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Inflammation And Neurodegeneration In Mouse Nervous System

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Inflammation and Neurodegeneration in Mouse Nervous System

Inflammation and Neurodegeneration in Mouse Nervous System Book
Author : Rui-Sheng Duan
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2006
ISBN : 9789171406064
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Inflammation and Neurodegeneration in Mouse Nervous System book written by Rui-Sheng Duan, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Neuroinflammation and CNS Disorders

Neuroinflammation and CNS Disorders Book
Author : Nicola Woodroofe,Sandra Amor
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2014-04-15
ISBN : 1118406540
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The last decade has seen an upsurge of information on the role of immune responses in neurodegenerative disorders. In many of these diseases it is still unclear whether the innate and adaptive responses are pathogenic or play a role in repair, and thus understanding their precise roles is key to controlling these diseases by designing immune-therapeutic approaches. The connection between many neurological diseases is the realisation that the immune and nervous systems are inextricable linked, and that perturbations in this delicate balance are involved in many disorders. This has opened up new avenues for therapeutic approaches to treatment of CNS inflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders. Neuroinflammation and CNS Disorders brings together the very latest information on the interactions between the immune system and central nervous system. The first section of the book highlights the basic concepts in the field whilst the second section, the main body of the book, covers the role of the immune response in specific disorders of the central nervous system. Neuroinflammation and CNS Disorders will provide an invaluable guide for both researchers and clinicians working in this complex and dynamic field.

Neuroinflammation and Neurodegeneration

Neuroinflammation and Neurodegeneration Book
Author : Phillip K. Peterson,Michal Toborek
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2014-07-08
ISBN : 149391071X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

State of the art reviews by experts in the fields of neuroscience, immunology, microbiology/infectious diseases and pharmacology addressing the convergence of the immune system (neuroinflammation) and the loss of neurons (neurodegeneration). Many of the diseases that are discussed in the book are of epidemic proportion, e.g., Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, stroke, viral encephalitides and substance abuse. In addition to discussions of the involvement of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in these disorders, scientific reviews are presented on the cells and mediators that participate in defense of and damage to the nervous system. With rare exception, no or inadequate treatment exists for the diseases discussed in this book. An underlying premise of the book is that understanding of their shared pathogenic mechanisms will lead to improved therapies. Given the rapid evolution of the field of Neuroimmune Pharmacology, readers will find this book to be the most timely and authoritative reference on the subject of each of its chapters.

Peripheral Immunity in Parkinson s Disease Emerging Role and Novel Target for Therapeutics

Peripheral Immunity in Parkinson s Disease  Emerging Role and Novel Target for Therapeutics Book
Author : Cristoforo Comi,Marco Cosentino,Rodrigo Pacheco
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2019-12-23
ISBN : 2889632857
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Peripheral Immunity in Parkinson s Disease Emerging Role and Novel Target for Therapeutics book written by Cristoforo Comi,Marco Cosentino,Rodrigo Pacheco, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Microglia in Health and Disease

Microglia in Health and Disease Book
Author : Marie-Ève Tremblay,Amanda Sierra
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2014-09-22
ISBN : 1493914294
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

These past few years have witnessed a revolution in our understanding of microglia, especially since their roles in the healthy central nervous system (CNS) have started to unravel. These cells were shown to actively maintain health, in concert with neurons and other types of CNS cells, providing further insight into their involvement with diseases. Edited by two pioneers in the field, Marie-Ève Tremblay and Amanda Sierra, Microglia in health and disease aims to share with the broader scientific community some of the recent discoveries in microglia research, from a broad perspective, with a collection of 19 chapters from 52 specialists working in 11 countries across 5 continents. To set microglia on the stage, the book begins by explaining briefly who they are, what they do in the healthy and diseased CNS, and how they can be studied. The first section describes in more details their physiological roles in the maturation, function, and plasticity of the CNS, across development, adolescence, adulthood, neuropathic pain, addiction, and aging. The second section focuses on their implication in pathological conditions impairing the quality of life: neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders, AIDS, and multiple sclerosis; and in leading causes of death: ischemia and stroke, neurodegenerative diseases, as well as trauma and injury.

