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Human Population Genetics and Genomics

Human Population Genetics and Genomics Book
Author : Alan R. Templeton
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2018-11-08
ISBN : 0123860261
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Human Population Genetics and Genomics provides researchers/students with knowledge on population genetics and relevant statistical approaches to help them become more effective users of modern genetic, genomic and statistical tools. In-depth chapters offer thorough discussions of systems of mating, genetic drift, gene flow and subdivided populations, human population history, genotype and phenotype, detecting selection, units and targets of natural selection, adaptation to temporally and spatially variable environments, selection in age-structured populations, and genomics and society. As human genetics and genomics research often employs tools and approaches derived from population genetics, this book helps users understand the basic principles of these tools. In addition, studies often employ statistical approaches and analysis, so an understanding of basic statistical theory is also needed. Comprehensively explains the use of population genetics and genomics in medical applications and research Discusses the relevance of population genetics and genomics to major social issues, including race and the dangers of modern eugenics proposals Provides an overview of how population genetics and genomics helps us understand where we came from as a species and how we evolved into who we are now

Human Population Genomics

Human Population Genomics Book
Author : Kirk E. Lohmueller,Rasmus Nielsen
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021
ISBN : 3030616460
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This textbook provides a concise introduction and useful overview of the field of human population genomics, making the highly technical and contemporary aspects more accessible to students and researchers from various fields. Over the past decade, there has been a deluge of genetic variation data from the entire genome of individuals from many populations. These data have allowed an unprecedented look at human history and how natural selection has impacted humans during this journey. Simultaneously, there have been increased efforts to determine how genetic variation affects complex traits in humans. Due to technological and methodological advances, progress has been made at determining the architecture of complex traits. Split in three parts, the book starts with the basics, followed by more advanced and current research. The first part provides an introduction to essential concepts in population genetics, which are relevant for any organism. The second part covers the genetics of complex traits in humans. The third part focuses on applying these techniques and concepts to genetic variation data to learn about demographic history and natural selection in humans. This new textbook aims to serve as a gateway to modern human population genetics research for those new to the field. It provides an indispensable resource for students, researchers and practitioners from disparate areas of expertise.

Integrating Human Population Genetics and Genomics to Elucidate the Etiology of Brain Disorders

Integrating Human Population Genetics and Genomics to Elucidate the Etiology of Brain Disorders Book
Author : Arvis Sulovari
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2017
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Brain disorders present a significant burden on affected individuals, their families and society at large. Existing diagnostic tests suffer from a lack of genetic biomarkers, particularly for substance use disorders, such as alcohol dependence (AD). Numerous studies have demonstrated that AD has a genetic heritability of 40-60%. The existing genetics literature of AD has primarily focused on linkage analyses in small family cohorts and more recently on genome-wide association analyses (GWAS) in large case-control cohorts, fueled by rapid advances in next generation sequencing (NGS). Numerous AD-associated genomic variations are present at a common frequency in the general population, making these variants of public health significance. However, known AD-associated variants explain only a fraction of the expected heritability. In this dissertation, we demonstrate that systems biology applications that integrate evolutionary genomics, rare variants and structural variation can dissect the genetic architecture of AD and elucidate its heritability. We identified several complex human diseases, including AD and other brain disorders, as potential targets of natural selection forces in diverse world populations. Further evidence of natural selection forces affecting AD was revealed when we identified an association between eye color, a trait under strong selection, and AD. These findings provide strong support for conducting GWAS on brain disorder phenotypes. However, with the ever-increasing abundance of rare genomic variants and large cohorts of multi-ethnic samples, population stratification becomes a serious confounding factor for GWAS. To address this problem, we designed a novel approach to identify ancestry informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for population stratification adjustment in association analyses. Furthermore, to leverage untyped variants from genotyping arrays -- particularly rare variants -- for GWAS and meta-analysis through rapid imputation, we designed a tool that converts genotype definitions across various array platforms. To further elucidate the genetic heritability of brain disorders, we designed approaches aimed at identifying Copy Number Variations (CNVs) and viral insertions into the human genome. We conducted the first CNV-based whole genome meta-analysis for AD. We also designed an integrated approach to estimate the sensitivity of NGS-based methods of viral insertion detection. For the first time in the literature, we identified herpesvirus in NGS data from an Alzheimer's disease brain sample. The work in this dissertation represents a three-faceted advance in our understanding of brain disease etiology: 1) evolutionary genomic insights, 2) novel resources and tools to leverage rare variants, and 3) the discovery of disease-associated structural genomic aberrations. Our findings have broad implications on the genetics of complex human disease and hold promise for delivering clinically useful knowledge and resources.

