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Inflammation And Immunity In Depression

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Inflammation and Immunity in Depression

Inflammation and Immunity in Depression Book
Author : Bernhard Baune
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2018-05-23
ISBN : 0128110740
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Inflammation and Immunity in Depression: Basic Science and Clinical Applications is the first book to move beyond the established theory of cytokine-induced depression and explore the broader role the immune system plays in this devastating mood disorder. The book fully explores the most recent lines of research into this rapidly advancing field, including alterations of T-cells, the neurobiological implications of neuroinflammation and immune alterations for brain development and function, and the genetic components of neuroinflammation in depression, including the relationships between stress and inflammation that are revealing gene-environment interactions in the disorder. Combining contributions from researchers worldwide, this book provides the most comprehensive discussion available today on the involvement of the innate immune and adaptive immune systems in depressive disorder. Chapters span neuroscience, psychology, clinical applications and future directions, making this book an invaluable resource for advanced students, researchers and practitioners who need to understand the complex and varied role of inflammation and immune responses in depression. Synthesizes current knowledge of inflammation and immunity in depression, ranging from basic neuroscience research, to clinical applications in psychiatry Expands on the long-established theory of cytokine-induced depression to discuss broader involvement of the immune system Explores translational potential of targeting immune dysfunction for clinical interventions

The Inflamed Mind

The Inflamed Mind Book
Author : Edward Bullmore
Publisher : Hachette UK
Release : 2019-01-03
ISBN : 1780723512
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Depression will be the single biggest cause of disability worldwide, in the next 20 years. But treatment for it has not changed much in the last three decades. In the realm of psychiatry, time has apparently stood still... until now.In this game-changing book, Professor Edward Bullmore reveals the breakthrough new science on the link between mental depression and physical inflammation. He explains how and why mental disorders can have their roots in the immune system and explores a whole new way of looking at how mind, brain and body all work together in a sometimes misguided effort to help us survive in a hostile world.

Cytokines Stress and Depression

Cytokines  Stress  and Depression Book
Author : Robert Dantzer,Emmanuelle E. Wollmann,Raz Yirmiya
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2013-03-23
ISBN : 9781475786101
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cytokines had been characterized in the early eighties as communication mole cules between immune cells, and between immunocytes and other peripheral cells, such as fibroblasts and endothelial cells. They play a key role in the regulation of the immune response and the coordination of the host response to infection. Based on these biological properties, nobody would have predicted that one decade later cytokines would burst upon neurosciences and permeate into several avenues of current research. In neurology, the connection between cytokines and inflammation, and the demonstration of a pivotal role of some of these molecules in cell death by apoptosis, prompted the investigation of their involvement in several neurological diseases involving an inflammatory component, including multiple sclerosis, brain trauma, stroke, and Alzheimer's disease. This movement started in the late eighties, and the corresponding field of research, known as neuroimmunology, is presently booming. In psychiatry, however, the relationship between cytokines and mental disorders was much less evident and took longer to materialize. The first indication that cytokines might be involved in psychopathology came from cancerology and internal medicine.

The Immune System and Mental Health

The Immune System and Mental Health Book
Author : Hymie Anisman,Shawn Hayley,Alexander Kusnecov
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2018-07-19
ISBN : 0128113529
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Immune System and Mental Health fully investigates how immune-related cellular, molecular and anatomical changes impact mental functioning. The book combines human and animal studies to reveal immunological changes related to mental-health problems. In addition, users will find comprehensive information on new research related to the microbial composition of the gut, aka, the microbiome, and how it influences brain function and mental health. Common comorbidities with mental illness and their inherent immunological or inflammatory components are also covered. Written by leaders in the field, the book synthesizes basic and clinical research to provide a thorough understanding on the role of immunity in neuropsychiatry. Sociology, psychology, psychiatry, neuroscience and genetics have provided considerable explanations and solutions to some of the most intractable mental-health problems. But researchers are increasingly relying on investigations of the immune system to identify factors that can undermine and impair mental health. This book covers devastating mental-health conditions, such as depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and autism-like spectrum disorders. In addition, degenerative disorders of the brain, such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s-like dementia are explored. Considers both basic human and animal studies that address immunological changes relating to mental health problems across the lifespan Incorporates techniques, concepts and ideas from a variety of social, behavioral and life sciences Explores the relatively new area of the microbiome and how the microbial composition of the gut influences brain function and mental health