Glia and Inflammation in Neurodegenerative Disease

Glia and Inflammation in Neurodegenerative Disease Book
Author : M. A. Yenari,Rona Greenberg Giffard
Publisher : Nova Biomedical
Release : 2006
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The brain has long been considered an immune privileged organ, meaning that inflammatory cells are excluded due to a relatively impenetrable blood brain barrier (BBB). However, this is not to say that the central nervous system is incapable of eliciting immune responses, as resident inflammatory cells exist within the brain parenchyma. Microglia have long been thought to be the brain's resident immune cell with myeloid lineage similar to monocytes and macrophages. In this volume, the authors review the current state of knowledge with regard to immune responses and cell-cell interactions as they pertain to a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. The changing role of inflammation with development is considered. They also present a summary of the various therapeutic strategies employed both in the laboratory and at the clinical level.

Inflammation the Common Link in Brain Pathologies

Inflammation  the Common Link in Brain Pathologies Book
Author : Nihar Jana,Anirban Basu,Prakash Narain Tandon
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-08-13
ISBN : 9811017115
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This unifying theme of this book-with sections on mechanisms of defense and neuropathogenesis, neurological diseases, infections of the nervous system, neuropharmacology, and novel therapies-is interactions of the immune and nervous systems. It also discusses the role of inflammation as a key mediator of different brain disorders. There have been significant scientific advances in the multidisciplinary field of neuroimmunology / neuroinflammation in the past decade, and this book, edited under the guidance of Professor P. N. Tandon, fosters communication between those who share an interest in this exciting area, including neuroscientists, immunologists, cell biologists, clinicians and neuropharmacologists.

Neuroinflammation and Cognition

Neuroinflammation and Cognition Book
Author : Ashok Kumar,Brandi K Ormerod,Yogesh Dwivedi,Jakob W Streit
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2019-03-22
ISBN : 2889457605
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Aging is one of the major risk factors for the onset and progression of various neurodegenerative diseases. Neuroinflammation is a common feature of virtually every central nervous system disease, and is acknowledged as a likely mediator of cognitive impairments. Systemic inflammation levels are augmented with advanced age and neurodegeneration. The influence of age on neuroinflammatory responses including glial activation, increased production of proinflammatory cytokines, and aberrant neuronal signaling could magnify the deterioration of the central nervous system microenvironment in disease, and may contribute to enhanced cognitive impairment. This eBook is a collection of highly informative original research articles, providing comprehensive aspect of neuroinflammation and possible therapeutic interventions in rescuing cognitive impairments.

Nuclear Receptors as Molecular Targets for Cardiometabolic and Central Nervous System Diseases

Nuclear Receptors as Molecular Targets for Cardiometabolic and Central Nervous System Diseases Book
Author : J.L. Junien,B. Staels
Publisher : IOS Press
Release : 2008-07-16
ISBN : 1607503271
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nuclear receptors are a family of transcription factors consisting of 49 members identified in the human genome. Nuclear receptors regulate transcription by binding to response elements in the regulatory regions of target genes and thereby affect expression of genes involved in differentiation, growth, lipid homeostasis, inflammation and immunity. Over the past two decades significant advances have been made in the understanding of the regulation of gene expression by nuclear receptors. The knowledge on nuclear receptors has delivered novel therapies for lipid control and hormone replacement, and for management of cancer and diabetes. Therefore, nuclear receptors are attractive molecular targets for design of therapy for diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis, cancer, inflammation and neurodegeneration. The focus of this volume is centered on the mechanistic involvement of nuclear receptors in cardiological, metabolic and neurological disorders, on possible explanation of pathways involved in pathogenesis, on susceptibility to and prevention of metabolic and neurological disorders and on the aspects of drug finding including chemistry and rational drug design. This volume reviews recent progress on nuclear receptors critically and will intrigue those pursuing interest in physiology, pathology and medicine.

Proteases in the Brain

Proteases in the Brain Book
Author : Uwe Lendeckel,Nigel M Hooper
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2006-01-20
ISBN : 0387231013
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In all organs of the body, proteases have critical roles to play both in normal development and functioning and in disease states. The brain is no exception to this, with proteases having emerging roles in synaptic plasticity, memory, neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and prion diseases, ischemia and traumatic brain injury, inflammatory and infectious diseases, and tumor progression. Proteases in the Brain brings together a wide range of topics under this central theme and highlights the large number of proteases involved in these normal and disease processes. Proteases in the Brain reviews the role and regulation of proteases in, Alzheimer’s disease, brain ischemia and traumatic brain injury, human glioma, inflammatory and infectious diseases of the central nervous system, metabolism of the prion protein, modulating synaptic activity, multiple sclerosis, neuronal plasticity and memory consolidation, Parkinson’s disease, processing, conversion and inactivation of neuropeptides. Proteases in the Brain is a timely and useful source of information both for those well-versed in the role of proteases in the brain, and for those who are beginning to realize the important role of this family of enzymes in brain function and dysfunction.

