants and is activated on perception of the pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP; the pathogen’s signature) of invading pathogens. The PAMP alarm/danger signals are perceived by plant pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). The plant immune system uses several second messengers to encode information generated by the PAMPs and deliver the information downstream of PRRs to proteins which decode/interpret signals and initiate defense gene expression. This book describes the most fascinating PAMP-PRR signaling complex and signal transduction systems. It also discusses the highly complex networks of signaling pathways involved in transmission of the signals to induce distinctly different defense-related genes to mount offence against pathogens.