Inflammation Associated Depression Evidence Mechanisms and Implications

Inflammation Associated Depression  Evidence  Mechanisms and Implications Book
Author : Robert Dantzer,Lucile Capuron
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-12-28
ISBN : 3319511521
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Inflammation has invaded the field of psychiatry. The finding that cytokines are elevated in various affective and psychotic disorders brings to the forefront the necessity of identifying the precise research domain criteria (RDoCs) that inflammation is responsible for. This task is certainly the most advanced in major depressive disorders. The reason is that a dearth of clinical and preclinical studies has demonstrated that inflammation can cause symptoms of depression and conversely, cytokine antagonists can attenuate symptoms of depression in medical and psychiatric patients with chronic low grade inflammation. Important knowledge has been gained on the symptom dimensions that inflammation is driving and the mechanisms of action of cytokines in the brain, providing new targets for drug research and development. The aim of the book “Inflammation-Associated Depression” is to present this field of research and its implications in a didactic and comprehensive manner to basic and clinical scientists, psychiatrists, physicians, and students at the graduate level.

Immunopsychiatry

Immunopsychiatry Book
Author : Antonio L. Teixeira,Moises E. Bauer
Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
Release : 2019-01-18
ISBN : 0190884460
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In recent years, a dedicated effort has been made to understand the immune dysfunction that is associated with major psychiatric disorders. The expanding knowledge of the immune system as a major homeostatic system has been very helpful in indicating new potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets to reduce the burden of psychiatric disorders. Indeed, immune cells, their secreted molecules, and cell signalling events are highly promising. Yet, the literature on immunology of psychiatric disorders is still dispersed, and only a few attempts have been made to consolidate the current knowledge in this expanding area. This book assembles and presents the available data on the immune/inflammatory dysfunction in psychiatric disorders, indicating the potential of immune mechanisms as either biomarkers or therapeutic targets, as well as discussing the challenges ahead of incorporating this knowledge into clinical practice. An international team of senior experts in the field review all psychiatric disorders in order to provide an integrated, in-depth understanding of the role of immune changes in psychiatric diseases for mental health clinicians as well as for researchers in immunology, psychiatry, neurology, and pharmacology.

Inflammation in Psychiatry

Inflammation in Psychiatry Book
Author : A. Halaris,B.E. Leonard
Publisher : Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers
Release : 2013-02-27
ISBN : 3318023116
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Psychoimmunology is a rapidly maturing area of scientific endeavor that provides a compelling integrative link between the immune system and its response to stress and psychiatric illness. Stress initiates pathological changes by activating the immune and endocrine systems. Inflammation is at the core of the complex and interactive systems that both contribute to and result from psychopathology. Consequently, inflammation research advances our knowledge of the pathology of depression, schizophrenia, chronic fatigue syndrome, posttraumatic stress disorder and a host of co-morbid conditions, notably diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cerebrovascular disease. The possible mechanisms underlying the bidirectionality of co-morbid medical and psychiatric disorders can be viewed as a consequence of inflammatory changes. These emerging novel concepts illustrate how the knowledge of inflammation can enable meaningful integration of psychopathology with physical co-morbidity. The innovative articles in this volume highlight the intricate link between psychiatry and psychoimmunology and underscore the central role of inflammation in furthering our understanding of the pathophysiology underlying mental health and illness.

