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Immunity And Inflammation In Health And Disease

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Immunity and Inflammation in Health and Disease

Immunity and Inflammation in Health and Disease Book
Author : Shampa Chatterjee,Debasis Bagchi,Wolfgang Jungraithmayr
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2017-08-01
ISBN : 9780128054178
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Immunity and Inflammation in Health and Disease: Emerging Roles of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods in Immune Support provides a comprehensive description of the various pathways by which our immune system works, the signals that trigger immune response and how foods can be used to contain inflammation and boost immunity. This book addresses the role of dietary nutrients in playing a balancing role between host defense and immune support, focusing on new and novel nutraceuticals and functional foods. The first three sections address the various aspects of activation of the immune system. The fourth section deals with the ramifications of a robust and excessive inflammatory response. The final section is focused on the association between nutrition and immunity and how deficiencies in certain nutrients may affect immunocompetence. The conclusion section collates the earlier chapters and discusses paradigm shifts in the field whereby new futuristic directions are also envisioned. Conceptualizes the key features in natural products which can boost immune function and immune health Explains the intricate mechanistic aspects and balance behind immune health Presents the pathophysiology of several diseases associated with immune system disruption

Neurogenic Inflammation in Health and Disease

Neurogenic Inflammation in Health and Disease Book
Author : Gábor Jancsó
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0444532293
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Morphological and functional studies revealed a complex system of primary sensory neurons which parallels the autonomic nervous system not only in its extent, but probably also in its significance. Neuropeptides released from activated nociceptive afferent nerves play a pivotal role in inflammatory reactions and pain, significantly modulate cardiac, vascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal and immune functions and influence the protective, restorative and trophic functions of somatic and visceral tissues. Several chapters of the book deal with the therapeutic potential of a new class of putative pain relieving agents acting through TRPV1, the capsaicin/vanilloid receptor, a specific ion channel which transmits pain. * Neurogenic inflammation in historical perspective * Cardiac protection by nociceptive afferents * Molecular mechanisms of nociception * Sensory mechanisms in migraine pathophysiology * Vagal signalling of visceral inflammation * Neurogenic mechanisms in arthritis * Therapeutic implications of vanilloid-type compounds

Cytokine Frontiers

Cytokine Frontiers Book
Author : Takayuki Yoshimoto,Tomohiro Yoshimoto
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-10-28
ISBN : 4431544429
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book guides the reader through the latest research on the cytokine network, covering signaling pathways, control of the immune response, and potential therapeutics. Different cytokines stimulate diverse responses in various phases of inflammation and immunity, including the innate immune response, the generation of effector T cells, and the development of antibodies by the humoral immune system. It is now clear that the pathophysiology of many infectious, autoimmune, allergic, and malignant diseases can be largely explained by which cytokines are induced and subsequently regulate the cellular responses. In clinical medicine, cytokines are involved in a wide spectrum of diseases. This book describes in three parts the properties and roles of 15 key cytokines under physiological and pathological conditions. Part I presents nine cytokines associated with inflammatory disorders, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and the recently identified new helper T (Th) subset: Th17 cells. Part II gives details of three cytokines associated with allergic disorders, including Th2 responses and recently identified types of innate cells. Part III describes three cytokines that are associated with immunological tolerance and anti-inflammation, including regulatory T (Treg) cells, IL-10-producing Treg (Tr1) cells, and inducible IL-35-producing Treg (iTr35) cells. Cytokines are considered to be important as therapeutic targets for specific agonists or antagonists in numerous immune and inflammatory diseases. The ultimate goal of this book is to facilitate the development of therapeutic treatments for such diseases which has been limited by an insufficient understanding of the biology of cytokines and the complicated network that they create.

Diet Immunity and Inflammation

Diet  Immunity and Inflammation Book
Author : Philip C. Calder,Parveen Yaqoob
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2013-10-14
ISBN : 9780081013809
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides an overview of key research on diets and the human immune responses. After an introductory section on the fundamentals of immunity and inflammation, following chapters review the effects of different food constituents.