Cytokines and the CNS

Cytokines and the CNS Book
Author : Richard M. Ransohoff,Etty N. Benveniste
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2005-10-31
ISBN : 1420039849
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Provides Insight into How Cytokine Action Impacts the Physiology and Pathology of the CNS. As with the first edition of Cytokines and the CNS, this completely updated and revised edition introduces neurobiologists to cytokine biology and immunologists to the unique functions of cytokines in CNS physiology. The dramatically accelerating interest in cytokines and cytokine/chemokine signaling over the past several years has encouraged an explosion of literature on cytokines. The similarity between factors involved in inflammation or immunity, and those implicated in neural development, physiology, and repair has become so apparent that familiarity with cytokines must now be considered an essential element in the neurobiologist’s cognitive tool-kit. Conversely, for immunobiologists, the concepts elaborated by neurobiologists to understand developmental patterning and networked organ function continue to evolve in such a way that comprehension of cytokine action in the CNS can only enhance a further understanding of immune system function. Cytokines and the CNS, Second Edition is patterned after the first edition; however, the wealth of knowledge now available adds a tremendous amount of insight and new implications. To guarantee a fresh perspective, the editors made a conscious choice to utilize an entirely new set of contributors, all experts in various aspects of cytokine research. Cytokines and the CNS, Second Edition starts with a chapter on the CNS, focusing on pathological reactions to insult. Next, come three chapters on cytokine biology, followed by four chapters that integrate cytokine biology into basic CNS processes (development; inflammation; immunity; degeneration/repair), after which five chapters apply this body of knowledge to disease or pathology. The book closes with a look at the application of cytokine biology to the treatment of disease, a brand new area of research.

Development of Humanized Mouse Models for Infectious Diseases and Cancer

Development of Humanized Mouse Models for Infectious Diseases and Cancer Book
Author : Moriya Tsuji,Ramesh Akkina
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2020-02-19
ISBN : 2889634817
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Development of Humanized Mouse Models for Infectious Diseases and Cancer book written by Moriya Tsuji,Ramesh Akkina, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Neural Immune Interactions in Brain Function and Alcohol Related Disorders

Neural Immune Interactions in Brain Function and Alcohol Related Disorders Book
Author : Changhai Cui,Lindsey Grandison,Antonio Noronha
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-11-14
ISBN : 1461447291
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Recent studies have provided clear evidence on the role of neural-immune interactions in normal brain function and neuropathological conditions. Neuroimmune factors, which play an essential role in neuroinflammatory response, have been implicated in the regulation of neuronal function and plasticity. Thus, neural-immune interactions provide a new frame work for understanding the role of the neuroimmune system in normal brain function, neurodevelopment, and a variety of neurological disorders. These advances have a far reaching impact on many areas of neuroscience, including alcohol research. Studies using human alcoholic brains, gene knockout mice, and gene expression profiling have established a clear link between alcoholism and an altered neuroimmune profile. This book integrates emerging knowledge on neural-immune interactions with key discoveries in alcohol research and provides a comprehensive overview of neural-immune interactions in brain function and behavior associated with alcohol use disorders. While Neural–Immune Interaction in Brain Function and Alcohol Related Disorders focuses on neural-immune interactions in areas directly related to alcohol use disorders, it is not intended to be all inclusive. Several areas, including sleep disorders, pain, and cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathways, are not covered as independent chapters but briefly mentioned in the text. The close relevance of these topics to neural-immune interactions and alcohol use disorders warrants future discussion and more research efforts.

Environmental Factors in Neurodegenerative Diseases

Environmental Factors in Neurodegenerative Diseases Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2017-09-19
ISBN : 0128127651
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Environmental Factors in Neurodegenerative Diseases, Volume One addresses contemporary advances in neurotoxicology, with thematic volumes providing authoritative review articles on key issues in the field. Updates in this new volume include chapters on Air pollution and neurodegenerative diseases, Mercury and Parkinson’s disease, Pesticides and PD: current evidence, Aluminum and neurodegeneration, Microglia and neurodegeneration, Dietary factors, Mitochondria in neurodegeneration, and Manganese and neurodegeneration. Edited by leading experts, volumes are designed as in-depth overviews of the latest topic developments that analyze the effect of varied chemical agents on the nervous system. It is an essential resource for researchers and graduate students alike. Includes, in one single publication, a selection of comprehensive reviews devoted to neurotoxicology Edited by high-profile, leading academics in the field, ensuring a quality publication for subscribers Aims to widen the scope for participation by international contributors, researchers and editorial board members outside North America Serves a broad audience of university faculty, researchers and students, as well as the industry, drug development companies and the government