Stress Depression Inflammation and Personalized Medicine

Stress  Depression  Inflammation  and Personalized Medicine Book
Author : Pharm Tao
Publisher : Lulu Press, Inc
Release : 2016-08-31
ISBN : 1329905768
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Psychological stress has been associated with higher levels of inflammation and the risks of many physical disorders including heart diseases. Inflammatory processes are the common complications of a wide range of diseases including diabetes and cancer. Inflammation can be enhanced by stress and depression, such as in the condition of troubled relationships. The emerging field of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) focuses on the interactions among the immune system, the central nervous system (CNS), and behavior. Both genetic and environmental factors can influence human personality and various mental problems including autism, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Gene-environment interactions may affect neural processing and play a critical role in individual differences in disease susceptibility. The identification of these factors can help with the development of strategies for more targeted care in personalized medicine.

Advances in Immunopharmacology

Advances in Immunopharmacology Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-06-05
ISBN : 0128235632
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Advances in Pharmacology, Volume 91, the latest release in this well-received series, presents the latest information in the field, with this update including chapters on Modulation of inflammation and immune response by the stress-activated transcription factor Nrf2, Therapeutic modulation of macrophage phenotype to treat acute and chronic liver diseases, Immodulation by cannabinoids, The use of nanomaterials to target immunity, Next generation in cancer immunotherapy, checkpoint inhibitors, Vaccines as a therapy for food allergy, Role of inflammation/immune system in depression, Therapeutic targeting of tumor-associated macrophages, Mast cells, and more. Includes the authority and expertise of leading contributors in pharmacology Presents the latest release in the Advances in Pharmacology series

The Role of Inflammation as a Novel Mechanism of Depression

The Role of Inflammation as a Novel Mechanism of Depression Book
Author : Abigail Friel
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a chronic illness with far-reaching effects. To date, the majority of research involving MDD has focused on adults affected by the disorder. However, the focus is shifting to adolescents, as they may offer critical insight into how depression develops. There are currently three primary theories on the cause of depression--the brain structure theory, the monoamine theory, and the inflammation theory. The brain structure theory describes how direct changes in the structure of the brain and certain systems related to brain function may precede the development of depression. The monoamine theory has historically been the predominant theory and attributes mood changes to deficits related to monoamine neurotransmitters--serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. The inflammatory theory is a newly-emerging theory that integrates multiple body systems in depression's etiology. The presence of chronic inflammation and the imbalance of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines have been proposed as a possible mechanism by which depression may develop. In this way, it ties in preceding theories and emphasizes the connections of all body systems and the influence they have on one another. The inflammatory theory does not solely implicate the immune system as the cause; in fact, an examination of the link between chronic inflammation and MDD only highlights the complex interaction of various contributors. It is for this reason that the immune system is becoming increasingly more important in the research of depression, especially in the adolescent population. By focusing on adolescents and immunological changes, future diagnosis and treatment of major depressive disorder may allow for earlier identification and intervention, allowing for better prognosis.

