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Hyperpolarized And Inert Gas Mri

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Hyperpolarized and Inert Gas MRI

Hyperpolarized and Inert Gas MRI Book
Author : Mitchell S. Albert,Francis T Hane
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-11-17
ISBN : 0128037040
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Hyperpolarized and Inert Gas MRI: Theory and Applications in Research and Medicine is the first comprehensive volume published on HP gas MRI. Since the 1990’s, when HP gas MRI was invented by Dr. Albert and his colleagues, the HP gas MRI field has grown dramatically. The technique has proven to be a useful tool for diagnosis, disease staging, and therapy evaluation for obstructive lung diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cystic fibrosis. HP gas MRI has also been developed for functional imaging of the brain and is presently being developed for molecular imaging, including molecules associated with lung cancer, breast cancer, and Alzheimer’s disease. Taking into account the ongoing growth of this field and the potential for future clinical applications, the book pulls together the most relevant and cutting-edge research available in HP gas MRI into one resource. Presents the most comprehensive, relevant, and accurate information on HP gas MRI Co-edited by the co-inventor of HP gas MRI, Dr. Albert, with chapter authors who are the leading experts in their respective sub-disciplines Serves as a foundation of understanding of HP gas MRI for researchers and clinicians involved in research, technology development, and clinical use with HP gas MRI Covers all hyperpolarized gases, including helium, the gas with which the majority of HP gas MRI has been conducted

Investigation of Lung Structure function Relationships Using Hyperpolarized Noble Gases

Investigation of Lung Structure function Relationships Using Hyperpolarized Noble Gases Book
Author : Robert P. Thomen
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is an application of the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) phenomenon to non-invasively generate 3D tomographic images. MRI is an emerging modality for the lung, but it suffers from low sensitivity due to inherent low tissue density and short T2*. Hyperpolarization is a process by which the nuclear contribution to NMR signal is greatly enhanced to more than 100,000 times that of samples in thermal equilibrium. The noble gases 3He and 129Xe are most often hyperpolarized by transfer of light angular momentum through the electron of a vaporized alkali metal to the noble gas nucleus (called Spin Exchange Optical Pumping). The enhancement in NMR signal is so great that the gas itself can be imaged via MRI, and because noble gases are chemically inert, they can be safely inhaled by a subject, and the gas distribution within the interior of the lung can be imaged. The mechanics of respiration is an elegant physical process by which air is is brought into the distal airspaces of the lungs for oxygen/carbon dioxide gas exchange with blood. Therefore proper description of lung function is intricately related to its physical structure, and the basic mechanical operation of healthy lungs -- from pressure driven airflow, to alveolar airspace gas kinetics, to gas exchange by blood/gas concentration gradients, to elastic contraction of parenchymal tissue -- is a process decidedly governed by the laws of physics. This dissertation will describe experiments investigating the relationship of lung structure and function using hyperpolarized (HP) noble gas MRI. In particular HP gases will be applied to the study of several pulmonary diseases each of which demonstrates unique structure-function abnormalities: asthma, cystic fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Successful implementation of an HP gas acquisition protocol for pulmonary studies is an involved and stratified undertaking which requires a solid theoretical foundation in NMR and hyperpolarization theory, construction of dedicated hardware, development of dedicated software, and appropriate image analysis techniques for all acquired data. The author has been actively involved in each of these and has dedicated specific chapters of this dissertation to their description. First, a brief description of lung structure-function investigations and pulmonary imaging will be given (chapter 1). Brief discussions of basic NMR, MRI, and hyperpolarization theory will be given (chapters 2 and 3) followed by their particular methods of implementation in this work (chapters 4 and 5). Analysis of acquired HP gas images will be discussed (chapter 6), and the investigational procedures and results for each lung disease examined will be detailed (chapter 7). Finally, a quick digression on the strengths and limitations of HP gas MRI will be provided (chapter 8).