A Primer of Population Genetics and Genomics

A Primer of Population Genetics and Genomics Book
Author : Daniel L. Hartl
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2020-06-18
ISBN : 0192607049
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A Primer of Population Genetics and Genomics has been completely revised and updated to provide a concise but comprehensive introduction to the basic concepts of population genetics and genomics. Recent textbooks have tended to focus on such specialized topics as the coalescent, molecular evolution, human population genetics, or genomics. This primer bucks that trend by encouraging a broader familiarity with, and understanding of, population genetics and genomics as a whole. The overview ranges from mating systems through the causes of evolution, molecular population genetics, and the genomics of complex traits. Interwoven are discussions of ancient DNA, gene drive, landscape genetics, identifying risk factors for complex diseases, the genomics of adaptation and speciation, and other active areas of current research. The principles are illuminated by numerous examples from a wide variety of animals, plants, microbes, and human populations. The approach also emphasizes learning by doing, which in this case means solving numerical or conceptual problems. The rationale behind this is that the use of concepts in problem-solving lead to deeper understanding and longer knowledge retention. This accessible, introductory textbook is aimed principally at students of various levels and abilities (from senior undergraduate to postgraduate) as well as practising scientists in the fields of population genetics, ecology, evolutionary biology, computational biology, bioinformatics, biostatistics, physics, and mathematics.

Essential Genetics and Genomics

Essential Genetics and Genomics Book
Author : Daniel L. Hartl
Publisher : Jones & Bartlett Learning
Release : 2018-11-02
ISBN : 1284152456
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Essential Genetics and Genomics is the ideal textbook for the shorter, less comprehensive genetics course. It presents carefully chosen topics that provide a solid foundation to the basic understanding of gene mutation, expression, and regulation.

Human Evolutionary Genetics

Human Evolutionary Genetics Book
Author : Mark Jobling,Matthew Hurles,Chris Tyler-Smith
Publisher : Garland Science
Release : 2013-06-25
ISBN : 1136844147
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Human Evolutionary Genetics is a groundbreaking text which for the first time brings together molecular genetics and genomics to the study of the origins and movements of human populations. Starting with an overview of molecular genomics for the non-specialist (which can be a useful review for those with a more genetic background), the book shows how data from the post-genomic era can be used to examine human origins and the human colonization of the planet, richly illustrated with genetic trees and global maps. For the first time in a textbook, the authors outline how genetic data and the understanding of our origins which emerges, can be applied to contemporary population analyses, including genealogies, forensics and medicine.

Human Evolutionary Genetics Second Edition

Human Evolutionary Genetics  Second Edition Book
Author : Mark Jobling,Edward Hollox,Matthew Hurles,Toomas Kivisild,Chris Tyler-Smith
Publisher : Garland Science
Release : 2013-06-23
ISBN : 131795226X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Now in full-color, the Second Edition of Human Evolutionary Genetics has been completely revised to cover the rapid advances in the field since publication of the highly regarded First Edition. Written for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students, it is the only textbook to integrate genetic, archaeological, and linguistic perspectives on human evolution, and to offer a genomic perspective, reflecting the shift from studies of specific regions of the genome towards comprehensive genomewide analyses of human genetic diversity. Human Evolutionary Genetics is suitable for courses in Genetics, Evolution, and Anthropology. Those readers with a background in anthropology will find that the streamlined genetic analysis material contained in the Second Edition is more accessible. The new edition also integrates new technologies (including next-generation sequencing and genome-wide SNP typing) and new data analysis methods, including recent data on ancient genomes and their impact on our understanding of human evolution. The book also examines the subject of personal genomics and its implications.