Microglial Polarization in the Pathogenesis and Therapeutics of Neurodegenerative Diseases

Microglial Polarization in the Pathogenesis and Therapeutics of Neurodegenerative Diseases Book
Author : Yu Tang,Isidre Ferrer
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2022-01-26
ISBN : 2889455254
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation is one of the shared prominent hallmarks among various forms of neurodegeneration. Depending on the milieu in which microglia become activated, the polarization of microglia shows to be heterogeneous with diverse functional phenotypes that range from pro-inflammatory phenotypes to immunosuppressive phenotypes. Therefore, targeting microglial polarization holds great promise for the treatment of neurodegeneration. This eBook focuses on the potential mechanisms of microglial polarization that are critically associated with a broad spectrum of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease (PD), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington’s disease (HD), Traumatic brain injury (TBI), glaucomatous neurodegeneration and prion diseases. This topic also involves the therapeutic targeting of microglial polarization by nutritional and pharmacological modulators. Moreover, this topic describes advanced technologies employed for studying microglia. Age-related changes in microglia functions are also discussed. Overall, this eBook provides comprehensive understandings of microglial polarization in the course of neurodegeneration, linking with aging-related microglial alterations and technologies developed for microglial studies. Hopefully, it will also give comprehensive insights into various aspects of therapeutic treatment for neurodegeneration, through targeting microglial polarization.

Central Nervous System Diseases and Inflammation

Central Nervous System Diseases and Inflammation Book
Author : Thomas E. Lane,Monica Carson,Conni Bergmann,Tony Wyss-Coray
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-12-24
ISBN : 0387738940
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Edited and authored by top names in the field, this book provides a succinct reference on inflammatory central nervous system disease. It focuses on current areas of investigation in the fields of neuroimmunology, virology, pharmacology, and disease. Sections focus on specific categories of diseases, examining the pharmacological, virological, and immunological effects of and on the disease. This book’s unique organization provides a concise overview of inflammatory CNS disease.

