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Hyperpolarized Carbon 13 Magnetic Resonance Imaging And Spectroscopy

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Hyperpolarized Carbon 13 Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy

Hyperpolarized Carbon 13 Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy Book
Author : Peder Larson
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-12-10
ISBN : 0128222697
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

MRI with hyperpolarized carbon-13 agents is a powerful emerging imaging modality that can measure real-time metabolism in cells, animals, and humans. It uses endogenous, non-toxic contrast agents that a hyperpolarized, resulting in up to 100,000-fold increases in sensitivity. This technique uses no ionizing radiation, and is being applied in a range of human trials. It's primary use is for metabolic imaging, but it can also measure perfusion, pH, and necrosis. Hyperpolarized Carbon-13 Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy is designed to be a one stop shop for understanding hyperpolarized 13C MRI. This book explains the principles of this imaging modality, the requirements for performing studies, shows how to interpret the results, and gives an overview of current biomedical applications. It is suitable for engineers, scientists and clinicians in radiology and biomedical imaging who want to understand this technology. Presents the physics and hardware of dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization Explains the behaviour of hyperpolarized carbon-13 agents and how to image them Detailed guidance on experimental design and data interpretation Identifies promising and potential applications of hyperpolarized carbon-13 MR

Hyperpolarized Carbon 13 Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy

Hyperpolarized Carbon 13 Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy Book
Author : Peder Larson
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-11-26
ISBN : 0128222700
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

MRI with hyperpolarized carbon-13 agents is a powerful emerging imaging modality that can measure real-time metabolism in cells, animals, and humans. It uses endogenous, non-toxic contrast agents that a hyperpolarized, resulting in up to 100,000-fold increases in sensitivity. This technique uses no ionizing radiation, and is being applied in a range of human trials. It’s primary use is for metabolic imaging, but it can also measure perfusion, pH, and necrosis. Hyperpolarized Carbon-13 Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy is designed to be a one stop shop for understanding hyperpolarized 13C MRI. This book explains the principles of this imaging modality, the requirements for performing studies, shows how to interpret the results, and gives an overview of current biomedical applications. It is suitable for engineers, scientists and clinicians in radiology and biomedical imaging who want to understand this technology. Presents the physics and hardware of dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization Explains the behaviour of hyperpolarized carbon-13 agents and how to image them Detailed guidance on experimental design and data interpretation Identifies promising and potential applications of hyperpolarized carbon-13 MR

Preclinical MRI of the Kidney

Preclinical MRI of the Kidney Book
Author : Andreas Pohlmann,Thoralf Niendorf
Publisher : Humana
Release : 2021-01-22
ISBN : 9781071609774
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This Open Access volume provides readers with an open access protocol collection and wide-ranging recommendations for preclinical renal MRI used in translational research. The chapters in this book are interdisciplinary in nature and bridge the gaps between physics, physiology, and medicine. They are designed to enhance training in renal MRI sciences and improve the reproducibility of renal imaging research. Chapters provide guidance for exploring, using and developing small animal renal MRI in your laboratory as a unique tool for advanced in vivo phenotyping, diagnostic imaging, and research into potential new therapies. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Cutting-edge and thorough, Preclinical MRI of the Kidney: Methods and Protocols is a valuable resource and will be of importance to anyone interested in the preclinical aspect of renal and cardiorenal diseases in the fields of physiology, nephrology, radiology, and cardiology. This publication is based upon work from COST Action PARENCHIMA, supported by European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST). COST (www.cost.eu) is a funding agency for research and innovation networks. COST Actions help connect research initiatives across Europe and enable scientists to grow their ideas by sharing them with their peers. This boosts their research, career and innovation. PARENCHIMA (renalmri.org) is a community-driven Action in the COST program of the European Union, which unites more than 200 experts in renal MRI from 30 countries with the aim to improve the reproducibility and standardization of renal MRI biomarkers.

