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Hybrid Laser Arc Welding

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Hybrid Laser Arc Welding

Hybrid Laser Arc Welding Book
Author : F O Olsen
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2009-06-26
ISBN : 1845696522
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Hybrid laser-arc welding (HLAW) is a combination of laser welding with arc welding that overcomes many of the shortfalls of both processes. This important book gives a comprehensive account of hybrid laser-arc welding technology and applications. The first part of the book reviews the characteristics of the process, including the properties of joints produced by hybrid laser-arc welding and ways of assessing weld quality. Part two discusses applications of the process to such metals as magnesium alloys, aluminium and steel as well as the use of hybrid laser-arc welding in such sectors as ship building and the automotive industry. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Hybrid laser-arc welding is a valuable source of reference for all those using this important welding technology. Reviews arc and laser welding including both advantages and disadvantages of the hybrid laser-arc approach Explores the characteristics of the process including the properties of joints produced by hybrid laser-arc welding and ways of assessing weld quality Examines applications of the process including magnesium alloys, aluminium and steel with specific focus on applications in the shipbuilding and automotive industries

Laser and Hybrid Laser Arc Welding

Laser and Hybrid Laser Arc Welding Book
Author : G. A. Turichin
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Laser and hybrid laser-arc welding are used at present in modern industry, having many advantages over traditional welding technology. Sectors such as the automotive industry, shipbuilding, aviation and space industry, chemical machinery, defense industry, and so on cannot be imagined without these technologies. Possibility of dramatic increase of weld joint properties, robustness, and high level of process automation makes the technology of laser and hybrid material processing a prospective part of the industry. At the same time, physical complexity of these processes, their cross-science nature, and necessity in high-level skilled stuff require many efforts for wide and successful industrial implementation. Present manuscript, devoted to discussion of physical peculiarity of laser and hybrid laser-arc welding of metals, approaches to physical-based design of technological equipment, as well as examples of industrial applications of laser and hybrid welding concerning the possibility to control welded metal structure and properties, is one of the steps on this way.

Hybrid Laser Arc Welding Process Design and Applications

Hybrid Laser Arc Welding Process Design and Applications Book
Author : Peter Grayson Kinney
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2003
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Hybrid Laser Arc Welding Process Design and Applications book written by Peter Grayson Kinney, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Hybrid Laser Arc Welding of Ni base Alloy 690

Hybrid Laser Arc Welding of Ni base Alloy 690 Book
Author : Jared Jacob Blecher
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2019
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The welding of Ni-base alloy Inconel 690 is commonly required during the construction and refurbishing of nuclear power plants with plate thicknesses varying between 1 mm to greater than 25 mm. However, during conventional multi-pass welding of Alloy 690 in this thickness range, micro-cracking in the form of ductility dip cracking (DDC) and solidification cracking can occur, causing significant delays in an already expensive industry. Hybrid laser-arc welding can significantly reduce the number of passes necessary to weld thick sections and, at the same time, lower the risk of forming DDC and solidification cracking. Significant advantages can be achieved by welding with laser and arc energy sources in close proximity. The high intensity laser forms a vapor cavity, or keyhole, leading to a large increase in weld depth, and welding speed is typically higher during laser welding. On the other hand, an arc creates a wide weld pool, which is useful for bridging gaps between plates, and can add material to the weld with a consumable electrode. However, hybrid laser-arc welding can lead to unique defects not found in conventional arc welding, including keyhole porosity and root defects. Porosity from keyhole instability and collapse can lead to very large bubbles (> 1 mm) becoming trapped as pores in the weld metal during partial penetration welds, while, during full penetration welds, weld metal can fall out of the weld and solidify as nuggets, a form of root defect. The solidification microstructure, root defect formation, keyhole porosity, and keyhole dynamics are studied in-depth using a combination of tools including a three dimensional heat transfer and fluid flow model, X-ray computed tomography, and inline coherent imaging. The results of this work produced a solidification map for Alloy 690, clarified the phenomena affecting root defect formation, developed hybrid welding solutions to keyhole porosity, and documented the keyhole growth rates during laser welding.