Fluorine Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Fluorine Magnetic Resonance Imaging Book
Author : Ulrich Flogel,Eric Ahrens
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2016-10-26
ISBN : 1315340933
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Over the past decade, fluorine (19F) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has garnered significant scientific interest in the biomedical research community owing to the unique properties of fluorinated materials and the 19F nucleus. Fluorine has an intrinsically sensitive nucleus for MRI. There is negligible endogenous 19F in the body and thus there is no background signal. Fluorine-containing compounds are ideal tracer labels for a wide variety of MRI applications. Moreover, the chemical shift and nuclear relaxation rate can be made responsive to physiology via creative molecular design. This book is an interdisciplinary compendium that details cutting-edge science and medical research in the emerging field of 19F MRI. Edited by Ulrich Flögel and Eric Ahrens, two prominent MRI researchers, this book will appeal to investigators involved in MRI, biomedicine, immunology, pharmacology, probe chemistry, and imaging physics.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Book
Author : Lachezar Manchev
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2019-07-17
ISBN : 1789238218
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Diagnostic imaging has undergone many changes over the last several years. Technical developments have defined Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as the leading diagnostic modality in different diseases. MRI is definitive and sensitive and the current requirements of medicine call for radiologists to be proficient in its use. This book provides complete and detailed information about the fast-developing field of MRI from physicians, radiologists, and other clinical specialists. It is a practical guide to using MRI in areas such as cardiology and pulmonology, among others.

Magnetic Materials and Technologies for Medical Applications

Magnetic Materials and Technologies for Medical Applications Book
Author : Alexander Tishin
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2021-11-18
ISBN : 0128225335
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The study of electromagnetic fields in the treatment of various diseases is not a new one; however, we are still learning how magnetic fields impact the human body and its organs. Many novel magnetic materials and technologies could potentially transform medicine. Magnetic Materials and Technologies for Medical Applications explores these current and emerging technologies. Beginning with foundational knowledge on the basics of magnetism, this book then details the approaches and methods used in the creation of novel magnetic materials and devices. This book also discusses current technologies and applications, as well as the commercial aspects of introducing new technologies to the field. This book serves as an excellent introduction for early career researchers or a reference to more experienced researchers who wish to stay abreast of current trends and developing technologies in the field. This book could also be used by clinicians working in medicine and companies interested in establishing new medical technologies. Each chapter provides novel tasks for future scientific and technology research studies. Outlines the basics of magnetism for enhanced understanding of its applications in medicine Covers novel magnetic devices as well as technologies still under development, including magnetic brain stimulation, biosensors, and nanoparticles for drug delivery Explores commercial opportunities and obstacles to market entry for new magnetic materials and technologies for the medical field

Functional Imaging of the Lungs Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Inert Fluorinated Gases

Functional Imaging of the Lungs Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Inert Fluorinated Gases Book
Author : Marcus Couch
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Fluorine-19 (19F) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lungs using inhaled inert fluorinated gases can potentially provide high quality anatomical and functional images of the lungs. This technique is able to visualize the distribution of the inhaled gas, similar to hyperpolarized (HP) helium-3 (3He) and xenon-129 (129Xe) MRI. Inert fluorinated gases have the advantages of being nontoxic, abundant, and inexpensive compared to HP gases. Due to the high gyromagnetic ratio of 19F, there is sufficient thermally polarized signal for imaging, and averaging within a single breath-hold is possible due to short longitudinal relaxation times. Since inert fluorinated gases do not need to be hyperpolarized prior to their use in MRI, this eliminates the need for an expensive polarizer and expensive isotopes. Inert fluorinated gas MRI of the lungs has been studied extensively in animals since the 1980s, and more recently in healthy volunteers and patients with lung diseases. This thesis focused on the development of static breath-hold inert fluorinated gas MR imaging techniques, as well as the development functional imaging biomarkers in humans and animal models of pulmonary disease. Optimized ultrashort echo time (UTE) 19F MR imaging was performed in healthy volunteers, and images from different gas breathing techniques were quantitatively compared. 19F UTE MR imaging was then quantitatively compared to 19F gradient echo imaging in both healthy volunteers and in a resolution phantom. A preliminary comparison to HP 3He MR imaging is also presented, along with preliminary 19F measurements of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and iv gravitational gradients of ventilation in healthy volunteers. The potential of inert fluorinated gas MRI in detecting pulmonary diseases was further explored by performing ventilation mapping in animal models of inflammation and fibrosis. Overall, interest in pulmonary 19F MRI of inert fluorinated gases is increasing, and numerous sites around the world are now interested in developing this technique. This work may help to demonstrate that inert fluorinated gas MRI has the potential to be a viable clinical imaging modality that can provide useful information for the diagnosis and management of chronic respiratory diseases.

Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy

Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2018-08-10
ISBN : 0081026692
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy, Volume 95, provides an in-depth accounting of progress in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and its many applications. In recent years, no other technique has gained as much significance. It is used in all branches of science in which precise structural determination is required, and in which the nature of interactions and reactions in solution is being studied. This book has established itself as a premier resource for both specialists and non-specialists who are looking to become familiar with new techniques and applications pertaining to NMR spectroscopy. Serves as the premier resource for learning the new techniques and applications of NMR spectroscopy Provides a key reference for chemists and physicists using NMR spectroscopy to study the structure and dynamics of molecules Covers all aspects of molecular science, including MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)

Personalizing Asthma Management for the Clinician

Personalizing Asthma Management for the Clinician Book
Author : Stanley J. Szefler,Fernando Holguin,Michael E Wechsler
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release : 2017-09-22
ISBN : 032349708X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Personalized medicine is a rapidly emerging area in health care, and asthma management lends itself particularly well to this new development. This practical resource by Dr. Stanley J. Szefler helps you navigate the many asthma medication options available to your patients, as well as providing insights into those which may be introduced within the next several years. Features a wealth of information on available asthma medications, including new immunomodulators, new responses to treatment, and new treatment strategies at all levels of asthma care. Prepares you to meet your patients’ needs regarding asthma exacerbation prevention and asthma prevention. Consolidates today’s available information and guidance in this timely area into one convenient resource.

NMR MRI with Hyperpolarized Gas and High Tc SQUID

NMR MRI with Hyperpolarized Gas and High Tc SQUID  Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2000
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A method and apparatus for the detection of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals and production of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from samples combines the use of hyperpolarized inert gases to enhance the NMR signals from target nuclei in a sample and a high critical temperature (Tc) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) to detect the NMR signals. The system operates in static magnetic fields of 3 mT or less (down to 0.1 mT), and at temperatures from liquid nitrogen (77K) to room temperature. Sample size is limited only by the size of the magnetic field coils and not by the detector. The detector is a high Tc SQUID magnetometer designed so that the SQUID detector can be very close to the sample, which can be at room temperature.

MRI of the Lung

MRI of the Lung Book
Author : Hans-Ulrich Kauczor,Mark Oliver Wielpütz
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-11-28
ISBN : 3319426176
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides a comprehensive overview of how to use MRI for the imaging of lung disease. Special emphasis is placed on routine applications and the clinical impact of MRI in each setting. In addition, current technological developments are reviewed and information presented on dedicated applications of MRI in preclinical and translational research, clinical trials, and specialized institutions. During the past two decades, significant advances in the technology have enabled MRI to enter and mature in the clinical arena of chest imaging. Standard protocols are now readily available on MR scanners, and MRI is recommended as the first- or second-line imaging modality for a variety of lung diseases, not limited to cystic fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, and lung cancer. The benefits and added value of MRI originate from its ability to both visualize lung structure and provide information on different aspects of lung function, such as perfusion, respiratory motion, ventilation, and gas exchange. On this basis, novel quantitative surrogates for lung function and therapy control (imaging biomarkers) are generated. The second edition of MRI of the Lung has been fully updated to take account of recent advances. It is written by an internationally balanced team of renowned authors representing all major groups in the field.

Chest MRI An Issue of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America

Chest MRI  An Issue of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America  Book
Author : Prachi P. Agarwal
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release : 2015-06-14
ISBN : 0323376061
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Chest MRI is explored in this important issue in MRI Clinics of North America. Articles include: MRI of Mediastinal Masses; State of the art: MR Imaging of the Thymus; Novel MR Applications for Pleural Evaluation; MRI Imaging of Chest Wall Tumors; MR Imaging of the Lungs with Hyperpolarized Gases: Technique and Applications; Lung Cancer Assessment with MR Imaging: An Update; PET/MRI in Chest Diseases; Imaging Pulmonary Arterial Thromboembolism: Challenges and Opportunities; MR Imaging of the Thoracic Aorta; MR Imaging of Thoracic Veins; State of the Art MR Imaging in Vascular Thoracic Outlet Syndrome; Pediatric Chest MR Applications, and more!

