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Imaging Of The Human Brain In Health And Disease

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Imaging of the Human Brain in Health and Disease

Imaging of the Human Brain in Health and Disease Book
Author : Philip Seeman,Bertha Madras
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2013-11-15
ISBN : 012418684X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Brain imaging technology remains at the forefront of advances in both our understanding of the brain and our ability to diagnose and treat brain disease and disorders. Imaging of the Human Brain in Health and Disease examines the localization of neurotransmitter receptors in the nervous system of normal, healthy humans and compares that with humans who are suffering from various neurologic diseases. Opening chapters introduce the basic science of imaging neurotransmitters, including sigma, acetylcholine, opioid, and dopamine receptors. Imaging the healthy and diseased brain includes brain imaging of anger, pain, autism, the release of dopamine, the impact of cannabinoids, and Alzheimer's disease. This book is a valuable companion to a wide range of scholars, students, and researchers in neuroscience, clinical neurology, and psychiatry, and provides a detailed introduction to the application of advanced imaging to the treatment of brain disorders and disease. A focused introduction to imaging healthy and diseased brains Focuses on the primary neurotransmitter release Includes sigma, acetylcholine, opioid, and dopamine receptors Presents the imaging of healthy and diseased brains via anger, pain, autism, and Alzheimer's disease

Brain Imaging in Behavioral Neuroscience

Brain Imaging in Behavioral Neuroscience Book
Author : Cameron S. Carter,Jeffrey W. Dalley
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-11-04
ISBN : 3642287115
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume highlights the remarkable new developments in brain imaging, including those that apply magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET), that allow us to non invasively study the living human brain in health and in disease. These technological advances have allowed us to obtain new and powerful insights into the structure and function of the healthy brain as it develops across the life cycle, as well as the molecular make up of brain systems and circuits as they develop and change with age. New brain imaging technologies have also given us new insights into the causes of many common brain disorders, including ADHD, schizophrenia, depression and Alzheimer’s disease, which collectively affect a large segment of the population. These new insights have major implications for understanding and treating these brain disorders, and are providing clinicians with the first ever set of biomarkers that can be used to guide diagnosis and monitor treatment effects. The advances in brain imaging over the last 20 years, summarized in this volume, represent a major advance in modern biomedical sciences.

Mathematical computational Strategies for Analyzing 3D Human Brain Image Databases

Mathematical computational Strategies for Analyzing 3D Human Brain Image Databases Book
Author : Paul Matthew Thompson
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1999
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Mathematical computational Strategies for Analyzing 3D Human Brain Image Databases book written by Paul Matthew Thompson, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Accurate and Robust Automated Segmentation in T1 weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Human Brain

Accurate and Robust Automated Segmentation in T1 weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Human Brain Book
Author : Philip Novosad
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2020
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful non-invasive imaging technique with wide-ranging applications in both research and the clinic. Combined with complementary clinical or psychological data, structural MRI of the human brain in both health and disease can be used to investigate a broad array of questions regarding the nature of the relationship between brain structure and health and behaviour. Structural MRI can also be used to obtain quantitative structural biomarkers, which, when combined with machine-learning classifiers, can be used for diagnostic and prognostic purposes in the clinic. Such applications require the segmentation of strutural MRI images into the various anatomical structures of the brain. While manual labelling by a human expert adhering to a well-defined protocol has long been considered the gold-standard approach, it is highly time consuming and subject to both inter- and intra-rater variability. Automated methods for neuroanatomical segmentation are therefore necessary, but require dataset-specific training data for good performance. A recent class of methods seek to transfer labels from a set of manually labelled `training images' to the `test images' under consideration. While these methods generally perform well when both the training and testing data come from homogeneous datasets consisting of images of subjects from a similar demographic and using similar MR scanner and pulse sequence, their performance can be substantially degraded when this condition is not met. Despite this requirement, generating a set of representative manually labelled training images for application to each different domain is highly impractical, particularly for modern `big data' conglomerate datasets consisting of images from tens to hundreds of different centres. Consequently, users often train their segmentation algorithms on pre-labelled images from disparate domains (or use a classifier pre-trained on such data), reducing the accuracy and statistical power of their subsequent analyses. The primary objective of this thesis is to develop and validate automated segmentation methods for T1-weighted (T1w) MRI which are more robust to differences between the training and testing data, allowing users to leverage existing labelled datasets to process T1w images of arbitrary domain. To this end, we first develop a novel brain extraction method based on a multi-resolution patch-based segmentation framework in combination with a machine-learning classifier to automatically identify and correct errors in the automated segmentation. Using five manually labelled datasets for validation, we demonstrate significantly improved cross-domain performance compared to nine other brain extraction methods. Second, we develop a more general purpose neuroanatomical segmentation method using a context-augmented convolutional neural network (CNN). Validation on three manually labelled datasets demonstrates new state-of-the-art segmentation accuracies on several multi-structure segmentation tasks, while being orders of magnitudes faster compared to more conventional segmentation methods. Finally, we extend the aforementioned CNN-based method specifically for cross-domain applications using a novel self-ensembling approach in combination with a rich data augmentation scheme. Validation using three manually labelled datasets from different domains demonstrates improved multi-structure segmentation performance in cross-domain applications"--