Troublesome Science

Troublesome Science Book
Author : Rob DeSalle,Ian Tattersall
Publisher : Columbia University Press
Release : 2018-06-19
ISBN : 0231546300
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

It is well established that all humans today, wherever they live, belong to one single species. Yet even many people who claim to abhor racism take for granted that human “races” have a biological reality. In Troublesome Science, Rob DeSalle and Ian Tattersall provide a lucid and forceful critique of how scientific tools have been misused to uphold misguided racial categorizations. DeSalle and Tattersall argue that taxonomy, the scientific classification of organisms, provides an antidote to the myth of race’s biological basis. They explain how taxonomists do their science—how to identify a species and to understand the relationships among different species and the variants within them. DeSalle and Tattersall also detail the use of genetic data to trace human origins and look at how scientists have attempted to recognize discrete populations within Homo sapiens. Troublesome Science demonstrates conclusively that modern genetic tools, when applied correctly to the study of human variety, fail to find genuine differences. While the diversity that exists within our species is a real phenomenon, it nevertheless defeats any systematic attempt to recognize discrete units within it. The stark lines that humans insist on drawing between their own groups and others are nothing but a mixture of imagination and ideology. Troublesome Science is an important call for researchers, journalists, and citizens to cast aside the belief that race has a biological meaning, for the sake of social justice and sound science alike.

Human Evolutionary Genetics

Human Evolutionary Genetics Book
Author : Mark Jobling,Edward Hollox,Toomas Kivisild,Chris Tyler-Smith
Publisher : Garland Science
Release : 2013-06-25
ISBN : 1317952251
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Human Evolutionary Genetics is a groundbreaking text which for the first time brings together molecular genetics and genomics to the study of the origins and movements of human populations. Starting with an overview of molecular genomics for the non-specialist (which can be a useful review for those with a more genetic background), the book shows h

Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics

Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics Book
Author : Richard Lifton,David S. Page
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2001
ISBN : 9780824337025
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume contains 19 recent papers on genomics and human genetics. They address such topics as: the history of the search for the human genome, pharmacogenomics, DNA damage processing defects and disease, human population genetics, gene therapy, methods for genotyping single nucleotide polymorphisms, Usher syndrome, systems biology, privacy and confidentiality of genetic information, the genetics of aging, and enu mutagenesis. c. Book News Inc.

Essential Genetics

Essential Genetics Book
Author : Daniel Hartl
Publisher : Jones & Bartlett Learning
Release : 2011
ISBN : 0763773646
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Updated to reflect the latest discoveries in the field, the Fifth Edition of Hartl's classic text provides an accessible, student-friendly introduction to contemporary genetics. Designed for the shorter, less comprehensive introductory course, Essential Genetics: A Genomic Perspective, Fifth Edition includes carefully chosen topics that provide a solid foundation to the basic understanding of gene mutation, expression, and regulation. New and updated sections on genetic analysis, molecular genetics, probability in genetics, and pathogenicity islands ensure that students are kept up-to-date on current key topics. The text also provides students with a sense of the social and historical context in which genetics has developed. The updated companion web site provides numerous study tools, such as animated flashcards, crosswords, practice quizzes and more! New and expanded end-of-chapter material allows for a mastery of key genetics concepts and is ideal for homework assignments and in-class discussion.

