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Immunology In The Twentieth Century

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Immunology in the Twentieth Century

Immunology in the Twentieth Century Book
Author : Domenico Ribatti
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2018-04-24
ISBN : 0128161469
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Immunology in the Twentieth Century: From Basic Science to Clinical Application grew out of common knowledge that those who survived many of the common infectious diseases rarely contracted the same disease again. This book charts the historical development of this vital branch of medicine in a concise volume, covering both the basic science involved and the clinical applications. Immunology as a distinctive subject developed in the mid-twentieth century as researchers started to understand how the adaptive immune system aids the defense against pathogens. The subject has grown in importance and diversified into specialist fields, such as immunohistochemistry, immunogenetics and immunopathology. Provides a concise overhead of the history of immunology and its applications in medicine Includes a discussion of the scientists who were pioneers in landmark discoveries in immunology Summarizes the clinical applications of major discoveries

A History of Modern Immunology

A History of Modern Immunology Book
Author : Zoltan A. Nagy
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2013-10-11
ISBN : 0124201083
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A History of Modern Immunology: A Path Toward Understanding describes, analyzes, and conceptualizes several seminal events and discoveries in immunology in the last third of the 20th century, the era when most questions about the biology of the immune system were raised and also found their answers. Written by an eyewitness to this history, the book gives insight into personal aspects of the important figures in the discipline, and its data driven emphasis on understanding will benefit both young and experienced scientists. This book provides a concise introduction to topics including immunological specificity, antibody diversity, monoclonal antibodies, major histocompatibility complex, antigen presentation, T cell biology, immunological tolerance, and autoimmune disease. This broad background of the discipline of immunology is a valuable companion for students of immunology, research and clinical immunologists, and research managers in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. Contains the history of major breakthroughs in immunology featured with authenticity and insider details Gives an insight into personal aspects of the players in the history of immunology Enables the reader to recognize and select data of heuristic value which elucidate important facets of the immune system Provides good examples and guidelines for the recognition and selection of what is important for the exploration of the immune system Gives clear separation of descriptive and interpretive parts, allowing the reader to distinguish between facts and analysis provided by the author

Crafting Immunity

Crafting Immunity Book
Author : Jennifer Keelan
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2017-03-02
ISBN : 1351947893
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Immunity is as old as illness itself, yet historians have only just begun to take up the challenge of reconstructing the modern transformation of attempts to protect against disease. Crafting Immunity assembles in one volume the most recent efforts of an international group of scholars to place the diverse practices of immunity in their historical contexts. It is this diversity that provides the book with its greatest source of strength. Collectively, the papers in this volume suggest that it was the craft-like, small-scale, and local conditions of clinical medicine that turned the immunity of individuals and populations into biomedical objects. That is to say, the modern conception of immunity was at least as much the product of the work of healing as it was the systematic result of discoveries about the immune system. Working outside the narrow confines of laboratory histories, Crafting Immunity is the first attempt to set the problems of immunity into a variety of social, technological, institutional and intellectual contexts. It will appeal not only to historians and sociologists of health, but also to social and cultural historians interested in the biomedical creation of modern health regimens.

Biochemistry of Antibodies

Biochemistry of Antibodies Book
Author : R. Nezlin
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2012-03-19
ISBN : 9781468417937
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

When the history of immunology in the twentieth century is written, the decade of the 1960's will, in all probability, stand out as the period of greatest advance in the development of molecular immunology. It is appropriate and useful, therefore, that a schol arly and integrated presentation of this progress should be made available in English. The translation of Dr. Nezlin's "Biochem istry of Antibodies" from Russian admirably fulfills this need in the form of a scientific monograph directed to medical and biolog ical scientists. The appearance of this monograph also serves to emphasize the conceptual unification of diverse immunological phenomena which has emerged from progress in molecular immunology. This unity is a consequence of the key role played by the antibody mol ecule (either in solution or cell-bound) in every biological process properly described as immunological. Indeed, immunology as an independent natural science can be described as the study of the structure, interactions, and biosynthes is of the antibody molecule.