Imaging of the Airways

Imaging of the Airways Book
Author : David P. Naidich
Publisher : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Release : 2005
ISBN : 9780781757683
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Written by recognized authorities on thoracic imaging, this volume is the first to examine all modalities—both noninvasive and invasive—for visualizing the airways. Emphasis is placed on correlating CT images with bronchoscopy, to aid in interpreting CT findings and in performing interventional bronchoscopic procedures. After a review of airway imaging techniques and anatomy, the book presents correlating CT and bronchoscopic images for a wide range of pathologic entities. Detailed chapters examine the trachea and central bronchi, the diagnosis of bronchiectasis, and the use of CT in diagnosing small airway disease. A chapter on functional imaging of the airways is also included.

Clinical Medical Imaging Physics

Clinical Medical Imaging Physics Book
Author : Ehsan Samei,Douglas E. Pfeiffer
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2020-06-30
ISBN : 1118753453
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Clinical Imaging Physics: Current and Emerging Practice is the first text of its kind—a comprehensive reference work covering all imaging modalities in use in clinical medicine today. Destined to become a classic in the field, this book provides state-of-practice descriptions for each imaging modality, followed by special sections on new and emerging applications, technologies, and practices. Authored by luminaries in the field of medical physics, this resource is a sophisticated, one-volume handbook to a fast-advancing field that is becoming ever more central to contemporary clinical medicine. Summarizes the current state of clinical imaging physics in one-volume, with a focus on emerging technologies and applications Provides comprehensive coverage of all key clinical imaging modalities, taking into account the new realities in healthcare practice Features a strong focus on clinical application of principles and technology, now and in the future Contains authoritative text compiled by world-renowned editors and contributors responsible for guiding the development of the field Practicing radiologists and medical physicists will appreciate Clinical Imaging Physics as a peerless everyday reference work. Additionally, graduate students and residents in medical physics and radiology will find this book essential as they study for their board exams.

Applications of Modern Physics in Medicine

Applications of Modern Physics in Medicine Book
Author : Mark Strikman,Kevork Spartalian,Milton W. Cole
Publisher : Princeton University Press
Release : 2014-12-21
ISBN : 1400865433
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The connections between modern physics and medical technology Many remarkable medical technologies, diagnostic tools, and treatment methods have emerged as a result of modern physics discoveries in the last century—including X-rays, radiation treatment, laser surgery, high-resolution ultrasound scans, computerized tomography (CT) scans, and magnetic resonance imaging. This undergraduate-level textbook describes the fundamental physical principles underlying these technological advances, emphasizing their applications to the practice of modern medicine. Intended for science and engineering students with one year of introductory physics background, this textbook presents the medical applications of fundamental principles of physics to students who are considering careers in medical physics, biophysics, medicine, or nuclear engineering. It also serves as an excellent reference for advanced students, as well as medical and health researchers, practitioners, and technicians who are interested in developing the background required to understand the changing landscape of medical science. Practice exercises are included and solutions are available separately in an instructor's manual. Complete discussion of the fundamental physical principles underlying modern medicine Accessible exploration of the physics encountered in a typical visit to a doctor Practice exercises are included and solutions are provided in a separate instructor’s manual (available to professors) A companion website (modernphysicsinmedicine.com) presents supplementary materials

Imaging

Imaging Book
Author : R. Graham Barr,David G. Parr,Jens Vogel-Claussen
Publisher : European Respiratory Society
Release : 2016-03-01
ISBN : 1849840660
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Imaging is key to the screening and diagnosis of many respiratory conditions. It is also an area of significant debate, particularly with regard to questions surrounding safety and overuse. This Monograph will be of interest to pulmonologists in all areas of respiratory medicine. The book covers two main areas: imaging methodology and safety; and imaging use in specific respiratory conditions. Chapters will include: safety issues in CT and MRI, MRI methods, radionuclide imaging, chest radiography, COPD, cystic fibrosis, asthma, lung cancer, pulmonary hypertension, and much more.

