Skip to main content

In Situ Tissue Regeneration

Download In Situ Tissue Regeneration Full eBooks in PDF, EPUB, and kindle. In Situ Tissue Regeneration is one my favorite book and give us some inspiration, very enjoy to read. you could read this book anywhere anytime directly from your device.

In Situ Tissue Regeneration

In Situ Tissue Regeneration Book
Author : Sang Jin Lee,Anthony Atala,James J Yoo
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-07-17
ISBN : 012802500X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

In Situ Tissue Regeneration: Host Cell Recruitment and Biomaterial Design explores the body’s ability to mobilize endogenous stem cells to the site of injury and details the latest strategies developed for inducing and supporting the body’s own regenerating capacity. From the perspective of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering, this book describes the mechanism of host cell recruitment, cell sourcing, cellular and molecular roles in cell differentiation, navigational cues and niche signals, and a tissue-specific smart biomaterial system that can be applied to a wide range of therapies. The work is divided into four sections to provide a thorough overview and helpful hints for future discoveries: endogenous cell sources; biochemical and physical cues; smart biomaterial development; and applications. Explores the body’s ability to mobilize endogenous stem cells to the site of injury Details the latest strategies developed for inducing and supporting the body’s own regenerating capacity Presents smart biomaterials in cell-based tissue engineering applications—from the cell level to applications—in the first unified volume Features chapter authors and editors who are authorities in this emerging field Prioritizes a discussion of the future direction of smart biomaterials for in situ tissue regeneration, which will affect an emerging and lucrative industry

Tissue Regeneration

Tissue Regeneration Book
Author : Hussein Abdelhay Essayed Kaoud
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2018-06-06
ISBN : 1789232600
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

Tissue regeneration is a vast subject, with many different important aspects to consider. Regenerative medicine is a new branch of medicine that tries to change the course of chronic diseases and, in many cases, regenerates the organ systems that fail due to age, disease, damage, or genetic defects. The main purpose of this book is to point out the interest of some important topics of tissue regeneration and the progress in this field as well as the variety of different surgical fields and operations. This book includes 7 sections and 11 chapters that provide an overview of the essentials in tissue regeneration science and their potential applications in surgery. The authors of each chapter have given consolidated information on ground realities and attempted to provide a comprehensive knowledge of tissue engineering and regeneration. This book will be useful to researchers and students of biological and biomedical sciences (medical and veterinarian researchers).

Nanotechnologies in Preventive and Regenerative Medicine

Nanotechnologies in Preventive and Regenerative Medicine Book
Author : Vuk Uskokovic
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2017-11-22
ISBN : 0323480640
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

Nanotechnologies in Preventative and Regenerative Medicine demonstrates how control at the nanoscale can help achieve earlier diagnoses and create more effective treatments. Chapters take a logical approach, arranging materials by their area of application. Biomaterials are, by convention, divided according to the area of their application, with each chapter outlining current challenges before discussing how nanotechnology and nanomaterials can help solve these challenges This applications-orientated book is a valuable resource for researchers in biomedical science who want to gain a greater understanding on how nanotechnology can help create more effective vaccines and treatments, and to nanomaterials researchers seeking to gain a greater understanding of how these materials are applied in medicine. Demonstrates how nanotechnology can help achieve more successful diagnoses at an earlier stage Explains how nanomaterials can be manipulated to create more effective drug treatments Offers suggestions on how the use of nanotechnology might have future applications to create even more effective treatments

Engineering Materials for Stem Cell Regeneration

Engineering Materials for Stem Cell Regeneration Book
Author : Faheem A. Sheikh
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021-10-23
ISBN : 9811644209
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