Human Genetics and Genomics

Human Genetics and Genomics Book
Author : Bruce R. Korf,Mira B. Irons
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2012-11-19
ISBN : 1118537661
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This fourth edition of the best-selling textbook, Human Genetics and Genomics, clearly explains the key principles needed by medical and health sciences students, from the basis of molecular genetics, to clinical applications used in the treatment of both rare and common conditions. A newly expanded Part 1, Basic Principles of Human Genetics, focuses on introducing the reader to key concepts such as Mendelian principles, DNA replication and gene expression. Part 2, Genetics and Genomics in Medical Practice, uses case scenarios to help you engage with current genetic practice. Now featuring full-color diagrams, Human Genetics and Genomics has been rigorously updated to reflect today’s genetics teaching, and includes updated discussion of genetic risk assessment, “single gene” disorders and therapeutics. Key learning features include: Clinical snapshots to help relate science to practice ‘Hot topics’ boxes that focus on the latest developments in testing, assessment and treatment ‘Ethical issues’ boxes to prompt further thought and discussion on the implications of genetic developments ‘Sources of information’ boxes to assist with the practicalities of clinical research and information provision Self-assessment review questions in each chapter Accompanied by the Wiley E-Text digital edition (included in the price of the book), Human Genetics and Genomics is also fully supported by a suite of online resources at www.korfgenetics.com, including: Factsheets on 100 genetic disorders, ideal for study and exam preparation Interactive Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) with feedback on all answers Links to online resources for further study Figures from the book available as PowerPoint slides, ideal for teaching purposes The perfect companion to the genetics component of both problem-based learning and integrated medical courses, Human Genetics and Genomics presents the ideal balance between the bio-molecular basis of genetics and clinical cases, and provides an invaluable overview for anyone wishing to engage with this fast-moving discipline.

Handbook of Human Molecular Evolution 2 Volume Set

Handbook of Human Molecular Evolution  2 Volume Set Book
Author : David N. Cooper,Hildegard Kehrer-Sawatzki
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons Incorporated
Release : 2008-10-13
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"This splendid compendium ... will be the standard reference work for years to come: a handbook to browse, to consult, to look things up in, and to read with pleasure, wonder and post-Darwinian exhilaration." —Richard Dawkins "This is a marvellous book… It should be in every university library - preferably in several copies - and every reader of this journal should add it to their next grant application. It really is that good... I have already found this book to be invaluable… For many years to come, these two volumes will be the starting point for anyone wishing to find out about virtually any subject relating to human genetics… Any scientist working on humans or other animals will find many things in these pages that will stimulate, inform and inspire. The authors, editors and publishers are to be congratulated for their work… order a copy now!" —HUMAN GENETICS "The publishers and editors deserve to be congratulated for publishing this major book which coincides with the 200th anniversary of the birth of Charles Darwin. The book is well-timed, with biologists, theologians and sociologists engaged in intense debate on the Darwinian Theory on the origin of species, evolution and natural selection… There is little doubt that this marvellous publication should be in the library of universities and academic institutions dealing with basic and applied biology research and education… It will not be surprising if the individual academic or researcher decides to invest in this resource and enrich their personal collection of leading books in genetics and genomics." —GENOMIC MEDICINE A Unique Collection of High-Quality Articles – Derived from the Acclaimed Encyclopedia of Life Sciences The revolution in human molecular genetics which has taken place over the last three decades has yielded a wealth of information not only on the structure and function of our genes, but also on gene expression, mutation and polymorphic variation. Over the last five years, the focus has moved from genes to genomes. Even though the annotation of our ~30,000 genes is still in progress, genome-wide studies have already yielded abundant evidence for the signatures of past selection and adaptive evolution within human gene sequences. Further, the completion of the sequencing of the 3 billion base-pair human genome, coupled with the increasing availability of other vertebrate genome sequences, has ushered in a new era of comparative genomics. We are now able to identify many of the molecular events (from the chromosomal level down to the single base-pair) that have occurred during vertebrate, mammalian, primate and hominid evolution. Indeed, the detailed comparison of the human and chimpanzee genomes has begun to reveal some of the genetic changes that have been involved in the development of human lineage-specific traits. We are thus acquiring the ability to ask searching questions about our origins, about the demographic processes associated with the global radiation of humankind, as well as some of the unique adaptations that make us human. Evolutionary biology has become so broad that its impact may be felt across the spectrum of the biological sciences. The aim of the Handbook of Human Molecular Evolution is relatively straightforward: to bring together under the same cover the many and varied strands of our knowledge of human/primate/vertebrate molecular evolution. Hence, the 282 chapters that comprise this essential reference work have been thematically arranged into twelve sections, covering the whole scope of research into human molecular evolution: General Concepts in Evolutionary Genetics Mutation, Adaptation and Natural Selection Evolutionary and Population Genetics Human Evolution Human Genome Evolution Evolution of Human Gene Structure and Function Evolution of Gene Expression Mitochondrial Genome Evolution Chromosomal Evolution Comparative Genomics Evolution and Disease Susceptibility Analysis of Ancient DNA This conceptual outline informed the selection of the chapters themselves and the connections between them. Some of these chapters are intended to be introductory, aimed at undergraduates and non-specialists. They provide basic information and a list of recommended further reading to encourage the reader to explore a topic in more depth. This approach helps the student reader progress from textbook material to primary literature. Some chapters are overviews that address topics of broad interest and importance, while others focus on quite specialized topics. These chapters are written for postgraduate students and research workers; they contain more detailed information and key references allowing the reader to investigate a specific area in more depth. This format allows professionals to use the books as a quick reference source. The chapters are richly supplied with website information to allow access to relevant data sources over the internet. The self-contained, peer-reviewed articles in this unique handbook have been written by leading scientists in each field. Key topics include the evolution of enzyme function, the use of nucleic acid divergence as a "molecular clock", the origin of non-functional or junk DNA, the role of gene duplication in the emergence of novel gene function and the identification of molecular changes responsible for various human characteristics especially those pertaining to infection, cognition, disease and disease susceptibility. The Handbook of Human Molecular Evolution has adopted an integrated approach to the study of human evolution and seeks throughout to emphasize the interplay between molecular genetic concepts and principles on the one hand, and information acquisition and interpretation on the other. In this way, it is hoped that the ‘documents of evolutionary history’ written into the fabric of our genome, will become accessible to the widest possible audience.