Laser Arc Hybrid Welding of Thick Section Ni base Alloys Advanced Modeling and Experiments

Laser Arc Hybrid Welding of Thick Section Ni base Alloys   Advanced Modeling and Experiments Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Hybrid laser-arc welding of nickel-base alloys can increase productivity and decrease costs during construction and repair of critical components in nuclear power plants. However, laser and hybrid welding of nickel-base alloys is not well understood. This project sought to understand the physical processes during hybrid welding necessary to fabricate quality joints in Alloy 690, a Ni- Cr-Fe alloy. This document presents a summary of the data and results collected over the course of the project. The supporting documents are a collection of the research that has been or will be published in peer-reviewed journals along with a report from the partner at the national lab. Understanding the solidification behavior of Alloy 690 is important for knowing the final properties of the weldment. A study was undertaken to calculate the solidification parameters, such as temperature gradient, solidification rate, and cooling rate in Alloy 690 welds. With this information and measured cell and dendrite arm spacings, an Alloy 690 map was constructed to guide process parameter development and interpret fusion zones in later hybrid welds. This research is contained in "Solidification Map of a Nickel Base Alloy." The keyhole formed under high laser intensity gives the hybrid welding technique the greater penetration depths compared to arc welding. However, keyhole behavior can form defects in the material, so knowing transient keyhole characteristics is important. With international collaborators, a study was undertaken to validate a new process monitoring tool known as inline coherent imaging (ICI), which is able to measure the keyhole depth with spatial and temporal resolutions on the order of 10 microns and 10 microseconds. ICI was validated for five alloy systems, including Alloy 690. Additionally, the keyhole growth rates at the start of welding were measured with unprecedented accuracy. This research is contained in "Real Time Monitoring of Laser Beam Welding Keyhole Depth by Laser Interferometry." During full penetration welding of thick sections, root defects can form, which result in unacceptable weld quality. A study was undertaken to determine the competing forces in root defect formation by independently changing the weight forces and surface tension forces. The weight force was altered by changing the plate thickness, and the surface tension force was altered by changing the surface condition at the bottom surface. Root defects do depend on these two forces. This research is contained in "Mitigation of Root Defect in Laser and Hybrid Laser-Arc Welding." Validation of the hybrid laser-arc model is necessary to properly model heat and mass transfer and fluid flow in Alloy 690 hybrid welds. Therefore, the developed model was validated for low carbon steel. Temperatures calculated by the model were included into a microstructural model in order to calculate the phase fractions. Process maps were developed for the selection of welding parameters to avoid martensite formation. This research is contained in "Fusion Zone Microstructure in Full Penetration Laser-Arc Hybrid Welding of Low Alloy Steel." Alloy 690 suffers from ductility dip cracking, a form of hot cracking. This type of cracking inhibits the use of multipass welding to join Alloy 690. Our partners at ORNL performed some hot ductility testing with Alloy 690 samples using digital image correlation. The results of this work is contained in the report "Summary of 690 ductility dip cracking testing using Gleeble and digital image correlation." Macro-porosity is a limiting factor in the widespread deployment of laser and hybrid laser-arc welding for construction and repair of nuclear power plant components. Keyhole instability and fluctuation results in the formation of large bubbles, which become trapped at the advancing solid- liquid interface as pores. Laser and hybrid laser-arc welds were fabricated for a range of conditions. Porosity levels in the welds were measured in X-ray ...

Hybrid Laser Arc Welding with High Power Diode Laser

Hybrid Laser Arc Welding with High Power Diode Laser Book
Author : Justino Bernardo Mulima
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2008
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Hybrid Laser Arc Welding with High Power Diode Laser book written by Justino Bernardo Mulima, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Development of a Comprehensive Process Model for Hybrid Laser Arc Welding

Development of a Comprehensive Process Model for Hybrid Laser Arc Welding Book
Author : Fanrong Kong,Radovan Kovacevic
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2012
ISBN : 9789535108542
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Development of a Comprehensive Process Model for Hybrid Laser Arc Welding book written by Fanrong Kong,Radovan Kovacevic, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Welding and Joining of Magnesium Alloys

Welding and Joining of Magnesium Alloys Book
Author : L Liu
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2010-10-28
ISBN : 0857090429
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Due to the wide application of magnesium alloys in metals manufacturing, it is very important to employ a reliable method of joining these reactive metals together and to other alloys. Welding and joining of magnesium alloys provides a detailed review of both established and new techniques for magnesium alloy welding and their characteristics, limitations and applications. Part one covers general issues in magnesium welding and joining, such as welding materials, metallurgy and the joining of magnesium alloys to other metals such as aluminium and steel. The corrosion and protection of magnesium alloy welds are also discussed. In part two particular welding and joining techniques are reviewed, with chapters covering such topics as inert gas welding, metal inert gas welding and laser welding, as well as soldering, mechanical joining and adhesive bonding. The application of newer techniques to magnesium alloys, such as hybrid laser-arc welding, activating flux tungsten inert gas welding and friction stir, is also discussed. With its distinguished editor and expert team of contributors, Welding and joining of magnesium alloys is a comprehensive reference for producers of primary magnesium and those using magnesium alloys in the welding, automotive and other such industries, as well as academic researchers in metallurgy and materials science. Provides a detailed review of both established and new techniques for magnesium alloys welding and their characteristics, limitations and applications Both the weldability of magnesium alloys and weldability to other metals is assessed as well as the preparation required for welding featuring surface treatment Particular welding and joining technologies are explored in detail with particular chapters examining hybrid laser-arc welding, laser welding and resistance spot welding