This book reviews the interface of stem cell biology and biomaterials for regenerative medicine. It presents the applications of biomaterials to support stem cell growth and regeneration. The book discusses the stem cell interactions’ with nanofiber, gradient biomaterial, polymer- and ceramic biomaterials, integrating top-down and bottom-up approaches, adhesive properties of stem cells on materials, cell-laden hydrogels, micro-and nanospheres, de-cellularization techniques, and use of porous scaffolds. Further, this book provides a basic introduction to the fabrication techniques for creating various biomaterials that can be used for stem cell differentiation. It also elucidates the properties of stem cells, their characteristic features, tissue culture technology, properties of pluripotency, osteogenesis, and biomaterial interaction with de-cellularized organs, cell lineage in vivo and in vitro, gene expression, embryonic development, and cell differentiation. Further, the book reviews the latest applications of bio-instructive scaffold for supporting stem cell differentiation and tissue regeneration. The book also presents stem cell for dental, alveolar bone and cardiac regeneration. Lastly, it introduces engineered stem cells for delivering small molecule therapeutics and their potential biomedical applications.

Injectable Hydrogels for 3D Bioprinting

Injectable Hydrogels for 3D Bioprinting Book
Author : Insup Noh,Xiumei Wang,Sandra van Vlierberghe
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2021-07-30
ISBN : 1788018834
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

Hydrogels represent one of the cornerstones in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, due to their biocompatibility and physiologically relevant properties. These inherent characteristics mean that they can be widely exploited as bioinks in 3D bioprinting for tissue engineering applications as well as injectable gels for cell therapy and drug delivery purposes. The research in these fields is booming and this book provides the reader with a terrific introduction to the burgeoning field of injectable hydrogel design, bioprinting and tissue engineering. Edited by three leaders in the field, users of this book will learn about different classes of hydrogels, properties and synthesis strategies to produce bioinks. A section devoted to the key processing and design challenges at the hydrogel/3D bioprinting/tissue interface is also covered. The final section of the book closes with pertinent clinical applications. Tightly edited, the reader will find this book to be a coherent resource to learn from. It will appeal to those working across biomaterials science, chemical and biomedical engineering, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

Injectable Biomaterials

Injectable Biomaterials Book
Author : Brent Vernon
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2011-01-24
ISBN : 0857091379
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

Novel injectable materials for non-invasive surgical procedures are becoming increasingly popular. An advantage of these materials include easy deliverability into the body, however the suitability of their mechanical properties must also be carefully considered. Injectable biomaterials covers the materials, properties and biomedical applications of injectable materials, as well as novel developments in the technology. Part one focuses on materials and properties, with chapters covering the design of injectable biomaterials as well as their rheological properties and the mechanical properties of injectable polymers and composites. Part two covers the clinical applications of injectable biomaterials, including chapters on drug delivery, tissue engineering and orthopaedic applications as well as injectable materials for gene delivery systems. In part three, existing and developing technologies are discussed. Chapters in this part cover such topics as environmentally responsive biomaterials, injectable nanotechnology, injectable biodegradable materials and biocompatibility. There are also chapters focusing on troubleshooting and potential future applications of injectable biomaterials. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Injectable biomaterials is a standard reference for materials scientists and researchers working in the biomaterials industry, as well as those with an academic interest in the subject. It will also be beneficial to clinicians. Comprehensively examines the materials, properties and biomedical applications of injectable materials, as well as novel developments in the technology Reviews the design of injectable biomaterials as well as their rheological properties and the mechanical properties of injectable polymers and composites Explores clinical applications of injectable biomaterials, including drug delivery, tissue engineering, orthopaedic applications and injectable materials for gene delivery systems

Frontiers in Tissue Engineering

Frontiers in Tissue Engineering Book
Author : C.W. Patrick,A.G. Mikos,L.V. McIntire
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 1998-02-20
ISBN : 9780080532059
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

Frontiers in Tissue Engineering is a carefully edited compilation of state-of-the-art contributions from an international authorship of experts in the diverse subjects that make up tissue engineering. A broad representation of the medical, scientific, industrial and regulatory community is detailed in the book. The work is an authoritative and comprehensive reference source for scientists and clinicians working in this emerging field. The book is divided into three parts: fundamentals and methods of tissue engineering, tissue engineering applied to specialised tissues, and tissue engineering applied to organs. The text offers many novel approaches, including a detailed coverage of cell-tissue interactions at cellular and molecular levels; cell-tissue surface, biochemical, and mechanical environments; biomaterials; engineering design; tissue-organ function; new approaches to tissue-organ regeneration and replacement of function; ethical considerations of tissue engineering; and government regulation of tissue-engineered products.