The Th2 Type Immune Response in Health and Disease

The Th2 Type Immune Response in Health and Disease Book
Author : William C. Gause,David Artis
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-12-08
ISBN : 1493929119
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The type 2 immune response that develops during infectious disease has undergone major paradigm shifts in the last several years as new cell types and pathways have been identified. It is now clear that the type 2 immune response, characterized by elevations in specific cytokines, including IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13, is associated with helminth infections in both humans and mice. This response is complex and includes effector functions that mediate resistance, contributing to expulsion and in some cases destruction, of the parasite. But just as importantly, the type 2 immune response can also mediate tolerance mechanisms, which can mitigate tissue injury as these large multicellular parasites transit through vital organs. The tolerance mechanisms include both tissue repair and immune regulatory effects. These latter aspects of the helminth-induced type 2 immune response are increasingly recognized as a potential resource that can be mined for the development of novel immunotherapies that may enhance wound healing, control of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases and regulation of metabolic homeostasis. In this book, leading researchers in this exciting and dynamic field discuss the latest findings and emerging concepts, providing an intellectual framework that can be used as a basis for new discoveries and potentially new treatments for diseases associated with inflammation.

Diet immunity and inflammation

Diet  immunity and inflammation Book
Author : F. Trejo,Y. Sanz
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-09-30
ISBN : 0128087021
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The intestinal microbiota and some probiotics are known to interact with the host’s immune system, thereby influencing both health status and disease risk. These interactions contribute to immune response activation against dangerous stimuli, as well as to the activation of regulatory mechanisms that avoid uncontrolled inflammation and chronic pathologies. To date, most of the applications of probiotics with immunomodulatory traits have been focused on prevention and treatment of different clinical conditions, including infections, chronic inflammatory bowel disorders and allergies. Herein, the modes of action of intestinal bacteria and probiotics on the immune system and their uses in human health are revised.

Immunity and Inflammation in Health and Disease

Immunity and Inflammation in Health and Disease Book
Author : Shampa Chatterjee,Wolfgang Jungraithmayr,Debasis Bagchi
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2017-08-31
ISBN : 0128054026
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Immunity and Inflammation in Health and Disease: Emerging Roles of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods in Immune Support provides a comprehensive description of the various pathways by which the vertebrate immune system works, the signals that trigger immune response and how fnew and novel nutraceuticals and functional foods, can be used to contain inflammation and also to boost immunity and immune health. Inflammation is a tool to fight pathogens and the vertebrate immune system has a very complex network of cells to achieve this. However inflammation that goes awry is also the leding cause of several diseases ranging from cardiovascular diseases to diabetes. This book covers the entire gamut from the various cellular players in the inflammation-immune response to its ramifications in terms of protection against pathogens as well as in onset of metabolic, aging and auto-immune related diseases. Finally, the balancing role of dietary nutrients between host defence and immune support is also showcased. The first three scetions explain the various components of the immune system and their modes of activation. The fourth section deals with the ramifications of a robust and execessive inflammatory response. The fifth section is focused on the association between nutrition and immunity and how deficiencies in certain nutrients may affect immunocompetence. The sixth section chapters represent a vision of paradigm shifts within the field and discusses possible future directions. This bool will be a valuable reference for researchers studying immune health either in academia, or in the nutraceutical or functional food industries. Product developers in nutraceutical, supplement, functional food, and health food companies will also appreciate the information presented here. Conceptualizes the key features in natural products which can boost immune function and immune health Explains the intricate mechanistic aspects and balance behind immune health Presents the pathophysiology of several diseases associated with immune system disruption

Neuroimmune Biology

Neuroimmune Biology Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Neuroimmune Biology book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Lymphocyte Trafficking in Health and Disease

Lymphocyte Trafficking in Health and Disease Book
Author : Raffaele Badolato,Silvano Sozzani
Publisher : Birkhäuser
Release : 2006-07-18
ISBN : 9783764373085
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book deals with the description of the role of chemokines in immune response and underlines potential targets of therapeutical intervention. It offers a series of international contributions of the most challenging aspects of lymphocyte migration in homeostasis and in disease, and has a special focus on diseases and targets of therapeutical intervention. The book will interest researchers and clinicians from inflammation research.