Depressive Behaviors and Inflammation in Preschool Aged Children

Depressive Behaviors and Inflammation in Preschool Aged Children Book
Author : Gillian R. Acedo
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2020
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Symptoms of depression, including sadness, irritability, loss of interest in activities, changes in sleep patterns, eating, and weight, and impairment in functioning, can emerge in early childhood and persist throughout the lifespan. However, distinguishing symptoms from typical behaviors of early childhood (e.g., sadness, irritability) is challenging. In addition to contributing to distress and impairment, depression is also associated negative physiological correlates. Psychosocial stressors such as depression can stimulate activation of immune responses. Specifically, people affected by depression experience longer healing times after injury, higher frequency of illness, and chronic inflammation. An association between chronic immune function dysregulation and depressive symptoms has been consistently found in research with adults, adolescents, and school-aged children. However, the relationship between depression and dysregulated inflammatory processes has not been investigated in young children. This study investigated an association between depressive behaviors and two inflammatory markers, interleukin 6 and interleukin 1 beta, in preschool-aged children. Measures included parent-report daily diaries to assess depressive behaviors and questionnaires to assess irritability, impairment, and health and sickness history in their children; laboratory-assessed negative emotionality (NA); and inflammatory markers measured via children’s saliva. It was hypothesized that higher levels of depressive behaviors, impairment, sickness, and negative emotionality would be associated with higher levels of inflammation in preschool-aged children. Additionally, this association was examined in exploratory analyses to identify the specific frequencies of depressive behaviors linked to inflammation. Results revealed no significant relations between depressive behaviors and inflammation, but found significant associations among chronic and acute sickness and depressive as well as demographic variables. Additionally, girls were more likely to experience acute illness than boys. No significant associations were found among other study variables. These findings suggest that the mechanism responsible for the association between depression and inflammation identified in older youth and adults may yet not be present or active in preschool-aged children. Future studies should continue to explore this association in young children as well as the acute immune response to depressive behaviors. These efforts can contribute to the broader goal of delineating typical, normative behaviors in early childhood from clinically significant behaviors to identify potential risk for the development of depression.

Immunology and Psychiatry

Immunology and Psychiatry Book
Author : Norbert Müller,Aye-Mu Myint,Markus J. Schwarz
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-04-20
ISBN : 331913602X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Psychiatric disorders are one of the most dramatic burdens for humankind. The role of immune dysfunction in the pathophysiology of these disorders has emerged during the last years, because there has been tremendous progress in psychoneuroimmunological research. Many results are presented here by pioneers in the field. The book addresses various effects of the immune system on the pathophysiology and course of psychiatric disorders and highlights the possible future impact on treatment decisions of various psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and depression. The contributions cover the role of in utero immune challenges on the development of schizophrenia, the role of infections, and autoimmune diseases and mild immune activation in the development of depression and schizophrenia, the influence of immune responses in other disorders such as Tourette's, Alzheimer's, and OCD, the connections between mental and physical pain as well as between anti-inflammatory and antipsychotic drugs.​

Immuno Psychiatry

Immuno Psychiatry Book
Author : Michael Berk,Marion Leboyer,Iris E. Sommer
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021-08-14
ISBN : 303071229X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents a thorough and critical review of current knowledge on the role of immunology in major psychiatric disorders and its potential applications. The opening chapters offer general information on the immune influence of the brain to provide readers with a better understanding of the end of immune privilege. The book then examines possible underlying mechanisms leading to psychiatric disorders, from early infections to pro-inflammatory markers, stress, and immune genetic background, linking etiology and psychiatry. The third section describes each disorder (ie autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression...) with an overview of underlying immune dysfunctions. Lastly, the authors discuss the innovative immune-therapies that may result from the discovery of immune system biomarkers and their associated mechanisms. A better understanding of the role of the immune system in psychiatric disorders makes it possible to identify stratification biomarkers, to explain underlying mechanisms, and to develop innovative, efficient, targeted treatment strategies and management. As such, the book is of value to clinicians, mental health professionals, mental health researchers, immunologists, industry practitioners, and various stakeholders in the mental health field.

