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Human Embryos And Preimplantation Genetic Technologies

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Human Embryos and Preimplantation Genetic Technologies

Human Embryos and Preimplantation Genetic Technologies Book
Author : E. Scott Sills,Gianpiero D. Palermo
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-05-01
ISBN : 0128167440
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Human Embryos and Preimplantation Genetic Technologies: Ethical, Social, and Public Policy Aspects presents the first holistic analysis of PGD and PGS as it is practiced and regulated worldwide. In addition to scientific and technical aspects, the book provides perspectives on the ethical, legal, religious, policy and social implications of global assisted reproduction technologies, including in Africa, Asia, Europe, North and South America, and Australia. Chapters cover history, ethics, feminism, family dynamics, psychological and interpersonal factors, the current state of PGD and PGS in 20 different sovereign nations and religious communities, and provide an analysis of public policy concerns and future directions. Provides an in-depth discussion of PGD and PGS as practiced and regulated worldwide Offers an accessible resource for researchers, medical professionals, patients, regulators and policymakers seeking expert opinions on PGS and PGD Contains chapters contributed by international clinicians, researchers and thought leaders in the field of assisted reproductive technology

Comparative Legal Frameworks for Pre Implantation Embryonic Genetic Interventions

Comparative Legal Frameworks for Pre Implantation Embryonic Genetic Interventions Book
Author : Pin Lean Lau
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-08-01
ISBN : 3030223086
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book discusses the possibilities for the use of ​international human rights law ​(and specifically, international biomedical laws related to the protection of human rights and the human genome) to provide a guiding framework for the future regulation of genetic modifications applied to human embryos and other precursor materials, when these are made with the aim of implanting a genetically altered embryo in a woman. The significance and timeliness of the work derives from the recent availability of CRISPR/​Cas9 and other gene editing tools, and from lacunae in international law regarding the legality of embryo modification with these tools and appropriate governance structures for the oversight of resulting practices. The emergence of ​improved genome editing tools like CRISPR/Cas9, holds the promise of eradicating genetic diseases in the near future. But its possible future applications with Pre-Implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) raises a plethora of legal and ethical concerns about "remaking" future human beings. The work aims to address an urgent call, to embed these rising concerns about biomedical advancements into the fundamental tailoring of legal systems. Suitable regulatory approaches, coupled with careful reflection of global biomedical laws and individual constitutional systems must be explored. The Book analyzes the impact of reproductive biomedical technologies on the legal and ethical dimensions of regulatory frameworks in selected constitutional systems like the US, the UK, Australia, Malaysia and Thailand. Employing a comparative law methodology, the work reveals a dynamic intersection between legal cultures, socio-philosophical reasoning and the development of a human rights-based framework in bio-political studies. Navigating towards a truly internationalized biomedical approach to emerging technologies, it presents an understanding why a renegotiation and reinvigoration of a contemporary and "new" universal shared values system in the ​international human rights discourse is now necessary.

Regulating Pre implantation Genetic Diagnosis

Regulating Pre implantation Genetic Diagnosis Book
Author : Sheila McLean,Sarah Elliston
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2012
ISBN : 041568644X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The successful achievement of pregnancies following pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) was first reported in April 1990. The technology is often used for patients who are at substantial risk of conceiving a pregnancy affected by a known genetic disorder, however from this technology other more controversial uses have arisen such as HLA typing to save the life of a sibling, gender selection for social reasons, the prevention of late onset diseases, or the prevention of diseases which may be genetically predisposed to developing such as breast cancer. The technology surrounding PGD is constantly developing, giving rise to new and unexpected consequences that create fresh ethical and legal dilemmas. Featuring internationally recognized experts in the field, this book critically explores the regulation of PGD and the broader legal and ethical issues associated with it. It looks at the regulatory situation in a number of jurisdictions including New Zealand, Australia and the United Kingdom, but it also explores a number of themes of wide significance including a historical consideration of PGD and its part in the creation of the "genetic embryo" as a political tool, the over regulation of PGD and the ethical difficulties in handling additional unexpected medical information yielded by new technologies. This book will be of particular interest to academics and students of law, medicine and ethics.