Population Genetics and Microevolutionary Theory

Population Genetics and Microevolutionary Theory Book
Author : Alan R. Templeton
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2021-06-02
ISBN : 1118504232
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Population Genetics and Microevolutionary Theory Explore the fundamentals of the biological implications of population genetic theory In the newly revised Second Edition of Population Genetics and Microevolutionary Theory, accomplished researcher and author Alan R. Templeton delivers a fulsome discussion of population genetics with coverage of exciting new developments in the field, including new discoveries in epigenetics and genome-wide studies. The book prepares students to successfully apply population genetics analytical tools by providing a solid foundation in microevolutionary theory. The book emphasizes that population structure forms the underlying template upon which quantitative genetics and natural selection operate and is a must-read for future population and evolutionary geneticists and those who wish to work in genetic epidemiology or conservation biology. You’ll learn about a wide array of topics, including quantitative genetics, the interactions of natural selection with other evolutionary forces, and selection in heterogeneous environments and age-structured populations. Appendices that cover genetic survey techniques and probability and statistics conclude the book. Readers will also benefit from the inclusion of: A thorough introduction to population genetics, including the scope of the subject, its premises, and the Hardy-Weinberg Model of Microevolution An exploration of systems of mating, including a treatment of the use of runs of homozygosity to show pedigree inbreeding in distant ancestors A practical discussion of genetic drift, including the use of effective sizes in conservation biology (with a discussion of African rhinos as an example) A concise examination of coalescence, including a treatment of the infinite sites model Perfect for graduate students in genetics and evolutionary biology programs and advanced undergraduate biology majors, Population Genetics and Microevolutionary Theory will also earn a place in the libraries of students taking courses in conservation biology, human genetics, bioinformatics, and genomics.

Genetics

Genetics Book
Author : Daniel L. Hartl,Maryellen Ruvolo
Publisher : Jones & Bartlett Publishers
Release : 2011-08-05
ISBN : 1449626106
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Eighth Edition of Genetics: Analysis of Genes and Genomes provides a clear, balanced, and comprehensive introduction to genetics and genomics at the college level. Expanding upon the key elements that have made this text a success, Hartl has included updates throughout, as well as a new chapter dedicated to genetic evolution. He continues to treat transmission genetics, molecular genetics, and evolutionary genetics as fully integrated subjects and provide students with an unprecedented understanding of the basic process of gene transmission, mutation, expression, and regulation. New chapter openers include a new section highlighting scientific competencies, while end-of-chapter Guide to Problem-Solving sections demonstrate the concepts needed to efficiently solve problems and understand the reasoning behind the correct answer. Important Notice: The digital edition of this book is missing some of the images or content found in the physical edition.

