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Human Toxicology Of Chemical Mixtures

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Human Toxicology of Chemical Mixtures

Human Toxicology of Chemical Mixtures Book
Author : Harold Zeliger
Publisher : William Andrew
Release : 2011-06-24
ISBN : 9781437734645
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In this important reference work, Zeliger catalogs the known effects of chemical mixtures on the human body and also proposes a framework for understanding and predicting their actions in terms of lipophile (fat soluble) / hydrophile (water soluble) interactions. The author’s focus is on illnesses that ensue following exposures to mixtures of chemicals that cannot be attributed to any one component of the mixture. In the first part the mechanisms of chemical absorption at a molecular and macromolecular level are explained, as well as the body’s methods of defending itself against xenobiotic intrusion. Part II examines the sources of the chemicals discusssed, looking at air and water pollution, food additives, pharmaceuticals, etc. Part III, which includes numerous case studies, examines specific effects of particular mixtures on particular body systems and organs and presents a theoretical framework for predicting what the effects of uncharacterized mixtures might be. Part IV covers regulatory requirements and the need to adjust recommended exposure levels for products containing mixtures. It also contains recommendations on how to limit exposure to mixtures in the products we use and on how to limit release of mixtures into the environment. Providing brief summaries of each mixture and its effects, Zeliger provides a comprehensive reference, a jumping off point for professionals (with extensive chapter bibliographies) and an introduction to the topic for those studying traditional toxicology. Addressing many inadequately understood illnesses and conditions such as asthma, infertility and cancer, it will also be of interest to health professionals, environmental scientists and lawyers. Presents a theoretical framework for predicting the effects of chemical mixtures for which no specific data exists (this predictive aspect is important due to the vast number of different potential chemical combinations - far too many to comprehensively catalog) A quick and convenient source of hard to come by data on the rapidly developing field of chemical mixtures, for groups including chemists and engineers, toxicologists, health professionals and environmental scientists New and updated material comprises over 30% of this timely new edition, which includes the latest research data alongside an expanded introduction to the science and art of predicting the toxicological properties of chemical mixtures

Mixture Toxicity

Mixture Toxicity Book
Author : Cornelis A. M. van Gestel,Martijs Jonker,Jan E. Kammenga,Ryszard Laskowski,Claus Svendsen
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2016-04-19
ISBN : 9781439830093
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In the last decade and a half, great progress has been made in the development of concepts and models for mixture toxicity, both in human and environmental toxicology. However, due to their different protection goals, developments have often progressed in parallel but with little integration. Arguably the first book to clearly link ecotoxicology and classic human toxicology, Mixture Toxicity: Linking Approaches from Ecological and Human Toxicology incorporates extensive reviews of exposure to toxicants, toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics, toxicity of mixtures, and risk assessment. The book examines developments in both fields, compares and contrasts their current state of the art, and identifies where one field can learn from the other. Each chapter provides an essential overview of the state of the art in both human and ecotoxicological mixture risk assessment, focusing on the work published in the last fifteen years. The coverage progresses from exposure to risk assessment, at each step identifying the special complications typically raised by mixtures. Based on in-depth discussions among specialists representing different disciplines and approaches, the chapters each address: Exposure — how to quantify the amounts of chemicals that may enter the living organism Kinetics, dynamics, and metabolism — how the chemicals enter an organism, travel within the organism, how they are metabolized and reach the target site, and explain development of toxicity with time Toxicity — what are the chemicals’ detrimental effects on the organism Test design and complex mixture characterization — how chemicals interact, how to measure effects of mixtures, and how to identify responsible chemicals Risk assessment — how to assess for risks in humans and the environment An unusual combination of different points of view on exposure to and risk assessment of chemical mixtures, this book summarizes current knowledge on combined effects of toxicant mixtures, information that is generally only available in a very fragmented form as individual journal papers. It identifies possible crosslinks and includes recommendations for mutual developments that can improve the state of knowledge on mixture toxicity and ultimately lead to better and more integrated risk assessment.

Toxicology of Chemical Mixtures

Toxicology of Chemical Mixtures Book
Author : Raymond S.H. Yang
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2016-05-14
ISBN : 1483289400
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Although toxicologic studies in the laboratory often focus on a single chemical, in the larger world, mixtures of chemicals are routinely encountered. Toxicology of Chemical Mixtures examines the mechanisms of interactions and health effects stemming from chemical mixtures in the environment. Toxicologists, pharmacologists, environmental scientists, and professionals involved in environmental clean-ups will benefit from its content. Emphasis is on low-level, long-term exposure. Key Features * Some of the issues addressed include: * Target organ toxicities in response to chemical mixture exposures * Risk assessment and experimental approaches * Case studies and special pollution problems * Special pollution problems