Stress Depression and Inflammatory Immune Responses During Pregnancy

Stress  Depression  and Inflammatory Immune Responses During Pregnancy Book
Author : Lisa Michelle Christian
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2008
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Abstract: Psychosocial stress and depressive symptoms predict increased risk of negative perinatal outcomes including preterm delivery and gestational hypertension. Inflammation is a key potential mechanism by which stress and depressive symptoms may influence such outcomes. The current study examined associations among stress, depressive symptoms, and inflammation during pregnancy. It was hypothesized that women reporting greater stress and/or depressive symptoms would exhibit higher serum levels of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) and exhibit an exaggerated IL-6 response upon exposure to an antigen challenge of influenza vaccination. Psychosocial factors and serum levels of interleukin-6 were assessed prior to vaccination (n=60) at 1-2 weeks post-vaccination (n=37) in a sample of pregnant women. Of the 60 women who completed the baseline session, the majority were African-American (57%), had completed high school or less education (82%), and reported a total annual family income of less than $15,000 per year (63%). Psychosocial measures included the 4-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Results demonstrated that 31 women (52%) scored at or above a clinical cut-off for depressive symptoms. Serum levels of IL-6 were determined using high sensitivity immunoassays. Regression analyses indicated that after controlling for body mass index (BMI) prior to pregnancy, higher scores on the CES-D were predictive of higher levels of IL-6 at baseline ([beta]=.23, p=.05). There was no significant change in IL-6 from baseline to the post-vaccination timepoint (p> .05). Moreover, neither stress nor depressive symptoms predicted IL-6 responses to vaccination (ps> .05). In sum, the current results indicate that depressive symptoms predict higher levels of maternal serum IL-6 during pregnancy. These data are consistent with the contention that depressive symptoms may contribute to negative perinatal outcomes via inflammatory pathways.

The Truth about Depression

The Truth about Depression Book
Author : Joseph Lucier,MR Joseph Lucier Aobta
Publisher : CreateSpace
Release : 2015-01-01
ISBN : 9781507710265
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Tam Healing System - Treatment Series - Depression Treating disease with a balanced approach is critical for recovery. For depression, these factors together can contribute to recovery and balance: 1) Opening a bioelectrical blockage in the CNS using the Tam Healing System 2) Living a balanced life with sufficient sleep, healthy food and hydration as well as community and spiritual support will bring about healing transformation

Neuro Immune Interactions in Neurologic and Psychiatric Disorders

Neuro Immune Interactions in Neurologic and Psychiatric Disorders Book
Author : P. Patterson,C. Kordon,Y. Christen
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 3642596436
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The idea that the brain is an "immune-privileged site" has perhaps served to slow our realization that the intact brain can generate its own inflammatory reactions. These responses can be to peripheral infection, or they can arise from local, internal causes, for instance as a response to stress or to the se vere changes in neuronal activity in seizure or the loss of oxygen in stroke. We are also becoming increasingly aware of the contribution of local inflam matory reactions to certain neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's In fact, evidence is accumulating that inflammatory processes disease (AD). contribute to the progression of AD, suggesting the possibility of using cur rently available or novel anti-inflammatory agents to interfere with this terri ble disease. Correlations are also being made between inflammatory signs and mental illness, which is a new frontier of research. This book presents the current state of knowledge in a variety of areas relevant to neuro-immune interactions, with particular attention to AD.

Peripheral Markers of Immune Response in Major Psychiatric Disorders Where Are We Now and Where Do We Want to Be

Peripheral Markers of Immune Response in Major Psychiatric Disorders  Where Are We Now and Where Do We Want to Be  Book
Author : Błażej Misiak,Dorota Frydecka,Bartłomiej Stańczykiewicz,Jerzy Samochowiec
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2019-04-03
ISBN : 2889457974
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Major psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression represent complex phenotypes with imprecise diagnostic boundaries. It has been found that these disorders can be characterized by a number of peripheral immune-inflammatory alterations, including, i.e. elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, increased levels of specific and non-specific antibodies or abnormal counts of lymphocyte subpopulations. Although it has been found that major psychiatric disorders share similar dysregulations of immune-inflammatory response, recent studies have also clearly demonstrated that some differences can be indicated. Interestingly, certain immune-inflammatory disturbances appear to be state markers, since they occur in acute relapse and normalize following pharmacological treatment, while the rest represents trait markers that remain stable regardless of treatment. It is also important to note that peripheral immune-inflammatory markers have been associated with psychopathological manifestation of major psychiatric disorders, response to treatment and long-term outcomes. However, it remains unclear what is the origin of peripheral inflammation in psychiatric disorders. To date, several mechanisms have been proposed, including the gut-brain axis dysregulation, infections in the neurodevelopmental period or immunogenetic factors. This eBook summarizes current evidence from studies investigating peripheral inflammation in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder as well as it provides future directions for the field.