Evolution and Selection of Quantitative Traits

Evolution and Selection of Quantitative Traits Book
Author : Bruce Walsh,Michael Lynch
Publisher : Sinauer Associates, Incorporated
Release : 2017-09-30
ISBN : 9781605353098
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Evolution and Selection of Quantitative Traits book written by Bruce Walsh,Michael Lynch, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Nature Encyclopedia of the Human Genome

Nature Encyclopedia of the Human Genome Book
Author : David N. Cooper
Publisher : Natures Pub Limited
Release : 2003
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nature Encyclopedia of the Human Genome is the only reference resource devoted entirely to the scientific basis and genetics and genomics research and the complex commercial, philosophical, and ethical questions that arise from it. It presents a comprehensive and rigorously detailed overview of current genome science and its groundbreaking applications, examining the many topics that surround the field from the differing perspectives of history, philosophy, ethics, law, medicine, public health, and industry. Core areas covered include: structural genomics, functional genomics, chromosome structure and function, evolution and comparative genomics, genome mapping and sequencing, genes and disease, behavioural and psychiatric genetics, mathematical and population genetics, proteomics, bioinformatics, ethical, legal and social issues and biographies or key figures.

Genetics and Genomics of the Triticeae

Genetics and Genomics of the Triticeae Book
Author : Catherine Feuillet,Gary J. Muehlbauer
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2009-06-10
ISBN : 9780387774893
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Sequencing of the model plant genomes such as those of A. thaliana and rice has revolutionized our understanding of plant biology but it has yet to translate into the improvement of major crop species such as maize, wheat, or barley. Moreover, the comparative genomic studies in cereals that have been performed in the past decade have revealed the limits of conservation between rice and the other cereal genomes. This has necessitated the development of genomic resources and programs for maize, sorghum, wheat, and barley to serve as the foundation for future genome sequencing and the acceleration of genomic based improvement of these critically important crops. Cereals constitute over 50% of total crop production worldwide (http://www.fao.org/) and cereal seeds are one of the most important renewable resources for food, feed, and industrial raw materials. Crop species of the Triticeae tribe that comprise wheat, barley, and rye are essential components of human and domestic animal nutrition. With 17% of all crop area, wheat is the staple food for 40% of the world’s population, while barley ranks fifth in the world production. Their domestication in the Fertile Crescent 10,000 years ago ushered in the beginning of agriculture and signified an important breakthrough in the advancement of civilization. Rye is second after wheat among grains most commonly used in the production of bread and is also very important for mixed animal feeds. It can be cultivated in poor soils and climates that are generally not suitable for other cereals. Extensive genetics and cytogenetics studies performed in the Triticeae species over the last 50 years have led to the characterization of their chromosomal composition and origins and have supported intensive work to create new genetic resources. Cytogenetic studies in wheat have allowed the identification and characterization of the different homoeologous genomes and have demonstrated the utility of studying wheat genome evolution as a model for the analysis of polyploidization, a major force in the evolution of the eukaryotic genomes. Barley with its diploid genome shows high collinearity with the other Triticeae genomes and therefore serves as a good template for supporting genomic analyses in the wheat and rye genomes. The knowledge gained from genetic studies in the Triticeae has also been used to produce Triticale, the first human made hybrid crop that results from a cross between wheat and rye and combines the nutrition quality and productivity of wheat with the ruggedness of rye. Despite the economic importance of the Triticeae species and the need for accelerated crop improvement based on genomics studies, the size (1.7 Gb for the bread wheat genome, i.e., 5x the human genome and 40 times the rice genome), high repeat content (>80%), and complexity (polyploidy in wheat) of their genomes often have been considered too challenging for efficient molecular analysis and genetic improvement in these species. Consequently, Triticeae genomics has lagged behind the genomic advances of other cereal crops for many years. Recently, however, the situation has changed dramatically and robust genomic programs can be established in the Triticeae as a result of the convergence of several technology developments that have led to new, more efficient scientific