Diet immunity and inflammation

Diet  immunity and inflammation Book
Author : F. Guarner
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-09-30
ISBN : 012808703X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The human gut is the natural habitat for a diverse and dynamic microbial ecosystem having an important impact on health and disease. Unabsorbed portions of food are a major nutritional source for these microbial communities. Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients that are selectively fermented in the gut resulting in specific changes in the composition or activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota, thus conferring benefits upon host health. Inulin-type fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides are the most extensively studied prebiotics. They are fermented in the colon to short-chain fatty acids, and selectively stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria. These changes have an impact on the mucosal and systemic immune system and are correlated with a series of health benefits reviewed in this chapter.

Regulation of Inflammatory Signaling in Health and Disease

Regulation of Inflammatory Signaling in Health and Disease Book
Author : Dakang Xu
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-09-18
ISBN : 981105987X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book discusses recent research in innate immunity, which has revealed a large number of receptors that sense the presence of microorganisms or cellular damage in tissues. In complex tissues, many of these sensing events occur simultaneously. Thus, the downstream signaling pathways need to be integrated so that an appropriate cellular inflammatory response can be initiated. In addition, the inflammasome defines the molecular and cellular processes of inflammation in response to microbial infection. Previous data suggested that regulation of inflammasomes is mediated by microbes, but inflammasomes also have antimicrobial functions. Increasing evidence in mouse models, together with human data, strongly implicates an involvement of the inflammasome and uncontrolled inflammation in the initiation and progression of diseases with a high impact on public health. The book reviews novel aspects of functional genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, post-translat ional modifications, microbiome and immunometabolism in order to understand inflammatory signaling and responses, covering recent findings on the mechanisms underlying the regulation of inflammatory responses to pathogens, dysregulation of these responses in inflammatory disease, and the use of such mechanisms to boost or subdue the inflammatory response. Bridging the gaps in understanding between the fields of human and mouse immunology, it provides valuable insights into inflammatory-mediated disease and immune defense. Such innovative perspectives in both basic and clinical research promote the translation of knowledge to the clinic.

Biology of C Reactive Protein in Health and Disease

Biology of C Reactive Protein in Health and Disease Book
Author : Waliza Ansar,Shyamasree Ghosh
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-03-23
ISBN : 8132226801
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book offers a comprehensive study of C-reactive protein (CRP) belonging to the pentraxin family, including a brief history of CRP, its structure, synthesis and evolution. Focusing on the emerging role of CRP and its clinical application in the field of disease biology, it details the pathophysiological role of CRP in a host of diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancers, rheumatoid arthritis and infectious diseases and others. It also discusses the role of innate immunity and acute phase response (APR) and their key mediators in the host body in response to tissue injury, infection, trauma or surgery, immunological disorders or neoplastic growth. CRP’s significance in inflammation is highlighted, and its importance as a clinical marker in cardiovascular disease, its functional significance in Leishmania and Plasmodium infections, its association with the development of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus, and its role in cancer are discussed in detail. The book also includes clinical data studies and presents the latest research advances to further readers’ understanding of CRP.

