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Host Response to Biomaterials

Host Response to Biomaterials Book
Author : Stephen F Badylak
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2015-05-08
ISBN : 0128005009
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Host Response to Biomaterials: The Impact of Host Response on Biomaterial Selection explains the various categories of biomaterials and their significance for clinical applications, focusing on the host response to each biomaterial. It is one of the first books to connect immunology and biomaterials with regard to host response. The text also explores the role of the immune system in host response, and covers the regulatory environment for biomaterials, along with the benefits of synthetic versus natural biomaterials, and the transition from simple to complex biomaterial solutions. Fields covered include, but are not limited to, orthopaedic surgery, dentistry, general surgery, neurosurgery, urology, and regenerative medicine. Explains the various categories of biomaterials and their significance for clinical applications Contains a range of extensive coverage, including, but not limited to, orthopedic, surgery, dental, general surgery, neurosurgery, lower urinary tract, and regenerative medicine Includes regulations regarding combination devices

Biomaterials and Immune Response

Biomaterials and Immune Response Book
Author : Nihal Engin Vrana
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2018-07-20
ISBN : 1351377558
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The interactions of the biomaterials with the host immune system is crucial for their functionality. This book aims to provide the reader with a better understanding of the role of the immune system in biomaterial applications. For this end, the book has dedicated chapters for i) explaining immune cells taking part in immune response to biomaterials/immune systems interface; ii) the effect of biomaterial shape, form and physicochemical properties on the response of immune system; iii) biofilm formation on implanted materials as a failure of immune system/biomaterial interactions; iv) tissue-specific effects of immune response and its consequences for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine; v) immune reaction in a clinical context (periodontology). In the field of biomaterials there are significant advances in using immunomodulation techniques to improve the success rates of implantable materials. For better understanding of such techniques it is required to have a full grasp of the biomaterial–immune system interactions. This would greatly enhance the understanding of why the human body reacts to implants in a certain way and how to improve the clinical outcomes by developing immune-instructive biomaterials. Provides keen insight into biomaterial–immune cell interactions Presents an explanation of state-of-the-art methodologies in immunomodulation Offers a concise and simple-to-understand treatment of biomaterial–immune cell interactions for materials scientists in a biology heavy topic Explores a comprehensive overview of biomaterial related complications Provides extensive references at the end of each chapter to enhance study for this very hot research area

Host Response Against Biomaterials

Host Response Against Biomaterials Book
Author : Jaap Jan Boelens
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1999
ISBN : 9789090133058
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Host Response Against Biomaterials book written by Jaap Jan Boelens, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Immunomodulatory Biomaterials

Immunomodulatory Biomaterials Book
Author : Stephen F. Badylak,Jennifer Elisseeff
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2021-08-05
ISBN : 0128214562
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biomaterials have existed for millennia as mechanical replacement structures following disease or injury. Biomaterial design has changed markedly from structural support with an “inert immune profile as the primary objective to designs that elicit an integrative local tissue response and a pro-repair immune cell phenotype. Immunomodulatory Biomaterials: Regulating the Immune Response with Biomaterials to Affect Clinical Outcome offers a single, comprehensive reference on biomaterials for modulation of the host response, for materials scientists, tissue engineers and those working in regenerative medicine. This book details methods, materials and strategies designed to regulate the host immune response following surgical implantation and thus facilitate specific local cell infiltration and tissue deposition. There has been a dramatic transformation in our understanding of the role of the immune system, both innate and adaptive; these changes include recognition of the plasticity of immune cells, especially macrophages, cross-talk between the immune system and stem cells, and the necessity for in situ transition between inflammatory and regulatory immune cell phenotypes. The exploitation of these findings and the design and manufacture of new biomaterials is occurring at an astounding pace. There is currently no book directed at the interdisciplinary principles guiding the design, manufacture, testing, and clinical translation of biomaterials that proactively regulate the host tissue immune response. The challenge for academia, industry, and regulatory agencies to encourage innovation while assuring safety and maximizing efficacy has never been greater. Given the highly interdisciplinary requirements for the design, manufacture and use of immunomodulatory biomaterials, this book will prove a useful single resource across disciplines. Holistically covers the design, manufacture, testing, and clinical translation of biomaterials that proactively regulate the host tissue immune response Provides a single reference for understanding and utilizing the host response in biomaterials design An international collaboration of leading researchers in the field offering a novel insight into this fast-growing area