Processes and mechanisms of welding residual stress and distortion

Processes and mechanisms of welding residual stress and distortion Book
Author : Zhili Feng
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2005-11-01
ISBN : 9780849334672
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

As a fabrication technology, welding presents a number of technical challenges to the designer, manufacturer, and end-user of the welded structures. Both weld residual stress and distortion can significantly impair the performance and reliability of the welded structures. They must be properly dealt with during design, fabrication, and in-service use of the welded structures. There have been many significant and exciting developments on the subject in the past ten to fifteen years. Measurement techniques have been improved significantly. More importantly, the development of computational welding mechanics methods has been phenomenal. The progresses in the last decade or so have not only greatly expanded our fundamental understanding of the processes and mechanisms of residual stress and distortion during welding, but also have provided powerful tools to quantitatively determine the detailed residual stress and distortion information for a given welded structure. New techniques for effective residual stress and distortion mitigations and controls have also been applied in different industry sectors. Processes and Mechanisms of Welding Residual Stress and Distortion provides a comprehensive summary on the developments in the subject. It outlines theoretical treatments on heat transfer, solid mechanics and materials behavior that are essential for understanding and determining the welding residual stress and distortion. The approaches for computational methods and analysis methodology are described so that non specialists can follow them. There are chapters devoted to the discussion of various techniques for control and mitigation of residual stress and distortion, and residual stress and distortion results for various typical welded structures are provided. The second half of the book looks at case studies and practical solutions and provides insights into the techniques, challenges, limitations and future trends of each application. This book will not only be useful for advanced analysis of the subject, but also provide sufficient examples and practical solutions for welding engineers. With a panel of leading experts this authoritative book will be a valuable resource for welding engineers and designers as well as academics working in the fields of structural and mechanical engineering.

The Theory of Laser Materials Processing

The Theory of Laser Materials Processing Book
Author : John Dowden,Wolfgang Schulz
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-06-16
ISBN : 331956711X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The revised edition of this important reference volume presents an expanded overview of the analytical and numerical approaches employed when exploring and developing modern laser materials processing techniques. The book shows how general principles can be used to obtain insight into laser processes, whether derived from fundamental physical theory or from direct observation of experimental results. The book gives readers an understanding of the strengths and limitations of simple numerical and analytical models that can then be used as the starting-point for more elaborate models of specific practical, theoretical or commercial value. Following an introduction to the mathematical formulation of some relevant classes of physical ideas, the core of the book consists of chapters addressing key applications in detail: cutting, keyhole welding, drilling, arc and hybrid laser-arc welding, hardening, cladding and forming. The second edition includes a new a chapter on glass cutting with lasers, as employed in the display industry. A further addition is a chapter on meta-modelling, whose purpose is to construct fast, simple and reliable models based on appropriate sources of information. It then makes it easy to explore data visually and is a convenient interactive tool for scientists to improve the quality of their models and for developers when designing their processes. As in the first edition, the book ends with an updated introduction to comprehensive numerical simulation. Although the book focuses on laser interactions with materials, many of the principles and methods explored can be applied to thermal modelling in a variety of different fields and at different power levels. It is aimed principally however at academic and industrial researchers and developers in the field of laser technology.

Joining Technologies

Joining Technologies Book
Author : Mahadzir Ishak
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2016-09-21
ISBN : 9535125966
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Joining and welding are two of the most important processes in manufacturing. These technologies have vastly improved and are now extensively used in numerous industries. This book covers a wide range of topics, from arc welding (GMAW and GTAW), FSW, laser and hybrid welding, and magnetic pulse welding on metal joining to the application of joining technologies for textile products. The analysis of temperature and phase transformation is also incorporated. This book also discusses the issue of dissimilar joint between metal and ceramic, as well as the technology of diffusion bonding.