The Metabolic Challenges of Immune Cells in Health and Disease

The Metabolic Challenges of Immune Cells in Health and Disease Book
Author : Claudio Mauro,Christian Frezza
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015-07-13
ISBN : 2889196224
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Obesity and its co-morbidities, including atherosclerosis, insulin resistance and diabetes, are a world-wide epidemic. Inflammatory immune responses in metabolic tissues have emerged as a universal feature of these metabolic disorders. While initial work highlighted the contribution of macrophages to tissue inflammation and insulin resistance, recent studies demonstrate that cells of the adaptive immune compartment, including T and B lymphocytes and dendritic cells also participate in obesity-induced pathogenesis of these conditions. However, the molecular and cellular pathways by which the innate and adaptive branches of immunity control tissue and systemic metabolism remain poorly understood. To engage in growth and activation, cells need to increase their biomass and replicate their genome. This process presents a substantial bioenergetic challenge: growing and activated cells must increase ATP production and acquire or synthesize raw materials, including lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. To do so, they actively reprogram their intracellular metabolism from catabolic mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis and other anabolic pathways. This metabolic reprogramming is under the control of specific signal transduction pathways whose underlying molecular mechanisms and relevance to physiology and disease are subject of considerable current interest and under intense study. Recent reports have elucidated the physiological role of metabolic reprogramming in macrophage and T cell activation and differentiation, B- and dendritic cell biology, as well as in the crosstalk of immune cells with endothelial and stem cells. It is also becoming increasingly evident that alterations of metabolic pathways play a major role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory disorders. Due to the scientific distance between immunologists and experts in metabolism (e.g., clinicians and biochemists), however, there has been limited cross-talk between these communities. This collection of articles aims at promoting such cross-talk and accelerating discoveries in the emerging field of immunometabolism.

TH17 Cells in Health and Disease

TH17 Cells in Health and Disease Book
Author : Shuiping Jiang
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2014-10-01
ISBN : 9781489997340
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

“About 25 years ago, Mosmann & Coffman introduced the TH1 / TH2 paradigm of T helper cell differentiation which helped explain many aspects of adaptive immunity from eliminating intracellular versus extracellular pathogens to induction of different types of tissue inflammation. However, TH1 / TH2 paradigm could not adequately explain development of certain inflammatory responses which provided impetus for the discovery of a new subset of T cells called TH17 cells. After the discovery of differentiation and transcription factors for TH17 cells, it was clear that TH17 cells represent an independent subset of T cells with specific functions in eliminating certain extracellular pathogens, presumably not adequately handled by TH1 or TH2 cells. The major role of TH17 cells has been described in inducing auto-immune tissue inflammation. The discovery of TH17 cells has expanded the TH1 / TH2 paradigm, and the integration of TH17 cells with TH1 and TH2 effector T cells is beginning to explain the underlying mechanisms of tissue inflammation in a number of infections and auto-immune disease settings.” - From Chapter One by Vijay K. Kuchroo, Harvard University, USA “The recently identified Interleukin 17 (IL-17) cytokine family contributes to immunity to infectious diseases and chronic inflammatory diseases. Further studies on the regulation and function of this important cytokine family may provide better understanding on the roles of the IL-17 family in immune-mediated diseases; such knowledge may lead to the development of immunotherapeutic strategies for treatment of several inflammatory diseases.” - From Chapter Two by Chen Dong, University of Texas and MD Anderson Cancer Center, USA

Lung Inflammation in Health and Disease Volume I

Lung Inflammation in Health and Disease  Volume I Book
Author : Yong-Xiao Wang
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021-05-02
ISBN : 3030630463
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Respiratory diseases are leading causes of death and disability globally, with about 65 million people suffering from COPD, and 334 million from asthma, the most common chronic disease. Each year, tens of millions of people develop and can die from from respiratory infections such as pneumonia and TB. Systemic inflammation may induce and exacerbate local inflammatory diseases in the lungs, and local inflammation can in turn cause systemic inflammation. There is increasing evidence of the coexistence of systemic and local inflammation in patients suffering from asthma, COPD, and other lung diseases, and the co-morbidity of two or more local inflammatory diseases often occurs. For example, rheumatoid arthritis frequently occurs together with, and promotes the development of, pulmonary hypertension. This co-morbidity significantly impacts quality of life, and can result in death for those affected. Current treatment options for lung disease are neither effective, nor condition-specific; there is a desperate need for novel therapeutics in the field. Additionally, the molecular and physiological significance of most major lung diseases is not well understood, which further impedes development of new treatments, especially in the case of coexistent lung diseases with other inflammatory diseases. Great progress has been made in recent years in many areas of the field, particularly in understanding the molecular geneses, regulatory mechanisms, signalling pathways, and cellular processes within lung disease, as well as basic and clinical technology, drug discovery, diagnoses, treatment options, and predictive prognoses. This is the first text to aggregate these developments. In two comprehensive volumes, experts from all over the world present state-of-the-art advances in the study of lung inflammation in health and disease. Contributing authors cover well-known as well as emerging topics in basic, translational, and clinical research, with the aim of providing researchers, clinicians, professionals, and students with new perspectives and concepts. The editors hope these books will also help to direct future research in lung disease and other inflammatory diseases, and result in the development of novel therapeutics.