capabilities and resources such as whole-genome and chromosome-specific BAC libraries, extensive EST collections, transformation systems, wild germplasm and mutant collections, as well as DNA chips. Currently, the Triticeae genomics "toolbox" is comprised of: - 9 publicly available BAC libraries from diploid (5), tetraploid (1) and hexaploid (3) wheat; 3 publicly available BAC libraries from barley and one BAC library from rye; - 3 wheat chromosome specific BAC libraries; - DNA chips including commercially available first generation chips from AFFYMETRIX containing 55’000 wheat and 22,000 barley genes; - A large number of wheat and barley genetic maps that are saturated by a significant number of markers; - The largest plant EST collection with 870’000 wheat ESTs, 440’000 barley ESTs and about 10’000 rye ESTs; - Established protocols for stable transformation by biolistic and agrobacterium as well as a transient expression system using VIGS in wheat and barley; and - Large collections of well characterized cultivated and wild genetic resources. International consortia, such as the International Triticeae Mapping Initiative (ITMI), have advanced synergies in the Triticeae genetics community in the development of additional mapping populations and markers that have led to a dramatic improvement in the resolution of the genetic maps and the amount of molecular markers in the three species resulting in the accelerated utilization of molecular markers in selection programs. Together, with the development of the genomic resources, the isolation of the first genes of agronomic interest by map-based cloning has been enabled and has proven the feasibility of forging the link between genotype and phenotype in the Triticeae species. Moreover, the first analyses of BAC sequences from wheat and barley have allowed preliminary characterizations of their genome organization and composition as well as the first inter- and intra-specific comparative genomic studies. These later have revealed important evolutionary mechanisms (e.g. unequal crossing over, illegitimate recombination) that have shaped the wheat and barley genomes during their evolution. These breakthroughs have demonstrated the feasibility of developing efficient genomic studies in the Triticeae and have led to the recent establishment of the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium (IWGSC) (http//:www.wheatgenome.org) and the International Barley Sequencing Consortium (www.isbc.org) that aim to sequence, respectively, the hexaploid wheat and barley genomes to accelerate gene discovery and crop improvement in the next decade. Large projects aiming at the establishment of the physical maps as well as a better characterization of their composition and organization through large scale random sequencing projects have been initiated already. Concurrently, a number of projects have been launched to develop high throughput functional genomics in wheat and barley. Transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics analyses of traits of agronomic importance, such as quality, disease resistance, drought, and salt tolerance, are underway in both species. Combined with the development of physical maps, efficient gene isolation will be enabled and improved sequencing technologies and reduced sequencing costs will permit ultimately genome sequencing and access to the entire wheat and barley gene regulatory elements repertoire. Because rye is closely related

A Primer of Population Genetics

A Primer of Population Genetics Book
Author : Daniel L. Hartl
Publisher : Sinauer Associates, Incorporated
Release : 1988
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The use of molecular methods to study genetic polymorphisms has made a familiarity with population genetics essential for any biologist whose work is at the population level. A Primer of Population Genetics, Third Edition provides a concise but comprehensive introduction to population genetics. The four chapters of the book address genetic variation, the causes of evolution, molecular population genetics, and the genetic architecture of complex traits. Chapter-end problems reinforce ideas and, while there are some equations, the emphasis is on explanation rather than derivation.

Genetics From Genes to Genomes

Genetics  From Genes to Genomes Book
Author : Leroy Hood,Leland Hartwell,Fischer, Janice,Charles (Chip) Aquadro,Michael Goldberg
Publisher : McGraw-Hill Education
Release : 2014-09-05
ISBN : 9780073525310
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Genetics: From Genes to Genomes is a cutting-edge, introductory genetics text authored by an unparalleled author team, including Nobel Prize winner, Leland Hartwell. The 5th edition continues to build upon the integration of Mendelian and molecular principles, providing students with the links between the early understanding of genetics and the new molecular discoveries that have changed the way the field of genetics is viewed. Users who purchase Connect Plus receive access to the full online ebook version of the textbook as well as SmartBook.