How to Feel Better

How to Feel Better Book
Author : Nick Hall PhD
Publisher : Gildan Media LLC aka G&D Media
Release : 2018-10-09
ISBN : 1722520868
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Do you want to be more alert? Do you experience symptoms that have no obvious cause? Discover why countless health problems may have inflammation as a common denominator. Learn about the link between allergy and suicide and how too much immunity can trigger depression and fatigue. Heart disease and cancer are also linked with too much immunity in the form of inflammation. But too little immunity can result in infection. This book will provide a clear understanding of how the immune system works and ways you can achieve a state of optimal health. Learn how stress and self-destructive emotions can bring about infection and autoimmunity Understand how immune system cytokines can trigger depression and fatigue Learn how anti-inflammatory diets can lessen the pain of inflammation Discover how personality can predict flare-ups of autoimmunity

THE INTERACTION OF INFLAMMATION AND GENDER SEX IN BIPOLAR DISORDERS

THE INTERACTION OF INFLAMMATION AND GENDER SEX IN BIPOLAR DISORDERS  Book
Author : Caitlin Millett
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In recent decades, inflammatory/immune activation has emerged as an important factor in the onset and progression of mood disorders. Increased pro-inflammatory markers have been observed in the peripheral blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and postmortem brain tissue of individuals with Bipolar Disorder (BD) and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Further, pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations may decline during periods of euthymia. There is evidence for a causal relationship between peripheral concentrations of the cytokine IL-6 in childhood, which can predict the onset of depressive symptoms in adulthood. Here we have proposed that gender and/or sex moderates the relationship between inflammation and mood in BD. Women and men are known to have different symptomatology and comorbidities associated with a diagnosis of BD; women have higher rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and eating disorders, whereas men have higher rates of alcohol and cannabis abuse and conduct disorder. Further, women with BD are known to experience depressive symptoms at the onset of the illness, whereas men are more likely to experience mania at onset. Moreover, there are known sex-based differences in inflammatory/immune activation. In general, females have more robust cell-mediated and humoral immune responses to antigenic challenges compared with males. Women had higher self-reported feelings of depression and social isolation after endotoxin injection compared to men in a recent report. In contrast, it is known that the female sex hormone 17- estradiol (E2) is broadly anti-inflammatory and confers protection against sepsis - a life-threatening complication of infection. Our research aims to address gaps in knowledge related to inflammation and gender/sex in BD. In our first study (Chapter 2) we examined peripheral biomarkers from human participants with symptomatic BD. The biomarkers of interest were (1) neopterin - a marker of the acute phase immune response that is released from activated macrophages, and (2) zinc - an essential biometal and antioxidant in the human body. We postulated that neopterin would be increased in symptomatic BD and zinc would be decreased. Further, we hypothesized that gender/sex would moderate the relationship between biomarker concentration and mania and depression severity. Our results indicated that peripheral zinc concentrations were in fact reduced in symptomatic BD compared to a healthy control population. Further, we found that zinc concentrations were associated with severity of depressive symptoms in women with BD. In contrast, neopterin concentrations were associated with mania severity in men with BD. In this way, our findings underscore the importance of analyzing gender differences in biomarker studies. This research will help to advance the field of personalized medicine for BD.In our second study (Chapter 3), we postulated that male and female mice would respond differently to an injection of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - a component of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria. Further, we expected that there would be a sex-based dichotomy regarding the levels of oxidative stress and apoptosis in the brain after LPS injection. We found that males had higher levels of depressive-like behavior after LPS, compared to saline-treated males. Further, we found increased protein levels of superoxide dismutase in the male hippocampus. 28 days after the LPS injection, males showed signs of increased apoptosis in the hippocampus - higher cleaved caspase-3 protein levels and increased TUNEL staining. Females overall appeared more resilient against LPS administration - they did not show signs of apoptosis or oxidative stress in the hippocampus and did not increase depressive-like behavior. However, females appeared more 'sick' than males, indicated by decreased mobility in the open field test. Overall our study indicated that (1) inflammation might underlie hippocampal atrophy in some cases in males, (2) females appear to have a different behavioral response to inflammation compared to males, (3) females are more resilient against deleterious effects on LPS on the hippocampus compared to males.