Thermal Analysis and Microhardness Mapping in Hybrid Laser Welds in a Structural Steel

Thermal Analysis and Microhardness Mapping in Hybrid Laser Welds in a Structural Steel Book
Author : E. A. Metzbower,P. E. Denney,D. W. Moon,C. R. Feng,S. G. Lambrakos,NAVAL RESEARCH LAB WASHINGTON DC.
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2003
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Hybrid welding, the combination of laser and arc welding, is being heavily investigated for potential applications in the fabrication of structural steel components. The hybrid process is an alternative to autogenous laser welding that requires good fit-up of the parts. With the hybrid process, the addition of filler metal alters the weld pass chemistry and fills any gaps that may occur. In some applications, the fit-up of parts is only part of the issue for laser welding. In some structural steel components, the chemistry of the base metal when autogenously laser welded can result in weldments (weld metal and heat-affected zone (HAZ)) that have high hardness values. This indirectly indicates that the weld metal is brittle and not suitable for certain applications. The hardness values of the weldment have been used as an acceptance criteria for certain industrial applications. The use of hybrid welding may address the hardness issue. The addition of filler metal through a gas metal arc (GMAW) based hybrid process decrease the cooling rate in the HAZ therefore improving mechanical properties. These improvements can often be detected by microhardness profiles. While traditional hardness profiles tabulate hardness in a few regions of the weld, hardness mapping better profiles the hardness trends in the weldment. This paper will present welding results for the hybrid structural welding of a structural carbon steel using a 4 kW Nd:YAG based hybrid laser system. The data will center on the thermal response of the steel to the welding process, on the hardness mapping of the weldments and how the heat input altered the hardness and the mechanical properties of the welds.

A Feasiblity Study on the Fatigue Performance of Laser Beam Welds and Hybrid laser Arc Welds Used in an Innovative Modular Steel Sandwich Panel Bridge Deck System

A Feasiblity Study on the Fatigue Performance of Laser Beam Welds and Hybrid laser Arc Welds Used in an Innovative Modular Steel Sandwich Panel Bridge Deck System Book
Author : Garrett J. Passarelli
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2011
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This research investigation explores the feasibility of implementing a laser welded sandwich steel panel bridge deck system as a viable alternative to standardized reinforced concrete bridge decks. Generally used in naval ship building applications, steel sandwich panels possess attractive characteristics towards the integration with bridge infrastructure such as service life in excess of 100 plus years, dead load reduction, rapid construction, decreased closure time, and automated mass production. The lack of fatigue data for the laser "stake" welds used to create the enclosed sandwich panel geometry raised concerns with respect to fatigue life. The primary focus of this study was to determine whether or not infinite fatigue life was possible. Two different laser welding technologies were investigated, Laser Beam Welding (LBW) and Hybrid-Laser Arc Welding (HLAW). Test specimens were fabricated and tested in order to examine fatigue resistance based on a localized load effect between adjacent core stiffeners. Finite element models were used to obtain the stress range for each individual test due to complex geometry and partially restrained boundary conditions. In order to assess the fatigue performance of the overall deck system, additional finite element models were created to study the local and global behavior of different sandwich panel configurations. As a whole the investigation yielded promising results. Infinite fatigue life is achievable due to outstanding fatigue performance. The HLAW stake welds demonstrated superior fatigue resistance in comparison to the LBW process. Localized load effects can be minimized through the modification of different panel parameters. Pushing forward, full scale testing is essential to the future employment of this innovative bridge deck system.

Handbook of Laser Welding Technologies

Handbook of Laser Welding Technologies Book
Author : S Katayama
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2013-06-30
ISBN : 0857098772
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Laser welding is a rapidly developing and versatile technology which has found increasing applications in industry and manufacturing. It allows the precision welding of small and hard-to-reach areas, and is particularly suitable for operation under computer or robotic control. The Handbook of laser welding technologies reviews the latest developments in the field and how they can be used across a variety of applications. Part one provides an introduction to the fundamentals of laser welding before moving on to explore developments in established technologies including CO2 laser welding, disk laser welding and laser micro welding technology. Part two highlights laser welding technologies for various materials including aluminium and titanium alloys, plastics and glass. Part three focuses on developments in emerging laser welding technologies with chapters on the applications of robotics in laser welding and developments in the modelling and simulation of laser and hybrid laser welding. Finally, part four explores the applications of laser welding in the automotive, railway and shipbuilding industries. The Handbook of laser welding technologies is a technical resource for researchers and engineers using laser welding technologies, professionals requiring an understanding of laser welding techniques and academics interested in the field. Provides an introduction to the fundamentals of laser welding including characteristics, welding defects and evolution of laser welding Discusses developments in a number of techniques including disk, conduction and laser micro welding Focusses on technologies for particular materials such as light metal alloys, plastics and glass