Milestones in Immunology

Milestones in Immunology Book
Author : Domenico Ribatti
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2017-06-13
ISBN : 0128113294
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Milestones in Immunology: Based on Collected Papers contains scientific milestones relating to the history of medicine over the past two centuries. The book highlights the contributions of pioneering scientists whose discoveries have paved the way for researchers working in the field of immunology. As the science of immunology grew from knowledge that survivors of common infectious diseases rarely contracted them again, the book uses this as a central thesis, helping readers understand how the adaptive immune system aids in defense against pathogens. In addition, the book covers special fields, such as immunohistochemistry, immunogenetics and immunopathology. For the past century, immunology has fascinated and inspired some of the greatest scientists of our time. Numerous Nobel Prizes have been awarded for fundamental discoveries in immunology, from Paul Ehrlich’ work on antibodies (1908) to the studies of Zinkernagel and Doherty (1986) elucidating mechanisms of cell-mediated immunity. Provides on update on developments since the publication of Nobel prize winning research for fundamental discoveries in immunology Discusses the changing theories and technologies that guided the field Lists all the important discoveries and books in the field Explains, in detail, the many Nobel prize-winning contributions of immunologists Provides recognition of the scientists who were pioneers of landmark discoveries in immunology

Basics and Fundamentals of Immunology

Basics and Fundamentals of Immunology Book
Author : Manzoor Ahmad Mir
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2020-03-02
ISBN : 9781536166392
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Immunology is a distinctive subject that rose in the mid-20th century. The subject developed as scientists started to unravel the mysteries about the defense system against pathogens. Researchers started to understand the mechanisms employed by the innate and the adaptive immune system in defense against pathogens. During the last decade, the subject of immunology has been in sharp focus as the immunotherapies against diseases like cancer and AIDS seems last hope. Employing the body's own defense system against diseases like cancer and AIDS by activating specific cells of the immune system looks promising, and therapies like CAR-T cell therapy have been approved. In the first edition of the book "The Fundamentals of Immunology" we have explained the basics of the defense system of our body. The book is organised into four volumes. The first volume comprises of ten chapters and it describes the rise, history and scope of immunology and the building blocks of the immune system viz., cells, molecules and organs of the immune system. The second chapter describes the cells of the innate and the adaptive immune system and how the granulocytes and macrophages employ defense mechanisms to protect the body against pathogenic invasions. In the third chapter of this book, we have described the organs of the immune systems and how different organs are involved in the differentiation and maturation of immune cells. The chapter also focused on the structure of lymph nodes and their function in concentrating the antigens. In chapter four of this book, we have described the terms like antigens, immunogens, antigenicity, immunogenicity and how immunogenicity of an antigen is affected and how antigenicity of an immunogens is related to the immune response. The innate and adaptive immune systems and the different types of cells and molecules employed by the two branches of immunity have been described in a separate chapter. The structure and biology of immunoglobulins, their types and function in antigen binding and antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) have been described well in chapter six. Focus has been laid on the distinction between an antibody and an immunoglobulin. The structure and function and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has been described. The education of cells about self and non-self during their maturation and the processing and presentation of antigens by MHC bearing cells and how MHC coordinates both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses has been explained well throughout the book. The book has explained the complement system and its components, mechanisms and functions in a separate chapter. At the end of the book, we have given an insight about the vaccines, their history, development and how they are useful and helpful in the defense against diseases. The book also discusses the immune disfunction and diseases associated with the dysregulation of immune responses.

History of the Basel Institute for Immunology

History of the Basel Institute for Immunology Book
Author : Ivan Lefkovits
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2017
ISBN : 9783318059342
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Lectures, Parties, and Nobel Prizes: living and researching at the Basel Institute for Immunology By the early seventies of the 20th century, the Basel Institute for Immunology had become one of the largest - and certainly the most prominent - immunology institutes in the world. Its lean structure was highly successful, and the quality of the research and its reputation remained outstandingly high throughout the three decades it existed. This book describes the institute's history from its conception and the laying of the foundation stone in 1969 by the pharmaceutical company Roche to the triumph of three Nobel Prizes (1984 and 1987) for Niels K. Jerne, Georges K�hler and Susumu Tonegawa. Can all this be portrayed to make the layman understand it and the scientist relish it? Indeed, the book succeeds in tuning in to what fascinates students, advanced researchers and scientists, historians, policy makers and philanthropists alike. The narrative reveals many aspects of the institute's life and also describes all its research and achievements. Immunologists at every level, from beginners to old hands, will find something of interest to them in this history, and some readers will even make use of the huge database (documents, pictures and films) linked to the book by hundreds of QR codes.

Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy

Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy Book
Author : Glenn Dranoff
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-04-11
ISBN : 3642141366
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The interplay between tumors and their immunologic microenvironment is complex, difficult to decipher, but its understanding is of seminal importance for the development of novel prognostic markers and therapeutic strategies. The present review discusses tumor-immune interactions in several human cancers that illustrate various aspects of this complexity and proposes an integrated scheme of the impact of local immune reactions on clinical outcome. Current active immunotherapy trials have shown durable tumor regressions in a fraction of patients. However, clinical efficacy of current vaccines is limited, possibly because tumors skew the immune system by means of myeloid-derived suppressor cells, inflammatory type 2 T cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs), all of which prevent the generation of effector cells. To improve the clinical efficacy of cancer vaccines in patients with metastatic disease, we need to design novel and improved strategies that can boost adaptive immunity to cancer, help overcome Tregs and allow the breakdown of the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment.