Ocular Immunology in Health and Disease

Ocular Immunology in Health and Disease Book
Author : Steven B. Koevary
Publisher : Butterworth-Heinemann Medical
Release : 1999
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Ocular Immunology in Health and Disease is designed to provide the reader with a review of the basic concepts in immunology. A thorough introductory section is followed by a discussion of the unique attributes of ocular immunity and the basis of ocular immune privilege. * - Provides a basic introduction to immunology for the student and practitioner * - Detailed and thorough introduction and discussion included in each chapter * - Describes unique attributes of ocular immunity and the basis of ocular immune privilege

Basic Immunology

Basic Immunology Book
Author : Stewart Sell
Publisher : Elsevier Publishing Company
Release : 1987
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Basic Immunology book written by Stewart Sell, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Neuroimmune Interface in Health and Diseases

Neuroimmune Interface in Health and Diseases Book
Author : Ihssane Zouikr,Sanae Hasegawa-Ishii,Atsuyoshi Shimada
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2017-12-06
ISBN : 2889453782
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

It is now well appreciated that the immune system, in addition to its traditional role in defending the organism against pathogens, communicate in a well-organized fashion with the brain to maintain homeostasis and regulate a set of neural functions. Perturbation in this brain-immune interactions due to inflammatory responses may lead to psychiatric and neurological disorders. Microglia are one of the essential cells involved in the brain-immune interactions. Microglial cells are now not simply regarded as resident tissue macrophages in the brain. These cells are derived from myeloid progenitor cells in the yolk sac in early gestation, travel to the brain parenchyma and interact actively with neurons during the critical period of neurogenesis. Microglia provide a trophic support to developing neurons and take part in the neural wiring through the activity-dependent synapse elimination via direct neuron-microglia interactions. Altered microglial functions including changes in the gene expression due to early life inflammatory events or psychological and environmental stressors can be causally related to neurodevelopmental diseases and mental health disorders. This type of alterations in the neural functions can occur in the absence of infiltration of inflammatory cells in the brain parenchyma or leptomeninges. In this sense, the pathogenetic state underlying a significant part of psychiatric and neurological diseases may be similar to “para-inflammation”, an intermediate state between homeostatic and classical inflammatory states as defined by Ruslan Medzhitov (Nature 454:428-35, 2008). Therefore, it is important to study how systemic inflammation affects brain health and how local peripheral inflammation induces changes in the brain microenvironment. Chronic pain is also induced by disturbance in otherwise well-organized multisystem interplay comprising of reciprocal neural, endocrine and immune interactions. Especially, early-life insults including exposure to immune challenges can alter the neuroanatomical components of nociception, which induces altered pain response later in life. Recently the discrete roles of microglia and blood monocyte-derived macrophages are being defined. The distinction may be further highlighted by disorders in which the brain parenchymal tissue is damaged. Therefore, studies investigating the dynamics of immune cells in traumatic brain injury and neurotropic viral infections including human immunodeficiency virus, etc. as well as neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are promising to clarify the interplay between the central nervous and immune systems. The understanding of the histological architecture providing the infrastructure of such neuro-immune interplay is also essential. This Frontiers research topic brings together fourteen articles and aims to create a platform for researchers in the field of psychoneuroimmunology to share the recent theories, hypotheses and future perspectives regarding open questions on the mechanisms of cell-cell interactions with chemical mediators among the nervous, immune and endocrine systems. We hope that this platform would reveal the relevance of the studies on multisystem interactions to enhance the understanding of the mechanisms underlying a wide variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