Methodologies for Metabolomics

Methodologies for Metabolomics Book
Author : Norbert W. Lutz,Jonathan V. Sweedler,Ron A. Wevers
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2013-01-21
ISBN : 1139619055
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Metabolomics, the global characterisation of the small molecule complement involved in metabolism, has evolved into a powerful suite of approaches for understanding the global physiological and pathological processes occurring in biological organisms. The diversity of metabolites, the wide range of metabolic pathways and their divergent biological contexts require a range of methodological strategies and techniques. Methodologies for Metabolomics provides a comprehensive description of the newest methodological approaches in metabolomic research. The most important technologies used to identify and quantify metabolites, including nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry, are highlighted. The integration of these techniques with classical biological methods is also addressed. Furthermore, the book presents statistical and chemometric methods for evaluation of the resultant data. The broad spectrum of topics includes a vast variety of organisms, samples and diseases, ranging from in vivo metabolomics in humans and animals to in vitro analysis of tissue samples, cultured cells and biofluids.

Imaging of Traumatic Brain Injury

Imaging of Traumatic Brain Injury Book
Author : Yoshimi Anzai,Kathleen R Fink
Publisher : Thieme
Release : 2015-03-01
ISBN : 1604067292
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Imaging of Traumatic Brain Injury is a radiological reference that covers all aspects of neurotrauma imaging and provides a clinical overview of traumatic brain injury (TBI). It describes the imaging features of acute head trauma, the pathophysiology of TBI, and the application of advanced imaging technology to brain-injured patients. Key Features: Covers acute as well as chronic traumatic brain injury Written in an easily accessible format, with pearls and summary boxes at the end of each chapter Includes state-of-the-art imaging techniques, including the multiplanar format, the utility of multiplanar reformats, perfusion imaging, susceptibility weighted imaging, and advanced MRI techniques Contains over 250 high-quality images This book will serve as a practical reference for practicing radiologists as well as radiology residents and fellows, neurosurgeons, trauma surgeons, and emergency physicians.

Dynamic Hyperpolarized Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

Dynamic Hyperpolarized Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Book
Author : Thomas Jue,Dirk Mayer
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021-05-21
ISBN : 3030550435
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This is the first book in the series to focus on dynamic hyperpolarized nuclear magnetic resonance, a burgeoning topic in biophysics. The volume follows the format and style of the Handbook of Modern Biophysics series and expands on topics already discussed in previous volumes. It builds a theoretical and experimental framework for students and researchers who wish to investigate the biophysics and biomedical application of dynamic hyperpolarized NMR. All contributors are internationally recognized experts, lead the dynamic hyperpolarized NMR field, and have first-hand knowledge of the chapter material. The book covers the following topics: Hyperpolarization by dissolution Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Design considerations for implementing a hyperpolarizer Chemical Shift Imaging with Dynamic Hyperpolarized NMR Signal Sampling Strategies in Dynamic Hyperpolarized NMR Kinetic Modeling of Enzymatic Reactions in Analyzing Hyperpolarized NMR Data Using Hyperpolarized NMR to Understand Biochemistry from Cells to Humans Innovating Metabolic Biomarkers for Hyperpolarized NMR New Insights into Metabolic Regulation from Hyperpolarized 13C MRS/MRI Studies Novel Views on Heart Function from Dynamic Hyperpolarized NMR Insights on Lactate Metabolism in Skeletal Muscle based on 13C Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Studies About the Editors Dirk Mayer is Professor of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine at the University of Maryland and is the Director of Metabolic Imaging. He is a recognized expert on dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) MRI-based imaging techniques and has optimized acquisition and reconstruction techniques, has constructed kinetic modeling for quantitative analysis, and has developing new probes. Thomas Jue is Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine at the University of California Davis. He is an internationally recognized expert in developing and applying magnetic resonance techniques to study animal as well as human physiology in vivo. He served as a Chair of the Biophysics Graduate Group Program at UC Davis, where he started to redesign a graduate curriculum that balances physical science/mathematics formalism and biomedical perspective in order to promote interest at the interface of physical science, engineering, mathematics, biology, and medicine. The Handbook of Modern Biophysics represents an aspect of that effort.