Advanced Brain Neuroimaging Topics in Health and Disease

Advanced Brain Neuroimaging Topics in Health and Disease Book
Author : Dorina Papageorgiou,George Christopoulos,Stelios Smirnakis
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2014-05-31
ISBN : 9535112031
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The brain is the most complex computational device we know, consisting of highly interacting and redundant networks of areas, supporting specific brain functions. The rules by which these areas organize themselves to perform specific computations have only now started to be uncovered. Advances in non-invasive neuroimaging technologies have revolutionized our understanding of the functional anatomy of cortical circuits in health and disease states, which is the focus of this book. The first section of this book focuses on methodological issues, such as combining functional MRI technology with other brain imaging modalities. The second section examines the application of brain neuroimaging to understand cognitive, visual, auditory, motor and decision-making networks, as well as neurological diseases. The use of non-invasive neuroimaging technologies will continue to stimulate an exponential growth in understanding basic brain processes, largely as a result of sustained advances in neuroimaging methods and applications.

Imaging and monitoring astrocytes in health and disease

Imaging and monitoring astrocytes in health and disease Book
Author : Carole Escartin, Keith Murai
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2014-11-25
ISBN : 2889193934
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Astrocytes are key cellular partners to neurons in the brain. They play an important role in multiple processes such as neurotransmitter recycling, trophic support, antioxidant defense, ionic homeostasis, inflammatory modulation, neurovascular and neurometabolic coupling, neurogenesis, synapse formation and synaptic plasticity. In addition to their crucial involvement in normal brain physiology, it is well known that astrocytes adopt a reactive phenotype under most acute and chronic pathological conditions such as ischemia, trauma, brain cancer, epilepsy, demyelinating and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the functional impact of astrocyte reactivity is still unclear. During the last decades, the development of innovative approaches to study astrocytes has significantly improved our understanding of their prominent role in brain function and their contribution to disease states. In particular, new genetic tools, molecular probes, and imaging techniques that achieve high spatial and temporal resolution have revealed new insight into astrocyte functions in situ. This Research Topic provides a collection of cutting-edge techniques, approaches and models to study astrocytes in health and disease. It also suggests new directions to achieve discoveries on these fascinating cells.

INIS Atomindex

INIS Atomindex Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1987
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download INIS Atomindex book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Alternatives to Laboratory Animals

Alternatives to Laboratory Animals Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2000
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

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Angelo Mosso s Circulation of Blood in the Human Brain