Neuroinflammation

Neuroinflammation Book
Author : Samuel David
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2015-03-10
ISBN : 1118732774
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Neuroinflammation has long been studied for its connection to the development and progression of Multiple Sclerosis. In recent years, the field has expanded to look at the role of inflammatory processes in a wide range of neurological conditions and cognitive disorders including stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and autism. Researchers have also started to note the beneficial impacts of neuroinflammation in certain diseases. Neuroinflammation: New Insights into Beneficial and Detrimental Functions provides a comprehensive view of both the detriments and benefits of neuroinflammation in human health. Neuroinflammation: New Insights into Beneficial and Detrimental Functions opens with two chapters that look at some fundamental aspects of neuroinflammation in humans and rodents. The remainder of the book is divided into two sections which examine both the detrimental and beneficial aspects of inflammation on the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves, on various disease states, and in normal aging. These sections provide a broad picture of the role neuroinflammation plays in the physiology and pathology of various neurological disorders. Providing cross-disciplinary coverage, Neuroinflammation: New Insights into Beneficial and Detrimental Functions will be an essential volume for neuroimmunologists, neurobiologists, neurologists, and others interested in the field. neurobiologists, neurologists, and others interested in the field.Neuroinflammation has long been studied for its connection to the development andprogression of Multiple Sclerosis. In recent years, the field has expanded to look at therole of inflammatory processes in a wide range of neurological conditions and cognitivedisorders including stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and autism. Researchers havealso started to note the beneficial impacts of neuroinflammation in certain diseases.Neuroinflammation: New Insights into Beneficial and Detrimental Functions provides acomprehensive view of both the detriments and benefits of neuroinflammation inhuman health.Neuroinflammation: New Insights into Beneficial and Detrimental Functionsopens with two chapters that look at some fundamental aspects of neuroinflammationin humans and rodents. The remainder of the book is divided into two sections whichexamine both the detrimental and beneficial aspects of inflammation on the brain, spinalcord and peripheral nerves, on various disease states, and in normal aging. Thesesections provide a broad picture of the role neuroinflammation plays in the physiologyand pathology of various neurological disorders.Providing cross-disciplinary coverage, Neuroinflammation: New Insights into Beneficialand Detrimental Functions will be an essential volume for neuroimmunologists,neurobiologists, neurologists, and others interested in the field.Neuroinflammation has long been studied for its connection to the development andprogression of Multiple Sclerosis. In recent years, the field has expanded to look at therole of inflammatory processes in a wide range of neurological conditions and cognitivedisorders including stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and autism. Researchers havealso started to note the beneficial impacts of neuroinflammation in certain diseases.Neuroinflammation: New Insights into Beneficial and Detrimental Functions provides acomprehensive view of both the detriments and benefits of neuroinflammation inhuman health.Neuroinflammation: New Insights into Beneficial and Detrimental Functionsopens with two chapters that look at some fundamental aspects of neuroinflammationin humans and rodents. The remainder of the book is divided into two sections whichexamine both the detrimental and beneficial aspects of inflammation on the brain, spinalcord and peripheral nerves, on various disease states, and in normal aging. Thesesections provide a broad picture of the role neuroinflammation plays in the physiologyand pathology of various neurological disorders.Providing cross-disciplinary coverage, Neuroinflammation: New Insights into Beneficialand Detrimental Functions will be an essential volume for neuroimmunologists,neurobiologists, neurologists, and others interested in the field.Neuroinflammation has long been studied for its connection to the development andprogression of Multiple Sclerosis. In recent years, the field has expanded to look at therole of inflammatory processes in a wide range of neurological conditions and cognitivedisorders including stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and autism. Researchers havealso started to note the beneficial impacts of neuroinflammation in certain diseases.Neuroinflammation: New Insights into Beneficial and Detrimental Functions provides acomprehensive view of both the detriments and benefits of neuroinflammation inhuman health.Neuroinflammation: New Insights into Beneficial and Detrimental Functionsopens with two chapters that look at some fundamental aspects of neuroinflammationin humans and rodents. The remainder of the book is divided into two sections whichexamine both the detrimental and beneficial aspects of inflammation on the brain, spinalcord and peripheral nerves, on various disease states, and in normal aging. Thesesections provide a broad picture of the role neuroinflammation plays in the physiologyand pathology of various neurological disorders.Providing cross-disciplinary coverage, Neuroinflammation: New Insights into Beneficialand Detrimental Functions will be an essential volume for neuroimmunologists,neurobiologists, neurologists, and others interested in the field.Neuroinflammation has long been studied for its connection to the development andprogression of Multiple Sclerosis. In recent years, the field has expanded to look at therole of inflammatory processes in a wide range of neurological conditions and cognitivedisorders including stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and autism. Researchers havealso started to note the beneficial impacts of neuroinflammation in certain diseases.Neuroinflammation: New Insights into Beneficial and Detrimental Functions provides acomprehensive view of both the detriments and benefits of neuroinflammation inhuman health.Neuroinflammation: New Insights into Beneficial and Detrimental Functionsopens with two chapters that look at some fundamental aspects of neuroinflammationin humans and rodents. The remainder of the book is divided into two sections whichexamine both the detrimental and beneficial aspects of inflammation on the brain, spinalcord and peripheral nerves, on various disease states, and in normal aging. Thesesections provide a broad picture of the role neuroinflammation plays in the physiologyand pathology of various neurological disorders.Providing cross-disciplinary coverage, Neuroinflammation: New Insights into Beneficialand Detrimental Functions will be an essential volume for neuroimmunologists,neurobiologists, neurologists, and others interested in the field.Neuroinflammation has long been studied for its connection to the development andprogression of Multiple Sclerosis. In recent years, the field has expanded to look at therole of inflammatory processes in a wide range of neurological conditions and cognitivedisorders including stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and autism. Researchers havealso started to note the beneficial impacts of neuroinflammation in certain diseases.Neuroinflammation: New Insights into Beneficial and Detrimental Functions provides acomprehensive view of both the detriments and benefits of neuroinflammation inhuman health.Neuroinflammation: New Insights into Beneficial and Detrimental Functionsopens with two

Innate Immune Responses in CNS Inflammation

Innate Immune Responses in CNS Inflammation Book
Author : Mireia Guerau-de-Arellano,David Pitt,Astrid E. Cardona
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2021-11-30
ISBN : 2889717429
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Innate Immune Responses in CNS Inflammation book written by Mireia Guerau-de-Arellano,David Pitt,Astrid E. Cardona, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Understanding Progressive CNS Autoimmunity Using Transgenic Mouse Models