Biomaterials and Stem Cells in Regenerative Medicine

Biomaterials and Stem Cells in Regenerative Medicine Book
Author : Murugan Ramalingam,Seeram Ramakrishna,Serena Best
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2012-07-03
ISBN : 1439879265
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

Work in the area of biomaterials and stem cell therapy has revealed great potential for many applications, from the treatment of localized defects and diseases to the repair and replacement of whole organs. Researchers have also begun to develop a better understanding of the cellular environment needed for optimal tissue repair and regeneration. Biomaterials and Stem Cells in Regenerative Medicine explores a range of applications for biomaterials and stem cell therapy and describes recent research on suitable cell scaffolds and substrates for tissue repair and reconstruction. Featuring contributions by experts in the field, the book explores important scientific and clinical aspects. It covers the basic science involved in structure and properties, techniques and technological innovations in processing and characterization, and applications of biomaterials and stem cells. Topics include: Polymeric systems for stem cell delivery The potential of membranes and porous scaffolds in tissue repair, including myocardial, periodontal, ophthalmic, and bone tissues The optimization of the interaction between stem cells and biomaterial substrates The source and nature of stem cells for tissue engineering applications The clinical translation of stem cell–based tissue engineering for regenerative medicine From fundamental principles to recent advances at the macro, micro, nano, and molecular scales, the book brings together current knowledge on biomaterials and stem cells in the context of regenerative medicine. It also stimulates discussion about future research directions. This unique book offers a valuable benchmark for the current status of clinically relevant research and development in stem cells and regenerative medicine. It bridges the gaps in experimental approaches and understanding among the materials science and engineering, biological sciences, and biomedical science and engineering communities, making it a valuable reference for graduate students, researchers, and practitioners working in the multidisciplinary field of biomedical research.

Principles of Regenerative Medicine

Principles of Regenerative Medicine Book
Author : Anthony Atala,Robert Lanza,James A. Thomson,Robert Nerem
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2010-12-16
ISBN : 9780123814234
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

Virtually any disease that results from malfunctioning, damaged, or failing tissues may be potentially cured through regenerative medicine therapies, by either regenerating the damaged tissues in vivo, or by growing the tissues and organs in vitro and implanting them into the patient. Principles of Regenerative Medicine discusses the latest advances in technology and medicine for replacing tissues and organs damaged by disease and of developing therapies for previously untreatable conditions, such as diabetes, heart disease, liver disease, and renal failure. Key for all researchers and instituions in Stem Cell Biology, Bioengineering, and Developmental Biology The first of its kind to offer an advanced understanding of the latest technologies in regenerative medicine New discoveries from leading researchers on restoration of diseased tissues and organs

Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Skeletal Regeneration

Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Skeletal Regeneration Book
Author : Peter Giannoudis,Elena Jones,Xuebin Yang,Dennis Mcgonagle
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2013-02-20
ISBN : 0124081312
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