Angelo Mosso s Circulation of Blood in the Human Brain Book
Author : Marcus E. Raichle,Gordon M. Shepherd
Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
Release : 2014-09-29
ISBN : 0199358982
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Modern brain imaging is revolutionizing the study of brain function in health and disease. However, few realize that its origins began in the nineteenth century with Dr. Angelo Mosso's pioneering experiments. A foremost Italian physiologist and scientist, Angelo Mosso studied several patients brought to him with head injuries that exposed their live brains to direct, long-term observation. He took advantage of these rare opportunities to document, for the first time, changes in cerebral blood flow in response to different stimuli, behaviors, and emotions, the very same changes that are now the basis for the measurements underlying modern functional brain imaging. Mosso was widely recognized by his contemporaries for his highly original studies, published both in Italian in 1878 and in German in 1881. Yet there has never been a translation through which this groundbreaking work could be appreciated by the English-speaking world. Indeed, Angelo Mosso's sophisticated experiments were to neuroscience what surgeon William Beaumont's in vivo observations were to gastric physiology fifty years earlier. This unique monograph establishes Mosso's rightful role as the pioneer of brain imaging. Through it, the modern reader, whether expert neuroscientist or interested student, can gain a new perspective on the author's remarkable insights: how behaviors as subtle as thinking about a subject or feeling an emotion produce the changes in pulsations of the brain that he observed and recorded for posterity. Special features of this volume include first a brief summary of Mosso's life. Two pioneers of modern brain imaging, Marcus E. Raichle (winner of the Kavli Prize for Neuroscience) and Gordon M. Shepherd (Yale University Professor of Neurobiology) then review Mosso's work and provide extensive commentary to explain its relevance to modern brain science. The authors not only emphasize Mosso's pioneering role in brain imaging, but also his fundamental contribution to the rise of cognitive neuroscience. The English translation (by historian of medicine Christiane Nockels Fabbri) follows, together with all of the plates and illustrations of the original volume. The result is a classic of neuroscience, now available for wide appreciation by neuroscientists, neurologists, psychologists, psychiatrists, historians of science and medicine, and the general public.

Fundamentals of Brain Network Analysis

Fundamentals of Brain Network Analysis Book
Author : Alex Fornito,Andrew Zalesky,Edward Bullmore
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-03-04
ISBN : 0124081185
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Fundamentals of Brain Network Analysis is a comprehensive and accessible introduction to methods for unraveling the extraordinary complexity of neuronal connectivity. From the perspective of graph theory and network science, this book introduces, motivates and explains techniques for modeling brain networks as graphs of nodes connected by edges, and covers a diverse array of measures for quantifying their topological and spatial organization. It builds intuition for key concepts and methods by illustrating how they can be practically applied in diverse areas of neuroscience, ranging from the analysis of synaptic networks in the nematode worm to the characterization of large-scale human brain networks constructed with magnetic resonance imaging. This text is ideally suited to neuroscientists wanting to develop expertise in the rapidly developing field of neural connectomics, and to physical and computational scientists wanting to understand how these quantitative methods can be used to understand brain organization. Extensively illustrated throughout by graphical representations of key mathematical concepts and their practical applications to analyses of nervous systems Comprehensively covers graph theoretical analyses of structural and functional brain networks, from microscopic to macroscopic scales, using examples based on a wide variety of experimental methods in neuroscience Designed to inform and empower scientists at all levels of experience, and from any specialist background, wanting to use modern methods of network science to understand the organization of the brain

Magnetoencephalography an emerging neuroimaging tool for studying normal and abnormal human brain development

Magnetoencephalography  an emerging neuroimaging tool for studying normal and abnormal human brain development Book
Author : Christos Papadelis,Patricia Ellen Grant, Yoshio Okada,Hubert Preissl
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015-10-12
ISBN : 2889196585
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Research on the human brain development has seen an upturn in the past years mostly due to novel neuroimaging tools that became available to study the anatomy and function of the developing brain. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) are beginning to be used more frequently in children to determine the gross anatomy and structural connectivity of their brain. Functional MRI and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) determine the hemodynamics and electroencephalography (EEG) the electrophysiological functions of the developing human brain. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) complements EEG as the only other technique capable of directly measuring the developing brain electrophysiology. Although MEG is still being used relatively rarely in pediatric studies, the recent development in this technology is beginning to demonstrate its utility in both basic and clinical neurosciences. MEG seems to be quite attractive for pediatric use, since it measures the human brain activity in an entirely passive manner without possessing any conceivable risk to the developing tissue. MEG sessions generally require minimal patient preparation, and the recordings are extremely well tolerated from children. Biomagnetic techniques also offer an indirect way to assess the functional brain and heart activity of fetuses in humans in utero by measuring the magnetic field outside the maternal abdomen. Magnetic field produced by the electrical activity in the heart and brain of the fetus is not attenuated by the vernix, a waxy film covering its entire skin. A biomagnetic instrument specifically designed for fetal studies has been developed for this purpose. Fetal MEG studies using such a system have shown that both spontaneous brain activity and evoked cortical activity can be measured from outside the abdomen of pregnant mothers. Fetal MEG may become clinically very useful for implementation and evaluation of intervention programs in at-risk populations. Biomagnetic instruments have also been developed for specifically measuring the brain activity in newborns, infants and older children. MEG studies have shown the usefulness of MEG for localizing active regions in the brain and also for tracking the longitudinal maturation of various sensory systems. Studies of pediatric patients are beginning to show interesting functional pathology in autism spectrum disorder, cerebral palsy, epilepsy and other types of neurological and psychiatric disorders (Down syndrome, traumatic brain injury, Tourette syndrome, hearing deficits, childhood migraine). In this eBook, we compile the state of the art MEG and other neuroimaging studies focused on pediatric population in both health and disease. We believe a review of the recent studies of human brain development using MEG is quite timely, since we are witnessing advances not only in the instrumentation optimized for the pediatric population, but also in the research based on various types of MEG systems designed for both human fetuses in utero and neonates and older children.