The Immune Response to Implanted Materials and Devices

The Immune Response to Implanted Materials and Devices Book
Author : Bruna Corradetti
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-11-30
ISBN : 3319454331
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides a comprehensive overview of the cascade of events activated in the body following the implant of biomaterials and devices. It is one of the first books to shed light on the role of the host immune response on therapeutic efficacy, and reviews the state-of-the-art for both basic science and medical applications. The text examines advantages and disadvantages of the use of synthetic versus natural biomaterials. Particular emphasis is placed on the role of biomimicry in the development of smart strategies able to modulate infiltrating immune cells, thus reducing side effects (such as acute and chronic inflammation, fibrosis and/or implant rejection) and improving the therapeutic outcome (healing, tissue restoration). Current cutting-edge approaches in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and nanomedicine offer the latest insights into the role immunomodulation in improving tolerance during tissue transplant in the treatment of orthopaedic, pancreatic, and hepatic diseases. "Immune Response to Implanted Materials and Devices" is intended for an audience of graduate students and professional researchers in both academia and industry interested in the development of smart strategies, which are able to exploit the self-healing properties of the body and achieve functional tissue restoration.

Immunomodulatory Biomaterials

Immunomodulatory Biomaterials Book
Author : Stephen F. Badylak,Jennifer Elisseeff
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-08-19
ISBN : 0128214406
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biomaterials have existed for millennia as mechanical replacement structures following disease or injury. Biomaterial design has changed markedly from structural support with an "inert” immune profile as the primary objective to designs that elicit an integrative local tissue response and a pro-repair immune cell phenotype. Immunomodulatory Biomaterials: Regulating the Immune Response with Biomaterials to Affect Clinical Outcome offers a single, comprehensive reference on biomaterials for modulation of the host response, for materials scientists, tissue engineers and those working in regenerative medicine. This book details methods, materials and strategies designed to regulate the host immune response following surgical implantation and thus facilitate specific local cell infiltration and tissue deposition. There has been a dramatic transformation in our understanding of the role of the immune system, both innate and adaptive; these changes include recognition of the plasticity of immune cells, especially macrophages, cross-talk between the immune system and stem cells, and the necessity for in situ transition between inflammatory and regulatory immune cell phenotypes. The exploitation of these findings and the design and manufacture of new biomaterials is occurring at an astounding pace. There is currently no book directed at the interdisciplinary principles guiding the design, manufacture, testing, and clinical translation of biomaterials that proactively regulate the host tissue immune response. The challenge for academia, industry, and regulatory agencies to encourage innovation while assuring safety and maximizing efficacy has never been greater. Given the highly interdisciplinary requirements for the design, manufacture and use of immunomodulatory biomaterials, this book will prove a useful single resource across disciplines. Holistically covers the design, manufacture, testing, and clinical translation of biomaterials that proactively regulate the host tissue immune response Provides a single reference for understanding and utilizing the host response in biomaterials design An international collaboration of leading researchers in the field offering a novel insight into this fast-growing area

Immunomodulatory Biomaterials to Mitigate Material induced Host Responses

Immunomodulatory Biomaterials to Mitigate Material induced Host Responses Book
Author : Yoon Kyung Kim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2013
ISBN : 9781303444975
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The foreign body response to biomaterial implants has been a major challenge in translating many medical devices into the clinic. The presence of inflammatory cells around the implanted device prevents its functional interaction with the surrounding tissue, and although some inflammation may be desirable to mediate the healing process, a persistent inflammatory response will eventually lead to device failure. Significant efforts to reduce foreign body response have been largely focused on developing hydrophilic and anti-fouling coating materials, however, simply preventing protein adsorption and immune cell adhesion has only had moderate success at reducing inflammation in vivo. In this thesis, we describe a novel approach to mitigate the foreign body response, whereby materials are designed to mimic host tissue by displaying endogenously expressed immunomodulatory molecules that interact with specific inhibitory receptors expressed on immune cells. More specifically, biomaterial surfaces are coated with the recombinantly produced immunomodulatory molecule, CD200, which interacts with the inhibitory receptor CD200R on myeloid cells, preventing material-induced host response by suppressing activation of infiltrated myeloid cells. In Chapter One, a brief introduction and background information is presented, followed by a description of the production and purification of recombinant CD200 protein from both mammalian cells and bacterial cells in Chapter Two. In Chapter Three, we examine whether immobilization of CD200 onto polystyrene surfaces influences on suppressing the activation of macrophages. We found that CD200 indeed suppresses the release of inflammatory mediators secreted by macrophage cells in vitro, and elicited less inflammation in vivo when compared to uncoated materials after subcutaneous implantation. In Chapter Four, we examine whether CD200 influences tissue regeneration after spinal cord injury. CD200-embedded fibrin gel was implanted to spinal cord injured mice, and the effect of CD200 on inflammation and regenerative process was examined. Lastly, Chapter Five concludes the work performed in this Ph.D. study and presents future directions. This work suggests that coating of endogenously expressed immunomodulatory proteins can be used as a strategy to reduce inflammatory response to biomaterials and may potentially be generalized to implants throughout the body.