Enteroimmunology

Enteroimmunology Book
Author : Dr. Charles Lewis
Publisher : Psy Press
Release : 2017-01-18
ISBN : 1938318064
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Enteroimmunology is the emerging field of medicine that studies the enteric immune system and microbial biome of the digestive system, and their interaction with diet, digestion, the enteric and central nervous systems and endocrine functions. It explores and elucidates how these systems affect each other, impacting health and disease. Enteroimmune disease is not limited to diseases such as irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel diseases but also cause systemic and neurological diseases. Neurological diseases discussed include autism, migraine, chronic fatigue syndrome, multiple sclerosis, bipolar and rage disorders. The gastrointestinal mucosa is predominantly lined with enterocytes that form a continuous barrier throughout the digestive path. These cells absorb nutrients while excluding the trillions of bacteria and other microbes that inhabit the gut. Just below the enterocytes, the mucosa contains over half of the body’s immune cells. These cells effect immune activity that protect the body from infection. However, they can also promote chronic inflammation, not just in the intestines, but in any organ system of the body. This book details the physiologic functions of the digestive and immune cells; their reactions to proteins, antigens and nutrients in the diet; the role of bacterial toxins and immune mediators; and the hormones that mediate appetite, GI motility and digestion. It explores the mechanisms occurring in immune dysfunction; when the immune response, rather than protect health, promotes chronic inflammation, responsible for depression, obesity, diabetes, acne, Alzheimer’s disease, cancer, migraines, fibromyalgia, IBS, osteoporosis, schizophrenia, and many other chronic inflammatory diseases. Understanding the immune system of the gut, provides insight to how these mechanisms impact both the enteric and central nervous systems. Dr. Lewis elucidates the physiology and pathophysiology of the intestinal and immune cells with clarity and humor that makes reading this book a pleasure. Enteroimmunology describes how various types of food sensitivities, including IgG antergies, which are analogous to IgE allergies, cause a wide array of chronic disease. This book explains mast cell activation syndrome, leaky gut syndrome, small bowel overgrowth, dysbiosis, metabolic syndrome and describes how to achieve long-term effective resolution of these conditions through diet. The book provides examples of a variety of conditions and the pathological processes that underlie them and then acts a guide to the tertiary treatment for the condition. There are chapters on obesity and metabolic syndrome, mood and thought disorders, fibromyalgia, autoimmune diseases, interstitial cystitis, sexual dysfunction, acne and other diseases. A chapter is dedicated to traumatic brain injury and its secondary prevention. Another chapter focuses on cancer prevention and explains the dietary factors responsible for the majority of human cancers, and provides practical, evidenced-based advice for cancer prevention. There is a chapter explaining how the mitochondria and aging, detailing of how individuals can maintain vibrant, healthy, mitochondria. There are chapters on the role of sleep disorders in enteroimmune disease, explaining the role osteoimmunity in osteoporosis and on prevention of hearing loss. Enteroimmunology is a guide to the prevention and the reversal of chronic disease by first understanding, and then using diet and nutrition to reverse the underlying causation of these diseases. Enteroimmunology explains the emerging understanding of the ecology of the gut and its relationship with diet, food and nutrition. This highly acclaimed book, now in its 3rd edition, has been extensively updated and expanded. It provides citations to National Library of Medicine PMID numbers that link to over a thousand free, full-length scientific