This book covers our current understanding of the role of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and other mesenchymal progenitors in skeletal regeneration, encompassing bone, cartilage and whole joint regeneration. The expansion reflects developments in the field to include data on the use of MSCs in drug development, growth factors, scaffolds and biomechanical manipulations for skeletal trauma and diseases, including osteoporosis and arthritis. Written for an audience of clinicians and young researchers who are exposed to MSCs in their work, this work summarizes recent findings pertaining to the definition and characterization of MSCs in skeletal tissues and discusses the mechanisms of their actions in regeneration of bone in vivo. The authors describe recent findings pertaining to the efficacy of MSC therapies in animal models and in human clinical trials and bring together literature showing that the ways MSCs are extracted, expanded and implanted can considerably affect bone formation outcomes. Finally, it presents the latest knowledge on the nature of native MSCs in skeletal tissues, which provide a platform for novel in situ tissue regeneration approaches for systemic bone disease such as osteoporosis. Focuses specifically on the use of stem cells in skeletal tissue generation for a broad audience of stem cell, cancer, and bone biologists, orthopedists, oncologists, and regenerative medicine specialists Provides a short historical ‘detour’ and foundational information on founding concepts, discoveries and personalities in MSC research Assists a new generation of scientists and clinicians in digesting the multitude of journal articles on the topic by providing easily-absorbed and condensed foundational context

Epigenetics and Regeneration

Epigenetics and Regeneration Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-05-24
ISBN : 0128148802
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

Epigenetics and Regeneration compiles the first foundational reference on epigenetic mechanisms governing tissue development, repair, homeostasis, and regeneration, as well as pathways to employ these mechanisms in clinical practice and translational science. In this book, life science researchers, clinicians, and students will discover an interdisciplinary resource bringing together common themes in the field, background overviews, research methods, recent advances, and opportunities for drug discovery. Throughout this volume, special attention is paid to pre-clinical and first clinical studies aimed at increasing the regenerative potential of damaged tissues by epigenetic drugs, as well as innovative, discipline spanning strategies to enhance cell reprogramming. As an all-inclusive, evidence-based volume, Epigenetics and Regeneration will stimulate discussion and boost new research in this fascinating and impactful area of translational epigenetics. Provides a foundational overview of epigenetics in regenerative medicine Examines epigenetic components of tissue regeneration for a variety of organ systems and tissue types, as well as current attempts to employ these mechanisms in clinical practice Offers researchers, students, clinicians, and pharmacologists the tools they need to enhance tissue development, repair, homeostasis, and regeneration and explore new epigenetic therapeutic pathways Features chapter contributions from leading international researchers and clinicians in the fields of epigenetics and regenerative medicine

Bone Tissue Engineering

Bone Tissue Engineering Book
Author : Jeffrey O. Hollinger,Thomas A. Einhorn,Bruce Doll,Charles Sfeir
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2004-10-14
ISBN : 1135501912
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

Focusing on bone biology, Bone Tissue Engineering integrates basic sciences with tissue engineering. It includes contributions from world-renowned researchers and clinicians who discuss key topics such as different models and approaches to bone tissue engineering, as well as exciting clinical applications for patients. Divided into four sections, t

Handbook of Intelligent Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

Handbook of Intelligent Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Book
Author : Gilson Khang
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2017-06-26
ISBN : 9814745138
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

Millions of patients suffer from end-stage organ failure or tissue loss annually, and the only solution might be organ and/or tissue transplantation. To avoid poor biocompatibility–related problems and donor organ shortage, however, around 20 years ago a new, hybridized method combining cells and biomaterials was introduced as an alternative to whole-organ and tissue transplantation for diseased, failing, or malfunctioning organs—regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. This handbook focuses on all aspects of intelligent scaffolds, from basic science to industry to clinical applications. Its 10 parts, illustrated throughout with excellent figures, cover stem cell engineering research, drug delivery systems, nanomaterials and nanodevices, and novel and natural biomaterials. The book can be used by advanced undergraduate- and graduate-level students of stem cell and tissue engineering and researchers in macromolecular science, ceramics, metals for biomaterials, nanotechnology, chemistry, biology, and medicine, especially those interested in tissue engineering, stem cell engineering, and regenerative medicine.