Biological Response Modifiers in Human Oncology and Immunology

Biological Response Modifiers in Human Oncology and Immunology Book
Author : Andor Szentivanyi
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-11-11
ISBN : 1475714106
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The topic of biological response modifiers has attracted the attention of many biomedical investigators, including immunologists, oncologists, pharmacologists, microbiologists, and biochemists, as well as clinical practitioners of medicine. This has occurred mainly because of the realization that the complex system of cellular and humoral interactions culminating in a productive immune response is under exquisite regulatory control for normal immune responses and that loss of control may markedly influence the capability of a host to respond in a productive manner to the numerous immunologic "insults" encountered in the environment. Furthermore, biological response modification is considered by many to be a natural offshoot of the relatively new application of "immunotherapy" to cancer. It is widely recognized that "immunotherapy" was practiced at the end of the last century and the beginning of this century when it was recognized that microbial infections were caused by distinct species of bacteria and that passive administration of serum con taining antibody to these microbes or their products could, in many cases, favorably influence the outcome of an infectious process.

Metchnikoff and the Origins of Immunology

Metchnikoff and the Origins of Immunology Book
Author : Alfred I. Tauber,Leon Chernyak
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 1991-07-25
ISBN : 9780195345100
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This fascinating intellectual history is the first critical study of the work of Elie Metchnikoff, the founding father of modern immunology. Metchnikoff authored and championed the theory that phagocytic cells actively defend the host body against pathogens and diseased cells. His program developed from comparative embryological studies that sought to establish genealogical relations between species at the dawn of the Darwinian revolution. In this scientific biography, Tauber and Chernyak explore ore Metchnikoff's development as an embryologist, showing how it prepared him to propose his theory of host-pathogen interaction. They discuss the profound impact of Darwin's theory of evolution on Metchnikoff's progress, and the influence of 19th century debates on vitalism, teleology, and mechanism. As a case study of scientific discovery, this work offers lucid insight into the process of creative science and its dependence on cultural and philosophic sources. Immunologists and historians of science and medicine will find it an absorbing and accessible account of a remarkable individual.

Science in the Twentieth Century

Science in the Twentieth Century Book
Author : John Krige,Dominique Pestre
Publisher : Taylor & Francis
Release : 1997
ISBN : 9789057021725
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The history of science in the twentieth century is one of the most exciting fields currently being developed. This substantial and authoritative volume, demonstrates both incisive and well researched writing and the formidable accomplishments of science itself. The reader will understand how new organizations and enormously increased funding, refined laboratory procedures, new technology and warfare have decisively shaped the way science is practised.

Viruses Pandemics and Immunity

Viruses  Pandemics  and Immunity Book
Author : Arup K. Chakraborty,Andrey Shaw
Publisher : MIT Press
Release : 2021-02-16
ISBN : 0262542382
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

How viruses emerge to cause pandemics, how our immune system combats them, and how diagnostic tests, vaccines, and antiviral therapies work. Throughout history, humans have contended with pandemics. History is replete with references to plagues, pestilence, and contagion, but the devastation wrought by pandemics had been largely forgotten by the twenty-first century. Now, the enormous human and economic toll of the rapidly spreading COVID-19 disease offers a vivid reminder that infectious disease pandemics are one of the greatest existential threats to humanity. This book provides an accessible explanation of how viruses emerge to cause pandemics, how our immune system combats them, and how diagnostic tests, vaccines, and antiviral therapies work-- concepts that are a foundation for our public health policies.

General Immunology

General Immunology Book
Author : Edwin L. Cooper
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2014-05-20
ISBN : 1483136590
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

General Immunology provides a general overview of the immune system. It presents topics in immunology from all living groups, treating cells, tissues, organs, and organismal levels of biological organization. The book contains 23 chapters organized into eight sections. Section I serves as an introduction to immunology—a science, a sketch of its history, some of its more recent contributors, something about gathering facts, immunology journals, and the entire biomedical enterprise of which immunology is just a part. Section II is devoted to antigens while Section III examines the immune system in chordates and the ontogeny of the immune system. Section IV on cells of the immune system covers monocytes, macrophages, the three granulocytic types, and mast cells. Section V deals with phagocytosis and the interaction of lymphocytes. Section VI is devoted to antigens in relation to antibody synthesis, antigen-antibody interactions, immunologlobulin structure, and immunologlobulin assembly. Section VII on organs of the immune system examines bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, and lymphoid aggregations. Section VIII discusses the evolution of the immune system. This text was written for advanced undergraduates. However, its comprehensiveness makes it useful to immunologists and biologists at all levels as well as medical students and clinicians.