Practical Preimplantation Genetic Testing

Practical Preimplantation Genetic Testing Book
Author : Anver Kuliev,Svetlana Rechitsky,Joe Leigh Simpson
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-05-29
ISBN : 3030431576
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Fully revised and updated with the most current information, the third edition of this practical clinical text covers all aspects of the rapidly advancing field of preimplantation genetic testing (PGT). Although PGT has become an established procedure for genetics and assisted reproduction practices over the last decade, its wider application has occurred after the introduction of next generation technologies in the last few years, necessitating this much-needed new edition. This will include, first of all, an update on PGT accuracy, reliability and safety, to ensure improved access to PGT for those who may benefit greatly from this technology. New content will also present progress in the primary prevention of genetic disorders, which now discusses approaches for prospective identification of at-risk PGT couples through the application of the extended gene testing panels. In fact, because of dramatic technological improvements in all aspects of PGT, most of the sections have been updated, with the addition of new sections on next generation technologies and universal PGT with combined testing for single gene and chromosomal disorders, which has previously presented a challenge. The guiding PGT strategies for different genetic disorders are presented, with emphasis on the most complicated cases that might be of special utility in the wider application PGT technologies worldwide. Additionally, a new section will be devoted to borderline indications, which will include common adult-onset conditions with genetic predisposition and non-genetic indications, expanding PGT applications to heart disease and cancer and the use of PGT for stem cell transplantation treatment of genetic and acquired disorders, where unique outcome data has become available. Combining the latest research and the most cutting-edge practice, Practical Preimplantation Genetic Testing, 3e is an excellent resource for clinical reproductive medicine specialists, genetic counselors, researchers and analysts.

Born and Made

Born and Made Book
Author : Sarah Franklin,Celia Roberts
Publisher : Princeton University Press
Release : 2006-10-30
ISBN : 1400835429
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Are new reproductive and genetic technologies racing ahead of a society that is unable to establish limits to their use? Have the "new genetics" outpaced our ability to control their future applications? This book examines the case of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), the procedure used to prevent serious genetic disease by embryo selection, and the so-called "designer baby" method. Using detailed empirical evidence, the authors show that far from being a runaway technology, the regulation of PGD over the past fifteen years provides an example of precaution and restraint, as well as continual adaptation to changing social circumstances. Through interviews, media and policy analysis, and participant observation at two PGD centers in the United Kingdom, Born and Made provides an in-depth sociological examination of the competing moral obligations that define the experience of PGD. Among the many novel findings of this pathbreaking ethnography of reproductive biomedicine is the prominence of uncertainty and ambivalence among PGD patients and professionals--a finding characteristic of the emerging "biosociety," in which scientific progress is inherently paradoxical and contradictory. In contrast to much of the speculative futurology that defines this field, Born and Made provides a timely and revealing case study of the on-the-ground decision-making that shapes technological assistance to human heredity.

Handbook of New Genetic Diagnostic Technologies in Reproductive Medicine

Handbook of New Genetic Diagnostic Technologies in Reproductive Medicine Book
Author : Carlos Simón,Carmen Rubio
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2017-12-14
ISBN : 1498763316
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Different genetic diagnostic and treatment options are used worldwide to improve routine IVF procedures for the benefit of patients. This handbook updates the new genetic diagnostic technologies that have been translated to practice aiming to improve outcomes in the clinic and have a healthy baby at home. Chapters cover the use of genetic technologies in a personalized manner to unravel the possible genetic risks for the couple wishing to conceive, in terms of sperm, the embryo, the endometrium, miscarriage, and finally the fetus.

Biotech Innovations and Fundamental Rights

Biotech Innovations and Fundamental Rights Book
Author : Roberto Bin,Sara Lorenzon,Nicola Lucchi
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-05-13
ISBN : 8847020328
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biotechnology is a recognized research area that has increasingly advanced into new technologies and modern practices raising several legal, ethical and regulatory issues. The revolutionary speed of biotech innovations has had a significant impact on the protection of the rights of the individual. Fundamental rights provide a framework within which the justification of limitations and restrictions to biotechnology innovations and research results have to be assessed. The legal regulation of scientific research and scientific investigations impact more and more directly on the freedom of research and therapies as well as on the broad diffusion of knowledge. Closely related is also the debated question of the technological manipulation of life and the boundary of scientific knowledge with regard to the topical question of genetic invention patents and their side effects on access to scientific information and health care opportunities. Drawing on expertise from different disciplines, the volume comprises invited papers and plenary presentations given at the conference entitled “Biotech Innovations & Fundamental Rights” that took place on Januray 20-21 2011 at the Department of Juridical Sciences of the University of Ferrara. Each contribution covers a different aspect of the legal and scientific issues involved in regulation of biotechnology. In particular the focus of attention has been given to genetic research, genetic data, freedom of scientific research in genetics and biotech patents.