The Toxicology of Chemical Mixtures Risk Assessment for Human and Ecological Receptors

The Toxicology of Chemical Mixtures Risk Assessment for Human and Ecological Receptors Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2005
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Mixtures of chemicals represent a concern in all areas of toxicology and a challenge to risk assessors as most sites with environmental contamination, including Department of Defense sites, involve simultaneous or sequential exposures of multiple chemicals to human or ecological receptors. A major concern with mixtures is that they may lead to outcomes (health effects) or increased toxicity (synergism) not expected from the risk characterization of individual chemicals at the site. The focus of this literature review is 0 examine the principles used to determine toxicity in chemical mixtures risk assessment for human and ecological receptors at hazardous waste sites. This review provides an overview of current practices useful to a remedial project manager or risk assessor prior to their first chemical mixtures risk assessment.

The Toxicity of Chemical Mixtures

The Toxicity of Chemical Mixtures Book
Author : J. K. Pollak
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1993
ISBN : 9780867587753
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download The Toxicity of Chemical Mixtures book written by J. K. Pollak, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Genetic Toxicology of Complex Mixtures

Genetic Toxicology of Complex Mixtures Book
Author : Michael D. Waters,F.Bernhard Daniel,Joellen Lewtas,Martha M. Moore,Stephen Nesnow
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-03-13
ISBN : 1468458507
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Contained in this volume are the proceedings of the international conference on the "Genetic Toxicology of Complex Mixtures," held from July 4-7, 1989, in Washington, DC. This meeting was a satellite of the "Fifth International Conference on Environmental Mutagens" and the seventh in a biennial series of conferences on "Short-term Bioassays in the Analysis of Complex Environmental Mixtures. " Our central objective in calling together key researchers from around the world was to extend our knowledge of the application of the methods of genetic toxicology and analytical chemistry in the evaluation of chemical mixtures as they exist in the environment. This conference emphasized the study of genotoxicants in air and water, and the assessment of human exposure and cancer risk. The latest strategies and methodologies for biomonitoring of genotoxicants (including transformation products) were described in the context of the ambient environment. Source character ization and source apportionment were discussed as an aid to understand ing the origin and relative contribution of various kinds of complex mix tures to the ambient environment. Similarly, investigations of genotoxi cants found in the indoor environment (sidestream cigarette smoke) and in drinking water (chlorohydroxyfuranones) were given special attention in terms of their potential health impacts. New molecular techniques were described to enable more precise quantitation of internal dose and dose to-target tissues. The emphasis of presentations on exposures/effects assessment was on integrated quantitative evaluation of human exposure and potential health effects.

Veterinary and Human Toxicology

Veterinary and Human Toxicology Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1998
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Veterinary and Human Toxicology book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Chemical Mixtures and Combined Chemical and Nonchemical Stressors

Chemical Mixtures and Combined Chemical and Nonchemical Stressors Book
Author : Cynthia V. Rider,Jane Ellen Simmons
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-02-16
ISBN : 3319562347
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In this book, both basic and advanced concepts are discussed for considering mixtures from initial exposure characterization through evaluation of risk associated with combined exposures. This book will provide an introduction to key issues and multiple options for evaluating both the toxicity of mixtures as well as the risk associated with exposure to mixtures. Additionally, promising tools adapted from other disciplines will be discussed in the context of mixtures toxicology and risk assessment. Finally, the discussion will move beyond chemical mixtures to address incorporating non-chemical stressors into toxicity studies and cumulative risk assessments. Although exposure to multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors is the rule, not the exception, consideration of mixtures in toxicology and risk assessment continues to be a significant challenge. This book will be an essential resource for researchers and professionals in the fields of toxicology, epidemiology, exposure science, risk assessment, and statistics.

A Pound of Prevention for a Healthier Life

A Pound of Prevention for a Healthier Life Book
Author : Harold I. Zeliger
Publisher : Universal-Publishers
Release : 2019-04-15
ISBN : 1627342648
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A Pound of Prevention for a Healthier Life shows the connection between oxidative stress and the onset of virtually all disease and discusses the causes of oxidative stress induced disease and ways to prevent it. The book includes a unique questionnaire for predicting disease onset in seemingly healthy people, and shows how steps taken to prevent any one disease may prevent many other unrelated diseases. Dr. Harold I. Zeliger, a chemical toxicologist who has been researching the causes of non-communicable diseases for more than 40 years, demonstrates how elevated oxidative stress is responsible for attacks on virtually all body organs and systems and how it triggers the onset of numerous diseases, including ADHD, autism, heart disease, respiratory disease, diabetes, obesity, Alzheimer?s disease, Parkinson?s disease, cancer and numerous others. The many sources of oxidative stress include not only exposures to toxic chemicals such as pesticides, air pollutants, PCBs and organic solvents, but also to radiation, tobacco smoke, eating some foods, pharmaceutical drug use, illnesses a person already has, emotional stress and others. Zeliger?s research shows how elevated oxidative stress need not come from a single source, but can come from multiple sources, and that it is total oxidative stress, no matter what the source or sources, that causes disease. The Oxidative Stress Index, which can be individually arrived at from the questionnaire in the book, allows the reader to determine his or her oxidative stress level, which sources are responsible for it, and what actions can be taken to reduce it and lower the likelihood of disease onset.