Color Atlas of Tissue Response to Biomaterials

Color Atlas of Tissue Response to Biomaterials Book
Author : Mira Mohanty,A Sabareeswaran,Sulekha Baby,Caroline S Diana,Joseph Sebastian
Publisher : JP Medical Ltd
Release : 2013-11-30
ISBN : 9350907380
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This atlas is a practical guide to the compatibility of biomaterials with different tissues in the human body. Beginning with the preparation of tissues with implants for microscopy, the following chapters describe implants in soft tissue, implants in bone, preclinical evaluation of biomaterials and medical devices, and retrieved clinical implants. In depth discussion on identifying cells in tissues and assessing responses to different biomaterials, assists with fundamental evaluation of whether a material is compatible with the tissues. The book is highly illustrated with photomicrographs and diagrams, providing pathologists with step by step sequences of events that occur in tissues following implantation of different types of material. Key points Practical guide to compatibility of biomaterials, implants and tissues in the body Covers implants in soft tissue and in bone Includes nearly 400 photomicrographs and illustrations

Definitions of Biomaterials for the Twenty First Century

Definitions of Biomaterials for the Twenty First Century Book
Author : Xingdong Zhang,David Williams
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2019-06-20
ISBN : 012818292X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Definitions of Biomaterials for the Twenty-First Century is a review of key, critical biomaterial terms and definitions endorsed by the International Union of Societies for Biomaterials Science and Engineering. The topics and definitions discussed include those in general biomaterials and applications, biocompatibility, implantable and interventional devices, drug delivery systems, regenerative medicine and emerging biomaterials. The book reviews the discussion of these terms by leaders in the global biomaterials community and summarizes the agreed upon definitions. Provides readers with the official definitions of critical biomaterials terms endorsed by the International Union of Societies for Biomaterials Science and Engineering Includes the combined contributions from more than 50 global leaders in the biomaterials community Updates terms based on the latest advances in clinical and scientific understanding and expanded scope of biomaterials science

Host Response to Tissue Derived Decellularised Crosslinked Biomaterials

Host Response to Tissue Derived Decellularised Crosslinked Biomaterials Book
Author : H. M. Ashwin
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Host Response to Tissue Derived Decellularised Crosslinked Biomaterials book written by H. M. Ashwin, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Contemporary Biomaterials

Contemporary Biomaterials Book
Author : John W. Boretos,Murray Eden
Publisher : William Andrew
Release : 1984
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book distinguishes between biomaterials for clinical use, and medical devices or components of devices. Biomaterials are defined as substances which can be placed in intimate contact with living structures without harmful effects. They become devices (internal or external to the body) when processed or shaped to serve a specific function. Implants are a subclass of devices which need to be located inside the body to achieve their purpose.

Effect of Implanted Microencapsulated Xenogeneic Cells on the Recipient Immune System microform