The Human Embryo Research Debates

The Human Embryo Research Debates Book
Author : Ronald M. Green
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2001-06-28
ISBN : 0199761892
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Research on the early human embryo has long been recognized as essential to progress in a host of biomedical areas from reproductive medicine to the treatment of pediatric cancers. Now, with the possibility of stem cell research and cell replacement therapies, embryo research holds out the promise of cures for many serious disease conditions such as diabetes and Alzheimer's disease. Despite its importance, however, human embryo research has met powerful opposition. Drawing on his experience as a member of the NIH's Human Embryo Research Panel, Green offers a first-hand account of the embryo research debates. In telling this story, he periodically pauses to reflect on some of the leading philosophical challenges posed by embryo research and new interventions at the start of life. Among the questions he examines are: What is the impact of new biological information on our thinking about life's beginning? May parents risk injuring a child in order to have it? What role should religion play in shaping biomedical policy in a controversial area like this? This is a fascinating insider's account of one of the most important, if unsuccessful, recent efforts to come to terms with a controversial area of scientific research.

Human Preimplantation Embryo Selection

Human Preimplantation Embryo Selection Book
Author : Jacques Cohen,Kay Elder
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2007-09-26
ISBN : 9780203089712
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The most profound dilemma in assisted reproduction to date is the inability to recognize potentially viable embryos before their replacement into the reproductive tract. Application of increasingly advanced new technology has allowed the field of embryo evaluation to evolve rapidly and dramatically over the past five years. Human Preimplantation Embryo Selection assembles the leaders in the field of assisted reproduction to discuss their visions of dealing with the topic of embryo selection in the light of the limitations involving the fragility of the early human embryo. The purpose of this book is to shed light on the ever-expanding techniques that are being employed and evaluated with regard to embryo selection. A comprehensive overview may guide the ART practitioner in choice of techniques and evaluation of benefits and drawbacks. This book will provide an up-to-date overview and reference source: an invaluable tool for assisted reproductive practice worldwide.

Regulating Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis in the United States

Regulating Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis in the United States Book
Author : M. Bayefsky,B. Jennings
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-01-20
ISBN : 1137515449
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Reproductive technology allows us to test embryos' genes before deciding whether to transfer them to a woman's uterus. Embryo selection raises many ethical questions but is virtually unregulated in the United States. This comprehensive study considers the ethical, medical, political, and economic aspects of developing appropriate regulation.

Human Gametes and Preimplantation Embryos

Human Gametes and Preimplantation Embryos Book
Author : David K. Gardner,Denny Sakkas,Emre Seli,Dagan Wells
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-05-27
ISBN : 1461466512
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In recent years, the advancing science and increasing availability of assisted reproduction have given new hope to infertile couples. However, the use of IVF and ART has also led to marked increases in the number of multiple-infant live births. This poses a public health concern, as these neonates have a higher rate of pre-term delivery, compromising their survival chances and increasing their risk of lifelong disability. By optimizing the selection of gametes and embryos with high probabilities of implantation, it is possible to reduce the number of embryos transferred and, by extension, the number of high-risk multiple gestations, while maintaining or increasing pregnancy rates. Human Gametes and Preimplantation Embryos: Assessment and Diagnosis provides a broad yet concise overview of established and developing methodologies for assessment of gamete and embryo viability in assisted reproduction. This book elucidates the best practices for precisely selecting viable specimens based on morphology and cleavage rate and covers the spectrum of emerging adjunctive technologies for predicting reproductive potential. The authors present their extensive knowledge of “omics” approaches (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics), with unbiased delineation of the associated advantages and potential pitfalls. This valuable clinical resource is well suited to infertility specialists, Ob/Gyn physicians, IVF laboratory technicians, and researchers in the fields of embryology and reproductive medicine.