History of Neurology

History of Neurology Book
Author : Stanley Finger, MD,Francois Boller,Kenneth L. Tyler, MD
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2010-03-02
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Handbook of Clinical Neurology: Volume 95 is the first of over 90 volumes of the handbook to be entirely devoted to the history of neurology. The book is a collection of historical materials from different neurology professionals. The book is divided into 6 sections and composed of 55 chapters organized around different aspects of the history of neurology. The first section presents the beginnings of neurology: ancient trepanation, its birth in Mesopotamia, ancient Egypt; the emergence of neurology in the biblical text and the Talmud; neurology in the Greco-Roman world and the period following Galen; neurological conditions in the European Middle Ages; and the development of neurology in the 17th and 18th centuries. The second section narrates the birth of localization theory; the beginning of neurology and histological applications, neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, surgical neurology and other anatomo-clinical methods. The third section covers further development of the discipline, including methods of neurological illustration and hospitals in neurology and neurosurgery. This section also narrates the history of child neurology, neurodisability and neuroendocrinology. It also features the application of molecular biology on clinical neurology. The fourth section describes the dysfunctions of the nervous system and their history. The fifth and last section covers the regional landmarks of neurology and the different treatments and recovery. The text is informative and useful for neuroscience or neurology professional, researchers, clinical practitioners, mental health experts, psychiatrists, and academic students and scholars in neurology. * A comprehensive accounting of historical developments and modern day advancements in the field of neurology * State-of-the-art information on topics including brain damage and dysfunctions of the nervous system * New treatments and recovery methods from redundancy to vicariation and neural transplantation, amongst others

Impact Assessment of the Biomedical and Health Research Programme BIOMED 2

Impact Assessment of the Biomedical and Health Research Programme BIOMED 2 Book
Author : European Commission. Directorate General for Research
Publisher : Office for Official Publications of the European Communities
Release : 2002
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Biomedical and Health Research Programme 'BIOMED2' was in operation for four years between 1994-98 with a budget of 360 million ECU. The purpose of the programme was to support the competitiveness of the European scientific research base by participating in cost-sharing research in four key areas: pharmaceuticals, biomedical technology, brain research and human genome research. The overall objective was to promote general health improvements and the transfer of medical research results into medical practice. This publication seeks to assess the impact of BIOMED2 and to identify lessons to be learned for future programmes.

Courts Health Science the Law

Courts  Health Science   the Law Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1990
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Courts Health Science the Law book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Transmitters and Modulators in Health and Disease

Transmitters and Modulators in Health and Disease Book
Author : Seiji Shioda,Ikuo Homma,Nobumasa Kato
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2009-07-25
ISBN : 4431990399
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Prominent international researchers contributed to this volume of reports advancing the study of brain function and morphology. Comprising investigations in several areas of neuroscience, the book includes research in neurodegenerative diseases and in neuroregeneration in adults. Described here are the effects of neuropeptides and biogenic amines on feeding, respiration, and other autonomic functions as well as on behavior. One chapter focuses on regulation of the blood brain barrier function by various neuropeptides, proteins, receptors, and transporters. Another is concerned with the modulation of higher brain functions by neuropeptides and biogenic monoamines. Yet another chapter presents research on ischemic neuronal damage and hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult mouse. Morphological or physiological techniques to study neuropeptides and neuromodulators influencing higher-order or brain-stem functions are given particular attention. The use of bio-imaging tools such as brain navigation systems and fMRIs with patients in a clinical setting creates new possibilities for investigation of human brain function and specialization of treatment.