NMR Spectroscopy

NMR Spectroscopy Book
Author : Harald Günther
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2013-12-13
ISBN : 3527674772
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is one of the most powerful and widely used techniques in chemical research for investigating structures and dynamics of molecules. Advanced methods can even be utilized for structure determinations of biopolymers, for example proteins or nucleic acids. NMR is also used in medicine for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The method is based on spectral lines of different atomic nuclei that are excited when a strong magnetic field and a radiofrequency transmitter are applied. The method is very sensitive to the features of molecular structure because also the neighboring atoms influence the signals from individual nuclei and this is important for determining the 3D-structure of molecules. This new edition of the popular classic has a clear style and a highly practical, mostly non-mathematical approach. Many examples are taken from organic and organometallic chemistry, making this book an invaluable guide to undergraduate and graduate students of organic chemistry, biochemistry, spectroscopy or physical chemistry, and to researchers using this well-established and extremely important technique. Problems and solutions are included.

Advanced Neuro MR Techniques and Applications

Advanced Neuro MR Techniques and Applications Book
Author : In-Young Choi,Peter Jezzard
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-11-17
ISBN : 0128224959
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Advanced Neuro MR Techniques and Applications gives detailed knowledge of emerging neuro MR techniques and their specific clinical and neuroscience applications, showing their pros and cons over conventional and currently available advanced techniques. The book identifies the best available data acquisition, processing, reconstruction and analysis strategies and methods that can be utilized in clinical and neuroscience research. It is an ideal reference for MR scientists and engineers who develop MR technologies and/or support clinical and neuroscience research and for high-end users who utilize neuro MR techniques in their research, including clinicians, neuroscientists and psychologists. Trainees such as postdoctoral fellows, PhD and MD/PhD students, residents and fellows using or considering the use of neuro MR technologies will also be interested in this book. Presents a complete reference on advanced Neuro MR Techniques and Applications Edited and written by leading researchers in the field Suitable for a broad audience of MR scientists and engineers who develop MR technologies, as well as clinicians, neuroscientists and psychologists who utilize neuro MR techniques in their research

Molecular Imaging

Molecular Imaging Book
Author : Brian D. Ross,Sanjiv S. Gambhir
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-08-09
ISBN : 0128163879
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The detection and measurement of the dynamic regulation and interactions of cells and proteins within the living cell are critical to the understanding of cellular biology and pathophysiology. The multidisciplinary field of molecular imaging of living subjects continues to expand with dramatic advances in chemistry, molecular biology, therapeutics, engineering, medical physics and biomedical applications. Molecular Imaging: Principles and Practice, Volumes 1 and 2, Second Edition provides the first point of entry for physicians, scientists, and practitioners. This authoritative reference book provides a comprehensible overview along with in-depth presentation of molecular imaging concepts, technologies and applications making it the foremost source for both established and new investigators, collaborators, students and anyone interested in this exciting and important field. The most authoritative and comprehensive resource available in the molecular-imaging field, written by over 170 of the leading scientists from around the world who have evaluated and summarized the most important methods, principles, technologies and data Concepts illustrated with over 600 color figures and molecular-imaging examples Chapters/topics include, artificial intelligence and machine learning, use of online social media, virtual and augmented reality, optogenetics, FDA regulatory process of imaging agents and devices, emerging instrumentation, MR elastography, MR fingerprinting, operational radiation safety, multiscale imaging and uses in drug development This edition is packed with innovative science, including theranostics, light sheet fluorescence microscopy, (LSFM), mass spectrometry imaging, combining in vitro and in vivo diagnostics, Raman imaging, along with molecular and functional imaging applications Valuable applications of molecular imaging in pediatrics, oncology, autoimmune, cardiovascular and CNS diseases are also presented This resource helps integrate diverse multidisciplinary concepts associated with molecular imaging to provide readers with an improved understanding of current and future applications

High resolution NMR Techniques in Organic Chemistry

High resolution NMR Techniques in Organic Chemistry Book
Author : T. Claridge
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 1999
ISBN : 9780080427980
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

From the initial observation of proton magnetic resonance in water and in paraffin, the discipline of nuclear magnetic resonance has seen unparalleled growth as an analytical method. Modern NMR spectroscopy is a highly developed, yet still evolving, subject which finds application in chemistry, biology, medicine, materials science and geology. In this book, emphasis is on the more recently developed methods of solution-state NMR applicable to chemical research, which are chosen for their wide applicability and robustness. These have, in many cases, already become established techniques in NMR laboratories, in both academic and industrial establishments. A considerable amount of information and guidance is given on the implementation and execution of the techniques described in this book.