Understanding Progressive CNS Autoimmunity Using Transgenic Mouse Models Book
Author : Prenitha Mercy Ignatius Arokia Doss
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2019
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) marked by neurodegeneration and accumulating disability over time. Over 100,000 people in Canada are affected by MS. Multiple factors could contribute to the worsening of the disease and yet the exact cause is still unknown. It is widely accepted that T and B lymphocytes cross the blood-brain barrier and invoke an inflammatory attack against CNS myelin. The role of T and B cells in CNS autoimmunity can be studied using an animal model called experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In the first part of this thesis, I have used a transgenic mouse on a non-obese diabetic (NOD) background called 1C6 whose T cells possess specificity for a myelin-derived peptide, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55 (MOG[35-55]). 1C6 CD4+ T cells from both male and female mice are differentiated into Th17 cells and are adoptively transferred into lymphocyte deficient NOD.Scid mice. Male 1C6 Th17 cells became highly pathogenic compared to the females and induced a severe progressive disease in the recipients. Th17 cells from both sexes exhibited phenotypic plasticity as measured by their expression of the classic Th1 cytokine IFN-©. However, male Th17 display increased production of IFN-© by male Th17 cells and this is correlated with disease severity in recipient mice. The use of four core genotype model has allowed us to segregate the effect of sex hormones and sex chromosomes in EAE. We uncovered an immune regulatory gene in the X chromosome called Jarid1c is found to be downregulated in both male Th17 cells that caused greater severity as well as in CD4+ T cells from the peripheral blood of men with MS. In the second part of the thesis, I utilized a transgenic mouse called IgH[MOG] on a NOD background whose B cells are specific for MOG protein. Upon immunization with MOG[35-55], IgH[MOG] mice displayed a rapid and lethal EAE, which is correlated to the inflammation and demyelination in the CNS of these mice. This is accompanied by the infiltration of B cells and T cells into the CNS. In IgH[MOG] mice, CNSinfiltrating CD4+ T cells became highly proinflammatory as measured by their production of IL-17 and GM-CSF in the CNS. Hence, our data provide insight into the contributions of Th17 T cell responses, male sex and B cells in chronic CNS autoimmunity. In the future, this work may permit us to identify targetable molecules and pathways for the treatment of MS.

Neurodegeneration From Genetics to Molecules

Neurodegeneration  From Genetics to Molecules Book
Author : Victoria Campos-Peña,Marco Antonio Meraz-Ríos,Rosalinda Guevara-Guzmán,Karla Guadalupe Carvajal
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2016-11-15
ISBN : 2889450201
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Chronic degenerative diseases are one of the major public health problems, particularly those affecting the nervous system. They are characterized by the degeneration of specific cell populations that include several pathologies which contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality in the elderly population. Therefore, in recent years, the study of neuroscience has gained significant importance. Most of these neurodegenerative disorders are the result of a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors that generate progression and can even determine its severity. The presence of mutations in genes as LRRK2, SNCA, PARK7, PARK2 or PINK1 is associated with Parkinson's disease. Mutations in genes such as APP, PS1 and PS2 are associated with familial Alzheimer's disease; while HTT gene mutations are the cause of Huntington's disease. In most cases, this condition is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, which means one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder. It is known that these mutations can also alter the proteins function; however, it has not yet been possible to fully understand how some genetic changes cause the disease or influence the risk of developing these disorders. Most symptoms seen in these conditions occurs when specific nerve cells are damaged or die generating a loss in brain communication. Also many of these mutations generate aggregation of intracellular or extracellular proteins affecting cell function and eventually causing neuronal death. It is unclear whether the presence of these aggregates play an important role in nerve cell death during the development of neurodegenerative diseases, or if they are simply part of the response of cells to the disease. Other mutations affect the mitochondrial function generating alterations in energy production and promoting the formation of unstable molecules such as free radicals. Under normal conditions, the harmful effects caused by free radicals, are offset within the cell. However, in pathological conditions, the presence of mutations can alter this process by allowing the accumulation of radicals and damaging or killing cells. On the other hand, we also know that these diseases may not have a direct genetic component, thus, the study of sporadic type neurodegenerative diseases is much more complex. Histopathological lesions as well as the cellular and molecular alterations are generally indistinguishable from familial cases. For this reason, it is important to understand the genetic and molecular mechanisms associated with this type of pathologies. In this sense, this issue aims to understand the molecular processes that occur in the brain, and how these are influenced by the environment, genetics and behavior.