Complex Mixtures

Complex Mixtures Book
Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Life Sciences,Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,Committee on Methods for the In Vivo Toxicity Testing of Complex Mixtures
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 1988-02-01
ISBN : 0309037786
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In the laboratory, testing the toxic effects for a single compound is a straightforward process. However, many common harmful substances occur naturally as mixtures and can interact to exhibit greater toxic effects as a mixture than the individual components exhibit separately. Complex Mixtures addresses the problem of identifying and classifying complex mixtures, investigating the effect of exposure, and the research problems inherent in testing their toxicity to human beings. A complete series of case studies is presented, including one that examines the cofactors of alcohol consumption and cigarette smoke.

Toxicology of Chemical Mixtures Experimental Approaches Underlying Concepts and Some Results

Toxicology of Chemical Mixtures  Experimental Approaches  Underlying Concepts  and Some Results Book
Author : Raymond S. Yang,H. L. Long,Gary A. Boorman,NATIONAL INST OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK NC.
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1990
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The toxicology of chemical mixtures will be the toxicology of the 1990s and beyond. While this branch of toxicology most closely reflects the actual human exposure situation, as yet, there is no standard protocol or consensus methodology for investigating the toxicology of mixtures. Thus, in this emerging science, experimentation is required just to develop a broadly applicable evaluation system. Several examples are discussed to illustrate the different experimental designs and the concepts behind each. These include the health effects studies of Love Canal soil samples, the Lake Ontario Coho salmon, the water samples repurified from secondary sewage in the city of Denver Potable Water Reuse Demonstration Plant, and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) effort on a mixture of 25 frequently detected groundwater contaminants derived from hazardous waste disposal sites. In the last instance, an extensive research program has been ongoing for the last two years at the NTP, encompassing general toxicology, immunotoxicology, developmental and reproductive toxicology, biochemical toxicology, myelotoxicology, genetic toxicology, neurobehavioral toxicology, and hepato- and renal toxicology.

Diversification in Toxicology Man and Environment

Diversification in Toxicology     Man and Environment Book
Author : Jürg P. Seiler,Judith L. Autrup,Herman Autrup
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 364246856X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume contains the main papers presented at the 1997 EUROTOX Congress, Århus, Denmark, 24-28 June 1997. Diversification in toxicology is seen as the application of basic science to such diverse areas as man and his environment. The pressing issues which have been dealt with not only include reproductive effects of environmental chemicals ("xenoestrogens"), but also receptor-mediated toxic responses, new frontiers in human and ecological toxicology, chemoprevention of cancer and molecular approaches in toxicological research. The practical and ethical facets of toxicology, e.g. ecotoxicological risk assessment, biomarkers of exposure, complex chemical mixtures as well as animal welfare and the ethics of animal experimentation, are also treated.

Toxicological Risk Assessment of Chemicals

Toxicological Risk Assessment of Chemicals Book
Author : Elsa Nielsen,Grete Ostergaard,John Christian Larsen
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2008-02-21
ISBN : 9781420006940
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Unlike many existing books on toxicology that cover either toxicity of a particular substance or toxicity of chemicals on particular organ systems, Toxicological Risk Assessment of Chemicals: A Practical Guide lays out the principle activities of conducting a toxicological risk assessment, including international approaches and methods for the risk assessment of chemical substances. It illustrates each step in the process: hazard identification, a dose response assessment, and exposure assessment. The book also summarizes the basic concepts of interaction of chemicals in mixtures and discusses various approaches to testing such mixtures. Features: Addresses standards from all international regulatory agencies Presents the steps in risk assessment, including hazard identification, exposure assessment, and risk characterization Covers the assessment of multiple chemical exposures or chemical mixtures Contains data from both human and animal studies Explains the linearized multi-stage mathematical model widely used by the US EPA for characterizing