Effect of Implanted Microencapsulated Xenogeneic Cells on the Recipient Immune System  microform  Book
Author : Kim Sarah Jones
Publisher : National Library of Canada = Bibliothèque nationale du Canada
Release : 2004
ISBN : 9780612917026
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Remarkably, all such co-implants suppressed splenocyte proliferation at 10 days post-implant, though this effect disappeared by 60 days. In contrast, the antibody response was equal to or greater than that for a skin graft alone at both timepoints. Th1/2 polarization did not explain these observations, since it did not correlate with suppression of splenocyte proliferation, but rather depended on mode of xenogeneic cell delivery. Microencapsulation has potential clinical application for islet transplantation. To better understand the ongoing destructive host response, I examined whether the adaptive immune system recognised encapsulated xenogeneic cells, and how immune responses interacted with implanted biomaterials. The influence of Th1/2 bias did not explain the observed suppression. Encapsulated xenogeneic cells elicited a consistent Th2 response, unencapsulated cells elicited a mixed response, and skin xenografts showed an initial Th2 response that transformed to a Th1 response by 60 days based on antibody isotypes and cytokines. These novel effects of biomaterials have wide relevance: most tissue-engineered constructs contain biomaterials and will elicit immune responses, so suppressions mediated by biomaterials merits further examination and should affect future design approaches. I then monitored host immune responses to skin xenografts accompanied by one of three co-implants: encapsulated xenogeneic cells; unprotected cells accompanied by the encapsulation biomaterials; and encapsulation-biomaterials without cells. Encapsulation did not prevent a strong host antibody response (day 10 and day 60). Splenocyte proliferation in vitro did not differ whether primed by implanted, encapsulated cells, or unencapsulated cells (60 days). Thus, capsule membranes did not prevent indirect recognition of shed antigens. However, splenocyte proliferation to these cell/biomaterial implants was delayed compared to skin xenografts: after 10 days implantation, proliferation was dramatically lower than to skin grafts, though the difference disappeared by 60 days. This transient T-cell suppression was unexpected, since encapsulated cell viability was already compromised by 10 days. Mice were implanted intraperitoneally with encapsulated and unencapsulated xenogeneic cells, and the responses were compared with xenografted skin (positive control). Splenocyte proliferation upon re-challenge in vitro, antibody titre in serum, and Th1/2 polarisation (by IL-4 and IFN-gamma in splenocyte challenge supernatants and IgGl and IgG2a antibody isotypes in serum) were measured.

Anti inflammatory Drugs for Modulation of Host Response to Biomaterials and Application in Diabetes Therapy

Anti inflammatory Drugs for Modulation of Host Response to Biomaterials and Application in Diabetes Therapy Book
Author : Thuy Tram Dang (Ph. D.),Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Chemical Engineering
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2012
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Host response to implanted biomaterials and medical devices poses tremendous challenges to their clinical applications. Today, the quest to mitigate this immunological attack for improved longevity of these devices remains daunting. This thesis aims to explore the use of anti-inflammatory drugs in minimizing the host response and improve the efficacy of implantable and transplantable therapeutics. Firstly, we developed a new non-invasive in vivo imaging technique to study the activity of early immune cells in the host response to implanted biomaterials. A fluorescent imaging probe (Prosense680*, Perkin Elmer) activatable by cathepsins, a class of inflammatory proteases secreted from immune cells, was used for simultaneous biocompatibility screening of up to 8 different materials per animal in immunocompetent hairless SKH1E mice. In this assay, the different biocompatibility properties of polystyrene beads, alginate and saline were correlated with varying levels of cathepsin activities as acquired by imaging. Comparison of the imaging results with traditional histological analysis validated that this new fluorescent imaging technique can be used to assess material biocompatibility efficiently and rapidly. We applied this new fluorescent imaging technique to investigate the in vivo spatial and temporal host response to a subcutaneously-injected, controlled-release anti-inflammatory drug formulation. Poly-lactic-coglycolic (PLGA) microparticles with low loading (1.3wt%) of dexamethasone locally inhibited the activity of cathepsin enzymes from immune cells, while high drug loading formulation (26wt%) resulted in systemic immunosuppression. We also showed that incorporation of dexamethasone at a low loading (1.3wt%) attenuated the coverage of polymeric microparticles by immune cell layers. Temporal monitoring of the drug effect confirmed that incorporation of dexamethasone decreased early enzymatic activity and long-term cellular infiltration to implanted materials. Next, we performed in vivo subcutaneous screening of 16 small molecule anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, polyphenols, glucocorticoids and other non-steroidal immunosuppressants) encapsulated in PLGA microparticles in immunocompetent hairless SKH-1E mice. Using non-invasive fluorescent imaging coupled with parallel bioluminescent imaging, we identified dexamethasone and curcumin as the most effective drugs in inhibiting the activities of inflammatory proteases and reactive oxygen species respectively. Histological analysis also showed that dexamethasone and curcumin encapsulated in PLGA microparticles decreased subsequent cellular infiltration and fibrosis formation surrounding the subcutaneously injected PLGA microparticles for up to 4 weeks and 2 weeks respectively. Lastly, we designed hybrid alginate hydrogel microcapsules co-encapsulating pancreatic rat islets and dexamethasone or curcumin. Uniform spherical microcapsules containing homogeneously distributed dexamethasone (2mg/ml) or curcumin (1mg/ml) were transplanted into streptozotocin-induced C57B6/J diabetic mice. Using a marginal islet mass of 250 islet equivalents, curcumin-loaded capsules effectively improved glycemic control by increasing the graft survival time to 30 days compared to 15 and 21 days by control and dexamethasone-containing capsules respectively. Curcumin also significantly reduced fibrotic overgrowth on the encapsulated islets explanted on day 60 as evidenced by DNA fluorescent staining of the fibrotic cell layers on the surface of the retrieved capsules. Taken together, the results of this thesis demonstrate that anti-inflammatory drugs have the potential to minimize the attack by host immune system and improve the efficacy or functional longevity of cell-based therapeutics and possibly other implantable medical devices.