Analysis of Laser Arc Hybrid Welding Experiments

Analysis of Laser Arc Hybrid Welding Experiments Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 9789175831558
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

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Welding and Joining of Aerospace Materials

Welding and Joining of Aerospace Materials Book
Author : M C Chaturvedi
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2011-12-19
ISBN : 0857095161
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Welding and joining techniques play an essential role in both the manufacture and in-service repair of aerospace structures and components, and these techniques become more advanced as new, complex materials are developed. Welding and joining of aerospace materials provides an in-depth review of different techniques for joining metallic and non-metallic aerospace materials. Part one opens with a chapter on recently developed welding techniques for aerospace materials. The next few chapters focus on different types of welding such as inertia friction, laser and hybrid laser-arc welding. The final chapter in part one discusses the important issue of heat affected zone cracking in welded superalloys. Part two covers other joining techniques, including chapters on riveting, composite-to-metal bonding, diffusion bonding and recent improvements in bonding metals. Part two concludes with a chapter focusing on the use of high-temperature brazing in aerospace engineering. Finally, an appendix to the book covers the important issue of linear friction welding. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Welding and joining of aerospace materials is an essential reference for engineers and designers in the aerospace, materials and welding and joining industries, as well as companies and other organisations operating in these sectors and all those with an academic research interest in the subject. Provides an in-depth review of different techniques for joining metallic and non-metallic aerospace materials Discusses the important issue of heat affected zone cracking in welded superalloys Covers many joining techniques, including riveting, composite-to-metal bonding and diffusion bonding

Welding and Joining of Magnesium Alloys

Welding and Joining of Magnesium Alloys Book
Author : L. Liu
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2017-11-13
ISBN : 9780081014561
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book covers all aspects of the welding and joining of magnesium alloys. Magnesium and its alloys have been used for many years and their use is increasing due to their superior properties and lightweight. Part 1 includes welding metallurgy, preparation for welding and welding materials. Part 2 covers the various welding technologies that can be used for joining magnesium alloys and part 3 includes other joining technologies, weld defects and corrosion protection.

Usability of laser arc hybrid welding processes in industrial applications

Usability of laser arc hybrid welding processes in industrial applications Book
Author : Paul Kah
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2011
ISBN : 9789522650993
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Usability of laser arc hybrid welding processes in industrial applications book written by Paul Kah, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Manufacturing Industrial Development for the Alternative Energy Systems Final Report

Manufacturing Industrial Development for the Alternative Energy Systems Final Report Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2013
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

NCMS identified and developed critical manufacturing technology assessments vital to the affordable manufacturing of alternative-energy systems. NCMS leveraged technologies from other industrial sectors and worked with our extensive member organizations to provide DOE with two projects with far-reaching impact on the generation of wind energy. In the response for a call for project ideas, 26 project teams submitted ideas. Following a detailed selection criteria, two projects were chosen for development: Advanced Manufacturing for Modular Electro-kinetic (E-K) Wind Energy Conversion Technology - The goal of this project was to demonstrate that a modular wind energy technology based on electrohydrodynamic wind energy principles and employing automotive heritage high volume manufacturing techniques and modular platform design concepts can result in significant cost reductions for wind energy systems at a range of sizes from 100KW to multi-MW. During this program, the Accio/Boeing team made major progress on validating the EHD wind energy technology as commercially viable in the wind energy sector, and moved along the manufacturing readiness axis with a series of design changes that increased net system output. Hybrid Laser Arc Welding for Manufacture of Wind Towers - The goal of this research program was to reduce the cost of manufacturing wind towers through the introduction of hybrid laser arc welding (HLAW) into the supply chain for manufacturing wind towers. HLAW has the potential to enhance productivity while reducing energy consumption to offset the foreign low-cost labor advantage and thereby enhance U.S. competitiveness. HLAW technology combines laser welding and arc welding to produce an energy efficient, high productivity, welding process for heavy manufacturing. This process leverages the ability of a laser to produce deep weld penetration and the ability of gas metal arc welding (GMAW) to deposit filler material, thereby producing stable, high quality, welds on joints with gaps and mismatches typical of those seen in heavy manufacturing. Wind towers utilize varying thicknesses of steel throughout their structures to meet the mechanical load requirements while keeping material costs low. A typical tower might have as many as twelve different material thicknesses. Joining each thickness requires a unique joint design and welding approach to enable the management of quality, productivity, and mechanical properties. In this program, laser joining of materials with thicknesses ranging from 12mm to 35mm were evaluated against the standard quality and mechanical requirements for General Electric wind tower components. The joining processes demonstrated showed the ability to meet key requirements with the appropriate process controls in place.