Functional Imaging in Oncology

Functional Imaging in Oncology Book
Author : Antonio Luna,Joan C. Vilanova,L. Celso Hygino da Cruz Jr.,Santiago E. Rossi
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-12-11
ISBN : 364240412X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In the new era of functional and molecular imaging, both currently available imaging biomarkers and biomarkers under development are expected to lead to major changes in the management of oncological patients. This well-illustrated two-volume book is a practical manual on the various imaging techniques capable of delivering functional information on cancer, including preclinical and clinical imaging techniques, based on US, CT, MRI, PET and hybrid modalities. This first volume explains the biophysical basis for these functional imaging techniques and describes the techniques themselves. Detailed information is provided on the imaging of cancer hallmarks, including angiogenesis, tumor metabolism, and hypoxia. The techniques and their roles are then discussed individually, covering the full range of modalities in clinical use as well as new molecular and functional techniques. The value of a multiparametric approach is also carefully considered.

Hyperpolarization Methods in NMR Spectroscopy

Hyperpolarization Methods in NMR Spectroscopy Book
Author : Lars T. Kuhn
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2013-09-13
ISBN : 364239728X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Elucidating Organic Reaction Mechanisms using photo-CIDNP Spectroscopy, by Martin Goez. Parahydrogen Induced Polarization by Homogeneous Catalysis: Theory and Applications, by Kerstin Münnemann et al. Improving NMR and MRI Sensitivity with Parahydrogen, by R. Mewis & Simon Duckett. The Solid-state Photo-CIDNP Effect, by Jörg Matysik et al. Parahydrogen-induced Polarization in Heterogeneous Catalytic Processes, by Igor Koptyug et al. Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Enhanced NMR Spectroscopy, by U. Akbey & H. Oschkinat. Photo-CIDNP NMR Spectroscopy of Amino Acids and Proteins, by Lars T. Kuhn.

Applications of NMR Spectroscopy

Applications of NMR Spectroscopy  Book
Author : Atta-ur-Rahman,M. Iqbal Choudhary
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2015-12-10
ISBN : 1608059650
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Applications of NMR Spectroscopy, Volume 2, originally published by Bentham and now distributed by Elsevier, presents the latest developments in the field of NMR spectroscopy, including the analysis of plant polyphenols, the role of NMR spectroscopy in neuroradiology, NMR-based sensors, studies on protein and nucleic acid structure and function, and mathematical formations for NMR spectroscopy in structural biology. The fully illustrated chapters contain comprehensive references to the recent literature. The applications presented cover a wide range of the field, such as drug development, medical imaging and diagnostics, food science, mining, petrochemical, process control, materials science, and chemical engineering, making this resource a multi-disciplinary reference with broad applications. The content is ideal for readers who are seeking reviews and updates, as it consolidates scientific articles of a diverse nature into a single volume. Sections are organized based on disciplines, such as food science and medical diagnostics. Each chapter is written by eminent experts in the field. Consolidates the latest developments in NMR spectroscopy into a single volume Authored and edited by world-leading experts in spectroscopy Features comprehensive references to the most recent related literature More than 65 illustrations aid in the retention of key concepts

Exploring Cancer Metabolic Reprogramming through Molecular Imaging

Exploring Cancer Metabolic Reprogramming through Molecular Imaging Book
Author : Franca Podo,Zaver M. Bhujwalla,Egidio Iorio
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2017-07-27
ISBN : 2889452344
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The inclusion of oncogene-driven reprogramming of energy metabolism within the list of cancer hallmarks (Hanahan and Weinberg, Cell 2000, 2011) has provided major impetus to further investigate the existence of a much wider metabolic rewiring in cancer cells, which not only includes deregulated cellular bioenergetics, but also encompasses multiple links with a more comprehensive network of altered biochemical pathways. This network is currently held responsible for redirecting carbon and phosphorus fluxes through the biosynthesis of nucleotides, amino acids, lipids and phospholipids and for the production of second messengers essential to cancer cells growth, survival and invasiveness in the hostile tumor environment. The capability to develop such a concerted rewiring of biochemical pathways is a versatile tool adopted by cancer cells to counteract the host defense and eventually resist the attack of anticancer treatments. Integrated efforts elucidating key mechanisms underlying this complex cancer metabolic reprogramming have led to the identification of new signatures of malignancy that are providing a strong foundation for improving cancer diagnosis and monitoring tumor response to therapy using appropriate molecular imaging approaches. In particular, the recent evolution of positron emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), functional MR imaging (fMRI) and optical imaging technologies, combined with complementary cellular imaging approaches, have created new ways to explore and monitor the effects of metabolic reprogramming in cancer at clinical and preclinical levels. Thus, the progress of high-tech engineering and molecular imaging technologies, combined with new generation genomic, proteomic and phosphoproteomic methods, can significantly improve the clinical effectiveness of image-based interventions in cancer and provide novel insights to design and validate new targeted therapies. The Frontiers in Oncology Research Topic “Exploring Cancer Metabolic Reprogramming Through Molecular Imaging” focusses on current achievements, challenges and needs in the application of molecular imaging methods to explore cancer metabolic reprogramming, and evaluate its potential impact on clinical decisions and patient outcome. A series of reviews and perspective articles, along with original research contributions on humans and on preclinical models have been concertedly included in the Topic to build an open forum on perspectives, present needs and future challenges of this cutting-edge research area.