Jaagsiekte Sheep Retrovirus and Lung Cancer

Jaagsiekte Sheep Retrovirus and Lung Cancer Book
Author : Hung Y. Fan
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2002-12-13
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Retroviruses have been of great importance to biomedical science for the past half century. Initially, studies on oncogenic animal retroviruses provided important insights into molecular processes in carcinogenesis – most notably the existence and mechanisms of action of oncogenes and proto-oncogenes. Moreover, several human diseases are caused by retroviruses, including AIDS, adult T-cell leukemia and the neurological disease HAM/TSP. The topic of this volume is a relatively unknown animal retrovirus, jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus, the causative agent of transmissible lung cancer in sheep –ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma. The disease was first documented in South Africa in the 1800s, it has a wide geographical distribution, and it is of economic importance in high endemic regions. However, until very recently the nature of the etiologic agent was unclear, and relatively few laboratories actively studied the disease.

Tropical Medicine in the Twentieth Century

Tropical Medicine in the Twentieth Century Book
Author : Helen J. Power
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 1999
ISBN : 0710306040
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

First published in 1998. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Essential Immunology

Essential Immunology Book
Author : Peter J. Delves,Seamus J. Martin,Dennis R. Burton,Ivan M. Roitt
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2017-01-17
ISBN : 1118415779
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Preceded by Roitt's essential immunology / Peter J. Delves ... [et al.]. 12th ed. 2011.

Symposium in Immunology VII

Symposium in Immunology VII Book
Author : Martha M. Eibl,Christoph Huber,Hans H. Peter,Ulrich Wahn
Publisher : Springer
Release : 1998-03-02
ISBN : 9783540633600
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This is the seventh symposium in a series of symposia on immunology organized by IMMUNO covering this time vaccination. This volume deals with antigen-host interaction and hepatitis immunisation, novel vaccine concepts and technologies, and vaccines for the twenty-first century.

Tumor Microenvironment Regulation of Tumor Expansion

Tumor Microenvironment Regulation of Tumor Expansion Book
Author : Domenico Ribatti
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-04-04
ISBN : 0128228040
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Tumor Microenvironment Regulation of Tumor Expansion is a practical guide to understand and perform research on tumor microenvironments, and to support related clinical decisions. Tumor progression is linked to an imbalance between positive and negative regulators, and mainly depends on the release of specific growth factors by inflammatory or neoplastic cells. Inflammatory infiltrate contributes to tumor progression and the metastatic process, and there are many reports of associations between tumor inflammatory infiltrate, progression, and prognosis. Understanding different contexts of organs is a key factor in improving treatment outcome, especially in new therapeutic treatments targeting components of the tumor microenvironment. This book is a valuable resource for cancer researchers, clinicians, graduate students, and scientists in many biomedical fields who are interested in the complex relationship between the tumor microenvironment and its context in specific organs. Provides a holistic approach to understanding the crucial role of the tumor microenvironment in tumor progression Encompasses the basic knowledge necessary to understand and undertake further studies related to tumor microenvironments Discusses new therapeutic approaches developed to control tumor progression by targeting different components of the tumor microenvironment

A History of Immunology

A History of Immunology Book
Author : Arthur M. Silverstein
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2012-12-02
ISBN : 0080925839
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This is a professional-level intellectual history of the development of immunology from about 1720 to about 1970. Beginning with the work and insights of the early immunologists in the 18th century, Silverstein traces the development of the major ideas which have formed immunology down to the maturation of the discipline in the decade following the Second World War. Emphasis is placed on the philosophic and sociologic climate of the scientific milieu in which immunology has developed, providing a background to the broad culture of the discipline. A professional-level intellectual history of the development of immunology from about 1720 to 1970, with emphasis placed on the social climate of the scientific milieu in which modern immunology evolved Written by an author very well known both as a historian of medical science and for his substantial research contributions to the immunopathology of the eye The only complete history of immunology available

Companion to Science in the Twentieth Century

Companion to Science in the Twentieth Century Book
Author : John Krige,Dominique Pestre
Publisher : Taylor & Francis
Release : 2003
ISBN : 9780415286060
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This work on science in the 20th century represents work in America, Europe and Asia. It includes such topics as the countries that have made the most significant contributions, the relationship between science and industry and the importance of instrumentation.