Myeloid Cells in Health and Disease

Myeloid Cells in Health and Disease Book
Author : Siamon Gordon
Publisher : ASM Press
Release : 2017-02-22
ISBN : 9781555819187
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The structure, functions, and interactions of myeloid cells have long been the focus of research and therapeutics development. Yet, much more remains to be discovered about the complex web of relationships that makes up the immune systems of animals. Scientists today are applying genome-wide analyses, single-cell methods, gene editing, and modern imaging techniques to reveal new subclasses of differentiated myeloid cells, new receptors and cytokines, and important interactions among immune cells. In Myeloid Cells in Health and Disease: A Synthesis, Editor Siamon Gordon has assembled an international team of esteemed scientists to provide their perspectives of myeloid cells during innate and adaptive immunity. The book begins by presenting the foundational research of Paul Ehrlich, Elie Metchnikoff, and Donald Metcalf. The following chapters discuss evolution and the life cycles of myeloid cells; specific types of differentiated myeloid cells, including macrophage differentiation; and antigen processing and presentation. The rest of the book is organized by broad topics in immunology, including the recruitment of myeloid and other immune cells following microbial infection the role of myeloid cells in the inflammation process and the repair of damaged tissue the vast arsenal of myeloid cell secretory molecules, including metalloproteinases, tumor necrosis factor, histamine, and perforin receptors and downstream signaling pathways that are activated following ligand-receptor binding roles of myeloid cells during microbial and parasite infections contributions of myeloid cells in atherosclerosis myeloid-derived suppressor cells in tumor development and cancer Myeloid Cells in Health and Disease: A Synthesis will benefit graduate students and researchers in immunology, hematology, microbial pathogenesis, infectious disease, pathology, and pharmacology. Established scientists and physicians in these and related fields will enjoy the book's rich history of myeloid cell research and suggestions for future research directions and potential therapies.

Mucosal Immunity in Vocal Health and Disease

Mucosal Immunity in Vocal Health and Disease Book
Author : Marie Elisabeth Jetté
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Chronic laryngitis, characterized by inflammation of the laryngeal tissues, is the most commonly diagnosed organic voice disorder, yet treatments targeting suspected etiologic factors (e.g., laryngopharyngeal reflux) have demonstrated limited efficacy. A major barrier to the development of improved medical therapies for chronic laryngitis is a fundamental gap in knowledge related to the pathophysiology of laryngeal inflammation. The first line of laryngeal immune defense is the mucosal barrier, which includes the epithelium, communities of bacteria inhabiting the tissue (i.e., microbiota), and resident immune cells. Mucosal immunity is governed by the interplay among these players and persistent inflammation has been attributed to dysregulation of mucosal immune responses. Access to laryngeal tissue, absence of useful animal models, and lack of well-designed investigations of immune function have limited studies of laryngeal inflammation. The research presented herein provides foundational human data for the ongoing study of chronic laryngitis. This dissertation focuses on identifying the underlying pathophysiology of chronic laryngitis by investigating mucosal immunity in the larynx. The work presented herein aims to: (1) elucidate the role of laryngopharyngeal reflux in signs of inflammation at the level of the larynx by correlating clinical study data (Study I); (2) identify the microbiota of human laryngeal tissue using 454 pyrosequencing (Study II); and (3) identify the effects of smoking and reflux on epigenetic Treg cell counts in the larynx (Study III). In Study I, we found that the Reflux Finding Score is not specific for reflux in healthy, untreated volunteers, suggesting there may be alternate explanations for inflammatory clinical signs commonly ascribed to reflux in this population. The results of Study II yielded variability and diversity of the laryngeal microbiota with several common genera present across all tissues and no distinguishable differences in bacterial communities based on smoking and reflux. Study III results demonstrate no differences in Treg counts relative to smoking and reflux. Post hoc analysis revealed that bacterial communities of false vocal folds were different from those found in benign vocal fold lesions, suggesting that dominance by Streptococcus may be a factor in disease etiology as previously suspected.