In Vivo NMR Spectroscopy

In Vivo NMR Spectroscopy Book
Author : Robin A. de Graaf
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2019-03-11
ISBN : 1119382548
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Presents basic concepts, experimental methodology and data acquisition, and processing standards of in vivo NMR spectroscopy This book covers, in detail, the technical and biophysical aspects of in vivo NMR techniques and includes novel developments in the field such as hyperpolarized NMR, dynamic 13C NMR, automated shimming, and parallel acquisitions. Most of the techniques are described from an educational point of view, yet it still retains the practical aspects appreciated by experimental NMR spectroscopists. In addition, each chapter concludes with a number of exercises designed to review, and often extend, the presented NMR principles and techniques. The third edition of In Vivo NMR Spectroscopy: Principles and Techniques has been updated to include experimental detail on the developing area of hyperpolarization; a description of the semi-LASER sequence, which is now a method of choice; updated chemical shift data, including the addition of 31P data; a troubleshooting section on common problems related to shimming, water suppression, and quantification; recent developments in data acquisition and processing standards; and MatLab scripts on the accompanying website for helping readers calculate radiofrequency pulses. Provide an educational explanation and overview of in vivo NMR, while maintaining the practical aspects appreciated by experimental NMR spectroscopists Features more experimental methodology than the previous edition End-of-chapter exercises that help drive home the principles and techniques and offer a more in-depth exploration of quantitative MR equations Designed to be used in conjunction with a teaching course on the subject In Vivo NMR Spectroscopy: Principles and Techniques, 3rd Edition is aimed at all those involved in fundamental and/or diagnostic in vivo NMR, ranging from people working in dedicated in vivo NMR institutes, to radiologists in hospitals, researchers in high-resolution NMR and MRI, and in areas such as neurology, physiology, chemistry, and medical biology.

Experimental Approaches of NMR Spectroscopy

Experimental Approaches of NMR Spectroscopy Book
Author : The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Society of Japan
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-11-23
ISBN : 9811059667
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book describes the advanced developments in methodology and applications of NMR spectroscopy to life science and materials science. Experts who are leaders in the development of new methods and applications of life and material sciences have contributed an exciting range of topics that cover recent advances in structural determination of biological and material molecules, dynamic aspects of biological and material molecules, and development of novel NMR techniques, including resolution and sensitivity enhancement. First, this book particularly emphasizes the experimental details for new researchers to use NMR spectroscopy and pick up the potentials of NMR spectroscopy. Second, the book is designed for those who are involved in either developing the technique or expanding the NMR application fields by applying them to specific samples. Third, the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Society of Japan has organized this book not only for NMR members of Japan but also for readers worldwide who are interested in using NMR spectroscopy extensively.