Emerging Topics in Reproduction

Emerging Topics in Reproduction Book
Author : Douglas T. Carrell,Catherine Racowsky,Peter N. Schlegel,Alan H. DeCherney
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-07-22
ISBN : 3319908235
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Previously known as Biennial Review of Infertility, the fifth installment in this series brings together the most current research and clinical evidence on male and female infertility, emerging assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and evolving controversies in reproductive medicine. In this latest volume, parts one and two discuss recent developments in male and female infertility respectively, including fertility preservation in the male adolescent cancer patient, the clinical relevance of sperm RNA, the management of subclinical hypothyroidism, and the effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Part three covers the latest in ART, such as evidence-based morphological approaches for embryo selection and culturing human embryos. The final section highlights controversies in reproductive medicine, including the use of preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) and blastocyst transfer, as well as the ethics surrounding a maximum BMI for IVF. Providing an ongoing appraisal of current knowledge, and featuring contributions from leading experts in the field, Emerging Topics in Reproduction, Volume 5 is a worthy addition to the series and an ideal resource on the latest topics for reproductive medicine and REI specialists, OB-GYNS, andrologists, and any clinician working with infertility.

Human Reproductive Genetics

Human Reproductive Genetics Book
Author : Juan A. Garcia-Velasco,Emre Seli
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-04-19
ISBN : 0128167491
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Human Reproductive Genetics: Emerging Technologies and Clinical Applications presents a great reference for clinicians and researchers in reproductive medicine. Part I includes a brief background of genetics and epigenetics, probability of disease, and the different techniques that are being used today for analysis and genetic counseling. Part II focuses on the analysis of the embryo, current controversies and future concepts. Part III comprises different clinical scenarios that clinicians frequently face in practice. The increasing amount of genetic tests available and the growing information that patients handle makes this section a relevant part of the fertility treatment discussion. Finally, Part IV concludes with the psychological aspects of genetic counseling and the role of counselor and bioethics in human reproduction. Provides an essential reference for clinicians involved in reproductive medicine Builds foundational knowledge on new genetic tests coming into the clinical scenario for physicians involved with patients Assembles critically evaluated chapters that cover basic concepts of genetics and epigenetics and the techniques involved, including preimplantation genetic testing, controversies, and more

Cloning and the Future of Human Embryo Research

Cloning and the Future of Human Embryo Research Book
Author : Paul Lauritzen
Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
Release : 2001
ISBN : 9780195128581
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Hailed as revolutionary, the prospect of human cloning is actually the next logical step in a series of developments in reproductive technology that began with the first test-tube baby in 1978. This book addresses the debates over cloning in the context of new reproductive technology and human embryo research. It examines the status of preimplantation embryos, the ethical issues related to cloning and embryo research, and the formulation of public policy.

Protocol Development for Analysis of the DMPK Repeat in Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis and the Investigation of Gene Expression in Human Oocytes and Blastocysts

Protocol Development for Analysis of the DMPK Repeat in Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis and the Investigation of Gene Expression in Human Oocytes and Blastocysts Book
Author : G. Kakourou
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by expansion of an unstable CTG repeat within the 3'UTR of the DMPK gene, which expands further in length during transmission from generation to generation. Prenatal diagnosis is available, although the decision for pregnancy termination can be difficult due to the variable phenotypic expression of DM1. In vitro fertilisation with preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), offer another reproductive option for affected couples, which involves genetic analysis and selection of an unaffected embryo to establish a pregnancy. These technologies have also provided access to human gametes and preimplantation embryos and encouraged research aimed at understanding the molecular pathways controlling human preimplantation development. The first part of this study focused on the improvement of existing techniques for PGD and the development of universal multiplex fluorescent PCR PGD protocols for the efficient and accurate diagnosis of DM1. The second part of the study involved followup analysis of DM1 affected and unaffected embryos donated for research with the aim to investigate transmission of the CTG repeat from the affected and unaffected parent to the preimplantation embryo. The final objective was to obtain a global gene expression profile by microarray analysis of human oocytes and blastocysts, with a focus on important functional pathways. The protocols developed achieved high efficiency and accuracy of diagnosis, reduced the genetic work-up time, overall supporting PGD for DM1 as an effective and practical alternative to prenatal diagnosis. This study also adds to current evidence regarding CTG repeat transmission and provides information on repeat expansion and embryo quality in DM1. A comparison of expression in the healthy oocyte and blastocyst is presented, including the identification of oocyte-unique and blastocyst-unique genes. The microarray data from this study will guide experiments to identify cases where normal gene expression is disrupted.