Biomimicked Biomaterials

Biomimicked Biomaterials Book
Author : Heung Jae Chun,Rui L. Reis,Antonella Motta,Gilson Khang
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-06-29
ISBN : 9811532621
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

This book is the second of two volumes that together offer a comprehensive account of cutting-edge advances in the development of biomaterials for use within tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this volume, which is devoted to biomimetic biomaterials, the opening section discusses bone regeneration by means of duck’s feet-derived collagen scaffold and the use of decellularized extracellular matrices. The role of various novel biomimetic hydrogels in regenerative medicine is then considered in detail. The third section focuses on the control of stem cell fate by biomimetic biomaterials, covering exosome-integrated biomaterials for bone regeneration, cellular responses to materials for biomedical engineering, and the regulation of stem cell functions by micropatterned structures. Finally, the use of nano-intelligent biocomposites in regenerative medicine is addressed, with discussion of, for example, recent advances in biphasic calcium phosphate bioceramics and blood-contacting polymeric biomaterials. The authors are recognized experts in the interdisciplinary field of regenerative medicine and the book will be of value for all with an interest in regenerative medicine based on biomaterials.

Immunomodulatory Biomaterials

Immunomodulatory Biomaterials Book
Author : Stephen F. Badylak,Jennifer Elisseeff
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2021-07-30
ISBN : 0128214562
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

Biomaterials have existed for millennia as mechanical replacement structures following disease or injury. Biomaterial design has changed markedly from structural support with an “inert immune profile as the primary objective to designs that elicit an integrative local tissue response and a pro-repair immune cell phenotype. Immunomodulatory Biomaterials: Regulating the Immune Response with Biomaterials to Affect Clinical Outcome offers a single, comprehensive reference on biomaterials for modulation of the host response, for materials scientists, tissue engineers and those working in regenerative medicine. This book details methods, materials and strategies designed to regulate the host immune response following surgical implantation and thus facilitate specific local cell infiltration and tissue deposition. There has been a dramatic transformation in our understanding of the role of the immune system, both innate and adaptive; these changes include recognition of the plasticity of immune cells, especially macrophages, cross-talk between the immune system and stem cells, and the necessity for in situ transition between inflammatory and regulatory immune cell phenotypes. The exploitation of these findings and the design and manufacture of new biomaterials is occurring at an astounding pace. There is currently no book directed at the interdisciplinary principles guiding the design, manufacture, testing, and clinical translation of biomaterials that proactively regulate the host tissue immune response. The challenge for academia, industry, and regulatory agencies to encourage innovation while assuring safety and maximizing efficacy has never been greater. Given the highly interdisciplinary requirements for the design, manufacture and use of immunomodulatory biomaterials, this book will prove a useful single resource across disciplines. Holistically covers the design, manufacture, testing, and clinical translation of biomaterials that proactively regulate the host tissue immune response Provides a single reference for understanding and utilizing the host response in biomaterials design An international collaboration of leading researchers in the field offering a novel insight into this fast-growing area

Biomimetic Approaches for Biomaterials Development

Biomimetic Approaches for Biomaterials Development Book
Author : Joao F. Mano
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2013-02-08
ISBN : 3527652299
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

Biomimetics, in general terms, aims at understanding biological principles and applying them for the development of man-made tools and technologies. This approach is particularly important for the purposeful design of passive as well as functional biomaterials that mimic physicochemical, mechanical and biological properties of natural materials, making them suitable, for example, for biomedical devices or as scaffolds for tissue regeneration. The book comprehensively covers biomimetic approaches to the development of biomaterials, including: an overview of naturally occurring or nature inspired biomaterials; an in-depth treatment of the surface aspects pivotal for the functionality; synthesis and self-assembly methods to prepare devices to be used in mineralized tissues such as bone and teeth; and preparation of biomaterials for the controlled/ sustained release of bioactive agents. The last part reviews the applications of bioinspired materials and principles of design in regenerative medicine such as in-situ grown bone or cartilage as well as the biomimetic techniques for soft tissue engineering. The comprehensive scope of this book makes it a must-have addition to the bookshelf of everyone in the fields of Materials Science/Engineering, Nanotechnologies / Nanosciences, Medical Sciences, Biochemistry, Polymer Chemistry, and Biomedical Engineering.