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Book
Author : Charlotte Stagg,Douglas L. Rothman
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2013-11-11
ISBN : 0124016979
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Tools for Neuroscience Research and Emerging Clinical Applications is the first comprehensive book for non-physicists that addresses the emerging and exciting technique of magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Divided into three sections, this book provides coverage of the key areas of concern for researchers. The first, on how MRS is acquired, provides a comprehensive overview of the techniques, analysis, and pitfalls encountered in MRS; the second, on what can be seen by MRS, provides essential background physiology and biochemistry on the major metabolites studied; the final sections, on why MRS is used, constitutes a detailed guide to the major clinical and scientific uses of MRS, the current state of teh art, and recent innovations. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy will become the essential guide for people new to the technique and give those more familiar with MRS a new perspective. Chapters written by world-leading experts in the field Fully illustrated Covers both proton and non-proton MRS Includes the background to novel MRS imaging approaches

Magnetic Resonance Sensors

Magnetic Resonance Sensors Book
Author : Robert H. Morris,Michael I. Newton
Publisher : MDPI
Release : 2018-10-04
ISBN : 3906980987
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue "Magnetic Resonance Sensors" that was published in Sensors

Quantitative MRI in Cancer

Quantitative MRI in Cancer Book
Author : Thomas E. Yankeelov,David R. Pickens,Ronald R. Price
Publisher : Taylor & Francis
Release : 2011-09-13
ISBN : 1439820589
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Propelling quantitative MRI techniques from bench to bedside, Quantitative MRI in Cancer presents a range of quantitative MRI methods for assessing tumor biology. It includes biophysical and theoretical explanations of the most relevant MRI techniques as well as examples of these techniques in cancer applications. The introductory part of the book covers basic cancer biology, theoretical aspects of NMR/MRI physics, and the hardware required to form MR images. Forming the core of the book, the next three parts illustrate how to characterize tissue properties with endogenous and exogenous contrast mechanisms and discuss common image processing techniques relevant for cancer. The final part explores emerging areas of MR cancer characterization, including radiation therapy planning, cellular and molecular imaging, pH imaging, and hyperpolarized MR. Each of the post-introductory chapters describes the salient qualitative and quantitative aspects of the techniques before proceeding to preclinical and clinical applications. Each chapter also contains references for further study. Leading the way toward more personalized medicine, this text brings together existing and emerging quantitative MRI techniques for assessing cancer. It provides a self-contained overview of the theoretical and experimental essentials and state of the art in cancer MRI.

Hyperpolarized Carbon 13 Magnetic Resonance Imaging as a Tool for Assessing Lung Transplantation Outcomes

Hyperpolarized Carbon 13 Magnetic Resonance Imaging as a Tool for Assessing Lung Transplantation Outcomes Book
Author : Sarmad Siddiqui
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2019
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Lung transplantation is the established treatment for patients with chronic, end-stage lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and cystic fibrosis (CF). However, its utility remains limited by the chronic shortage of donor lungs, limited lung preservation strategies and post-transplant complications leading to graft failure. Although efforts have been made to expand the limited pool of viable donor lungs via novel preservation strategies such as ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP), our limited understanding of the mechanism and progression of donor lung injury continues to inhibit our ability to fully exploit these advances to improve lung transplant outcomes. Furthermore, the clinical standard for post-transplant assessment is limited to whole lung measurement such as pulmonary functional tests (PFTs) and structural imaging via radiography or HRCT, both of which lack the necessary sensitivity to detect lung rejection early. Given these limitations of currently available pre- and post-transplant lung assessment tools, a novel metabolic biomarker may provide higher sensitivity for determining the viability of donated lungs, as well as for assessing the onset of rejection before permanent structural changes in the lungs become apparent. We proposed that hyperpolarized (HP) [1-13C]pyruvate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)--which provides real-time metabolic assessment of tissue based on the conversion of [1-13C] pyruvate to [1-13C]lactate via glycolysis, or to 13C bicarbonate via oxidative phosphorylation--may be an effective tool for assessing the health of donated lungs and may also serve as an early biomarker for detecting pulmonary graft dysfunction (PGD)-associated inflammation or acute lung rejection. In a rat model, we demonstrated the feasibility of using HP [1-13C]pyruvate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to assess the viability of ex vivo perfused lungs. We further showed that our technique can be used to measure the improved viability of those lungs after treatment with ascorbic acid. Finally, translating our previously developed technique to in vivo HP [1-13C]pyruvate imaging of an inflamed rat lung, we not only demonstrated its utility for detecting lung transplantation rejection, but found that the HP lactate-to-pyruvate ratio is a better predictor of acute lung rejection in a rat model than computed tomography.