MRI from Picture to Proton

MRI from Picture to Proton Book
Author : Donald W. McRobbie,Elizabeth A. Moore,Martin J. Graves,Martin R. Prince
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2007-02-15
ISBN : 1139457195
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

MRI from Picture to Proton presents the basics of MR practice and theory in a unique way: backwards! The subject is approached just as a new MR practitioner would encounter MRI: starting from the images, equipment and scanning protocols, rather than pages of physics theory. The reader is brought face-to-face with issues pertinent to practice immediately, filling in the theoretical background as their experience of scanning grows. Key ideas are introduced in an intuitive manner which is faithful to the underlying physics but avoids the need for difficult or distracting mathematics. Additional explanations for the more technically inquisitive are given in optional secondary text boxes. The new edition is fully up-dated to reflect the most recent advances, and includes a new chapter on parallel imaging. Informal in style and informed in content, written by recognized effective communicators of MR, this is an essential text for the student of MR.

Gas Phase NMR

Gas Phase NMR Book
Author : Karol Jackowski,Michał Jaszuński
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2016-02-09
ISBN : 1782623817
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book covers the recent NMR studies with the application of gaseous molecules. Among the comprehensively discussed aspects of the area it includes in particular: new multinuclear experiments that deliver spectral parameters of isolated molecules and provide the most accurate values of nuclear magnetic shielding, isotropic spin–spin coupling and relaxation times; advanced, precise and correct theoretical descriptions of spectral parameters of molecules as well as the application of gas-phase NMR measurements to chemical analysis and medicine. The progress of research in these fields is enormous and has rapidly changed our knowledge and understanding of molecular parameters in NMR spectroscopy. For example, accurate studies of the shielding for isolated molecules allow the exact determination of nuclear magnetic dipole moments, the calculated values of spectral parameters can be verified by precise gas-phase NMR measurements, and the application of hyperpolarized noble gases provides excellent MRI pictures of lungs. Aimed at graduates and researchers in spectroscopy, analytical chemistry and those researching the applications of NMR in medicine, this book presents the connections between sophisticated experiments, the theory of magnetic parameters and the exploration of new methods in practice.

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Book
Author : G A Webb
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2007-10-31
ISBN : 1847553877
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

As a spectroscopic method, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has seen spectacular growth over the past two decades, both as a technique and in its applications. Today the applications of NMR span a wide range of scientific disciplines, from physics to biology to medicine. Each volume of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance comprises a combination of annual and biennial reports which together provide comprehensive of the literature on this topic. This Specialist Periodical Report reflects the growing volume of published work involving NMR techniques and applications, in particular NMR of natural macromolecules which is covered in two reports: "NMR of Proteins and Acids" and "NMR of Carbohydrates, Lipids and Membranes". For those wanting to become rapidly acquainted with specific areas of NMR, this title provides unrivalled scope of coverage. Seasoned practitioners of NMR will find this an in valuable source of current methods and applications. Specialist Periodical Reports provide systematic and detailed review coverage in major areas of chemical research. Compiled by teams of leading authorities in the relevant subject areas, the series creates a unique service for the active research chemist, with regular, in-depth accounts of progress in particular fields of chemistry. Subject coverage within different volumes of a given title is similar and publication is on an annual or biennial basis.

Chest Imaging An Issue of Clinics in Chest Medicine

Chest Imaging  An Issue of Clinics in Chest Medicine  Book
Author : David A. Lynch
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release : 2015-06-25
ISBN : 0323388817
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This issue of Clinics in Chest Medicine focuses on Chest Imaging. Drs. Lynch and Chung have assembled an expert panel of authors on the topics of:Approach to chest CT, CT screening for lung cancer,The solitary pulmonary nodule, Staging of lung cancer, Imaging of infections, ICU imaging, Pulmonary vascular diseases, Occupational and environmental lung disease, Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, Connective tissue disease-related thoracic disease and more!

Essentials of In Vivo Biomedical Imaging

Essentials of In Vivo Biomedical Imaging Book
Author : Simon R. Cherry,Ramsey D. Badawi,Jinyi Qi
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2016-02-17
ISBN : 1439898758
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

While there are many excellent texts focused on clinical medical imaging, there are few books that approach in vivo imaging technologies from the perspective of a scientist or physician-scientist using, or interested in using, these techniques in research. It is for these individuals that Essentials of In Vivo Biomedical Imaging is written.Featurin