Assisted Conception Research Ethics and Law

Assisted Conception  Research  Ethics and Law Book
Author : Jennifer Gunning
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2017-11-01
ISBN : 1351723308
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This title was first published in 2003. Assisted conception is an area where it often seems that all the ethical and legal issues have been covered and then technology advances and the discussions start all over again. The book is an anthology of papers presented during a project looking at thearaputic research in assisted conception (TRAC). It is divided into three areas addressing research, ethics and law. Each chapter begins with an overview of the issues, with the aim being to present new perspectives rather than covering old ground. The European Convention on Human rights and Biomedicine came into force on December 1, 1999. The Convention allows thearaputic research and research on spare embryos but forbid fundamental research, which may be essential to the safe development of new techniques. This also means that people may become part of an experimental process without their consent. The project brings together clinicians, embryologists, lawyers and ethicists to ascertain whether there might be a risk of infertility patients being exposed to insufficiently tested procedures and to see if there is a need for fundamental research in this area. It also looks at the legislative safeguards that exist and whether a European standard for treatment should be set.

Expanding Horizons in Bioethics

Expanding Horizons in Bioethics Book
Author : A.W. Galston,Christiana Z. Peppard
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2005-12-05
ISBN : 9781402030628
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Like its predecessor, New Dimensions in Bioethics, this volume developed out of a series of lectures at Yale University’s Institution for Social and Policy Studies. Each speaker in the Bioethics & Public Policy Seminar Series was invited because of her or his expertise in a given area of bioethics. Each of the more successful participants was invited to contribute a manuscript for publication. The essays are bound together by the application of an ethical analysis to scientific questions, and by consideration of policy implications. At its inception, bioethics was virtually synonymous with medical ethics. As the field grew and attracted new practitioners, it became clear that other applications of this new subject required extension of its scope. For example, environmental ethics, propelled by such authors as Aldo Leopold and Rachel Carson, quickly developed a vigorous literature of its own. More recently, developments in the analysis of the human genome, the enticing medical possibilities offered by the therapeutic use of stem cells, the complexities surrounding the cloning of animals and possibly humans and the development of transgenic agricultural crops have given new impetus to the expansion of traditional bioethical horizons. Bioethics must now adjust to these new realities, for it is clear that public interest in the field is growing as these new challenges appear.

Kin Gene Community

Kin  Gene  Community Book
Author : Daphna Birenbaum-Carmeli,Yoram S. Carmeli
Publisher : Berghahn Books
Release : 2010-07-30
ISBN : 1845458362
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Israel is the only country in the world that offers free fertility treatments to nearly any woman who requires medical assistance. It also has the world's highest per capita usage of in-vitro fertilization. Examining state policies and the application of reproductive technologies among Jewish Israelis, this volume explores the role of tradition and politics in the construction of families within local Jewish populations. The contributors-anthropologists, bioethicists, jurists, physicians and biologists-highlight the complexities surrounding these treatments and show how biological relatedness is being construed as a technology of power; how genetics is woven into the production of identities; how reproductive technologies enhance the policing of boundaries. Donor insemination, IVF and surrogacy, as well as abortion, pre-implantation genetic diagnosis and human embryonic stem cell research, are explored within local and global contexts to convey an informed perspective on the wider Jewish Israeli environment.

Genetics in Human Reproduction

Genetics in Human Reproduction Book
Author : Elisabeth Hildt,Sigrid Graumann
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2018-08-13
ISBN : 0429852258
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Published in 1999, this book discusses issues related to the current and possible future technological progress in genetic technology linked to in vitro fertilization, specifically preimplantation diagnosis and germline gene therapy, from a scientific and medical as well as from a social, juridical and ethical point of view. The 31 contributions are divided into six sections medical and scientific view, personal interests and moral implications, moral rights and duties, social concepts and moral implications, choices and decision making, and justice in health care and legal regulation.