Software for Analysis of Chemical Mixtures

Software for Analysis of Chemical Mixtures Book
Author : Jonathon C. Scott,Kenneth A. Skach,Patricia Toccalino
Publisher : CreateSpace
Release : 2013
ISBN : 9781500266684
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The composition, occurrence, distribution, and possible toxicity of chemical mixtures in the environment are research concerns of the U.S. Geological Survey and others. The presence of specific chemical mixtures may serve as indicators of natural phenomena or human-caused events. Chemical mixtures may also have ecological, industrial, geochemical, or toxicological effects. Chemical-mixture occurrences vary by analyte composition and concentration. Four related computer programs have been developed by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey for research of chemical-mixture compositions, occurrences, distributions, and possible toxicities. The compositions and occurrences are identified for the user-supplied data, and therefore the resultant counts are constrained by the user's choices for the selection of chemicals, reporting limits for the analytical methods, spatial coverage, and time span for the data supplied. The distribution of chemical mixtures may be spatial, temporal, and (or) related to some other variable, such as chemical usage. Possible toxicities optionally are estimated from user-supplied benchmark data.

Principles and Practice of Mixtures Toxicology

Principles and Practice of Mixtures Toxicology Book
Author : Moiz Mumtaz
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2011-05-23
ISBN : 3527632115
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This first comprehensive treatment of the subject for more than a decade includes the latest research on nanoparticle toxicology. The practical handbook addresses all areas where toxic mixtures are encountered, from environmental via occupational to medical settings, giving special consideration to air and water, and to the specific requirements for study design in mixture toxicology. While no extensive prior knowledge or toxicological experience is required, the practice-oriented case studies and examples in the second part make this the ideal companion for the professional toxicologist in industry or healthcare institutions with little time for academic study.

Computational Toxicology

Computational Toxicology Book
Author : John C. Lipscomb,Nikki Maples-Reynolds,Moiz Mumtaz
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-06-04
ISBN : 0128060441
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Humans are exposed to chemicals through voluntary and involuntary actions; to natural and synthetic chemicals all day, every day. Single chemical risk assessments are complex in and of themselves, and the assessment of chemical mixtures exponentially increases the complexity for toxicologists, regulators, and the public. Chemicals produce effects in biological systems which may or may not be related to their toxicity; some effects may be adaptive or may not be a direct part of their mode or mechanism of toxic action. These terms are commonly used and may be distinguished based on the level of detail implied. Mode of action usually describes the effect of a toxicant at the cellular or organ level, while mechanism of action implies an understanding of the interaction of the toxicant at the molecular level. Chemicals can have the same mode of action, but act via different mechanisms. Components in a chemical mixture are characterized by mode and/or mechanism for the purpose of grouping, described later.

Analytical Methods in Human Toxicology

Analytical Methods in Human Toxicology Book
Author : Alan S. Curry
Publisher : Vch Pub
Release : 1985
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Analytical Methods in Human Toxicology book written by Alan S. Curry, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry

Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2007
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Current Issues on Chemical Mixtures and Model Validation Concepts and Their Application to Lead Models

Current Issues on Chemical Mixtures and Model Validation Concepts and Their Application to Lead Models Book
Author : Raymond S. H. Yang,William A. Suk
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2002-10-01
ISBN : 9780788185397
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Papers include: human health and chemical mixtures: an overview; public health challenges posed by chemical mixtures; toxicology of chemical mixtures: international perspective; maximum workplace concentration values and carcinogenicity classification for mixtures; 14 papers on biomedical and methodological advances on chemical mixtures; 6 papers on ecological engineering advances on chemical mixtures; and 16 papers on model validation concepts and their application to lead models.

Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling

Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling Book
Author : Micaela Reddy,R. S. Yang,Melvin E. Andersen,Harvey J. Clewell III
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2005-06-14
ISBN : 0471478776
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A definitive, single source of information on PBPK modeling Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling is becomingincreasingly important in human health risk assessments and insupporting pharmacodynamic modeling for toxic responses. Organizedby classes of compounds and modeling purposes so users can quicklyaccess information, this is the first comprehensive reference ofits kind. This book presents an overview of the underlying principles of PBPKmodel development. Then it provides a compendium of PBPK modelinginformation, including historical development, specific modelingchallenges, and current practices for: * Halogenated Alkanes * Halogenated Alkenes * Alkene and Aromatic Compounds * Reactive Vapors in the Nasal Cavity * Alkanes, Oxyhydrocarbons, and Related Compounds * Pesticides and Persistent Organic Pollutants * Dioxin and Related Compounds * Metals and Inorganic Compounds * Drugs * Antineoplastic Agents * Perinatal Transfer * Mixtures * Dermal Exposure Models In addition to pinpointing specific information, readers canexplore diverse modeling techniques and applications. Anauthoritative reference for toxicologists, ecotoxicologists, riskassessors, regulators, pharmacologists, pharmacists, and graduatestudents in pharmacokinetics and toxicology, Physiologically-BasedPharmacokinetic Modeling compiles information from leaders in thefield and discusses future directions for PBPK modeling.