Spatiotemporal Brain Imaging

Spatiotemporal Brain Imaging Book
Author : Arthur Kuang-Chung Liu
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2000
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Spatiotemporal Brain Imaging book written by Arthur Kuang-Chung Liu, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Neuroscience at the Intersection of Mind and Brain

Neuroscience at the Intersection of Mind and Brain Book
Author : Jack M. Gorman
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2018-08-15
ISBN : 0190850140
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Neuroscience, the study of the structure and function of the brain, has captured our imaginations. Breakthrough technologies permit neuroscientists to probe how the human brain works in ever-more fascinating detail, revealing what happens when we think, move, love, hate, and fear. We know more than ever before about what goes wrong in the brain when we develop psychiatric and neurological illnesses like depression, dementia, epilepsy, panic attacks, and schizophrenia. We also now have clues about how treatments for those disorders change the way our brains look and function. Neuroscience at the Intersection of Mind and Brain has three main purposes. First, it makes complicated concepts and findings in modern neuroscience accessible to anyone with an interest in how the brain works. Second, it explains in detail how every experience we have from the moment we are conceived changes our brains. Third, it advances the idea that psychotherapy is a type of life experience that alters brain function and corrects aberrant brain connections. Among the topics covered are: what makes our brains different from those of other primates, our nearest genetic neighbors? How do life's experiences affect genetic expression of the brain and the way neurons connect with each other? Why are connections between different parts of the brain important in both health and disease? What happens in the brains of animals and humans when we are suddenly afraid of something, get depressed, or fall in love? How do medications and psychotherapies work? The information in this book is based on cutting-edge research in neuroscience, psychiatry, and psychology. Written by an author who studied human behavior and brain function for three decades, it is presented in a highly accessible manner, full of personal anecdotes and observations, and touches on many of the controversies in contemporary mental health practice.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1999
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Brain Imaging in Behavioral Medicine and Clinical Neuroscience

Brain Imaging in Behavioral Medicine and Clinical Neuroscience Book
Author : Ronald A. Cohen,Lawrence H. Sweet
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2010-12-09
ISBN : 9781441963734
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Rapid developments in brain neuroimaging methods have occurred over the past decade. These advances have revolutionized cognitive and behavioral neuroscience, and are likely to have major influence on clinical psychological, psychiatric, and neurological practice over the coming years. There are a number of excellent books that focus on specific neuroimaging methods, such as fMRI. Furthermore, cognitive and neuroscience texts have increasingly incorporated functional brain neuroimaging. Yet, there are few books to date that consider and review emerging research in the application of brain neuroimaging methods for the study and assessment of behavioral and cognitive disorders. This book provides a broad coverage of current research trends in the clinical application of brain neuroimaging methods in the context of behavioral medicine, neuropsychology, and related areas of medical psychology. It uniquely integrates current neuroimaging methods and studies with current behavioral medicine research, and presents knowledge derived from recent developments in the fields of functional and structural brain imaging. By integrating information from experimental behavioral medicine with clinical insights, this book will serve as a source book for neuropsychologists, psychologists, neurologists, psychiatrists, and other professionals in both clinical practice and academic context. This integration results in the reader having a greater understanding of how the brain controls behavior, the disturbances of behavior that may occur with different disorders, and what clinicians should consider when assessing or working with patients with behavioral problems.

Micro Meso and Macro Connectomics of the Brain

Micro   Meso  and Macro Connectomics of the Brain Book
Author : Henry Kennedy,David C. Van Essen,Yves Christen
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-03-10
ISBN : 3319277774
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book has brought together leading investigators who work in the new arena of brain connectomics. This includes ‘macro-connectome’ efforts to comprehensively chart long-distance pathways and functional networks; ‘micro-connectome’ efforts to identify every neuron, axon, dendrite, synapse, and glial process within restricted brain regions; and ‘meso-connectome’ efforts to systematically map both local and long-distance connections using anatomical tracers. This book highlights cutting-edge methods that can accelerate progress in elucidating static ‘hard-wired’ circuits of the brain as well as dynamic interactions that are vital for brain function. The power of connectomic approaches in characterizing abnormal circuits in the many brain disorders that afflict humankind is considered. Experts in computational neuroscience and network theory provide perspectives needed for synthesizing across different scales in space and time. Altogether, this book provides an integrated view of the challenges and opportunities in deciphering brain circuits in health and disease.