Tendon Regeneration

Tendon Regeneration Book
Author : Manuela E Gomes,Rui L Reis,Márcia T Rodrigues
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2015-08-08
ISBN : 0128016000
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

Tendon Regeneration: Understanding Tissue Physiology and Development to Engineer Functional Substitutes is the first book to highlight the multi-disciplinary nature of this specialized field and the importance of collaboration between medical and engineering laboratories in the development of tissue-oriented products for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) strategies. Beginning with a foundation in developmental biology, the book explores physiology, pathology, and surgical reconstruction, providing guidance on biological approaches that enhances tendon regeneration practices. Contributions from scientists, clinicians, and engineers who are the leading figures in their respective fields present recent findings in tendon stem cells, cell therapies, and scaffold treatments, as well as examples of pre-clinical models for translational therapies and a view of the future of the field. Provides an overview of tendon biology, disease, and tissue engineering approaches Presents modern, alternative approaches to developing functional tissue solutions discussed Includes valuable information for those interested in tissue engineering, tissue regeneration, tissue physiology, and regenerative medicine Explores physiology, pathology, and surgical reconstruction, building a natural progression that enhances tendon regeneration practices Covers recent findings in tendon stem cells, cell therapies, and scaffold treatments, as well as examples of pre-clinical models for translational therapies and a view of the future of the field

Organ Repair and Regeneration

Organ Repair and Regeneration Book
Author : Giuseppe Orlando,Shaf Keshavjee
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-01-14
ISBN : 0128194529
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

Organ Repair and Regeneration: Preserving Organs in the Regenerative Medicine Era encompasses updates on all organs, from the kidneys, to the lungs, liver, pancreas, intestines, and beyond. Chapters cover the pathophysiology of ischemia-reperfusion, repairing organs with MSC, repairing cardiac allografts in situ, and much more. The book conceptualizes the idea that the modern approach to organ preservation is ante literam, a form of organ repair and regeneration which, per se, is referred to as a field of health sciences under the umbrella of regenerative medicine. This book demonstrates the merging of regenerative medicine and organ transplantation. Covers all aspects of organ preservation, repair and regeneration Addresses the repair of organs that experience an Ischemia/Reperfusion (I/R) injury, those that are intended for transplantation, and specific issues related to each organ Presented by editors and authors who are physicians, surgeons and researchers in the field of organ transplantation and regenerative medicine

Biomimetic Approaches for Biomaterials Development

Biomimetic Approaches for Biomaterials Development Book
Author : Joao F. Mano
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2013-02-08
ISBN : 3527652299
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

Biomimetics, in general terms, aims at understanding biological principles and applying them for the development of man-made tools and technologies. This approach is particularly important for the purposeful design of passive as well as functional biomaterials that mimic physicochemical, mechanical and biological properties of natural materials, making them suitable, for example, for biomedical devices or as scaffolds for tissue regeneration. The book comprehensively covers biomimetic approaches to the development of biomaterials, including: an overview of naturally occurring or nature inspired biomaterials; an in-depth treatment of the surface aspects pivotal for the functionality; synthesis and self-assembly methods to prepare devices to be used in mineralized tissues such as bone and teeth; and preparation of biomaterials for the controlled/ sustained release of bioactive agents. The last part reviews the applications of bioinspired materials and principles of design in regenerative medicine such as in-situ grown bone or cartilage as well as the biomimetic techniques for soft tissue engineering. The comprehensive scope of this book makes it a must-have addition to the bookshelf of everyone in the fields of Materials Science/Engineering, Nanotechnologies / Nanosciences, Medical Sciences, Biochemistry, Polymer Chemistry, and Biomedical Engineering.