Using Biomaterials to Elicit an Immune Response and Trigger Tissue Regeneration

Using Biomaterials to Elicit an Immune Response and Trigger Tissue Regeneration Book
Author : Abigail Corrin Parks
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Soft tissue loss can be the result of many clinical issues. An engineered injectable material to stimulate soft tissue regeneration would be an improvement for many clinical applications within tissue augmentation including dermal augmentation, periurethral bulking, and gingival augmentation. Implanted biomaterials are usually held to a standard of biocompatibility meaning that the overall goal for a biomaterial is to have it as inert as possible and to act stealthily when it comes in contact with the body. This is to avoid a chronic foreign body response and ultimately rejection of the biomaterial. The goal of this project was to utilize a mild, transient immune response within the soft tissue of the body to accelerate regeneration of the extracellular matrix proteins and therefore tissue augmentation. An injectable biomaterial was utilized to increase the volume of the soft tissue, then it was combined with a bioactive coating that elicited an immune response. The injectable material was fabricated out of macroporous poly [epsilon]-caprolactone (PCL) microparticles and coated in the bioactive polymer, poly lactic co-glycolic acid (PLGA). The host-material interaction of the bioactive PLGA with biological cells was characterized in vitro by inflammatory cytokine production using a multiplex system. It was found that the co-culture of human fibroblasts and monocytes produced elevated levels of IL-[beta], IL-6, GM-CSF, and TNF-[alpha]; in response to the PLGA biomaterial. Subsequently, the cell infiltration, inflammatory response, blood vessel infiltration, and collagen deposition were analyzed to determine tissue regeneration and healing in vivo. The murine model showed more thorough tissue integration and healing with added porosity and bioactive PLGA coating through blood vessel infiltration and extracellular matrix deposition. The accelerated healing response seen with the bioactive coating is shown to be important to prevent migration of the particles within tissue. Additionally the PLGA coating did enhance the immune response early on in the in vivo studies corroborating with the in vitro findings. The overall goal of this research was to engineer an injectable material that can be used to induce an acute immune response which will lead to the accelerated production of extracellular matrix proteins to augment tissue and eventually create a soft tissue network with the ultimate clinical application being dermal augmentation, periurethral bulking, or gingival augmentation.

Handbook of Biomaterials Biocompatibility

Handbook of Biomaterials Biocompatibility Book
Author : Masoud Mozafari
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2020-06-17
ISBN : 0081029683
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Handbook of Biomaterials Biocompatibility is a systematic reference on host response to different biomaterials, taking into account their physical, mechanical and chemical properties. The book reviews recent progress in the design and study of biomaterials biocompatibility, along with current understanding on how to control immune system response. Sections provide the fundamental theories and challenges of biomaterials biocompatibility, the role of different biomaterials physicochemical surface properties on cell responses, cell responses to different physicochemical properties of polymers, ceramics, metals, carbons and nanomaterials, and biomaterials in different tissues, such as the cardiac, nervous system, cartilage and bone. This resource will be suitable for those working in the fields of materials science, regenerative engineering, medicine, medical devices and nanotechnology. Reviews the fundamental theories and challenges of biomaterials biocompatibility, including an overview of the standards and regulations Provides an overview on the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in host responses to biomaterials Systematically looks at cellular response and tissue response to a wide range of biomaterials, including polymers, metals, ceramics, alloys and nanomaterials

Glycoprotein mediated Interactions of Dendritic Cells with Surfaces of Defined Chemistries

Glycoprotein mediated Interactions of Dendritic Cells with Surfaces of Defined Chemistries Book
Author : Sucharita P. Shankar
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2007
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Implanted combination devices comprising both biological as well as biomaterial components may trigger non-specific inflammatory responses against the biomaterial component as well as specific immune responses against the biological component. This specific immune response may be enhanced by the biomaterial, thereby implying a biomaterial-mediated adjuvant effect, or in contrast may be mitigated by the biomaterial. Since adjuvants function by triggering dendritic cell (DC) maturation, biomaterials may regulate DC responses and hence facilitate DC-orchestrated host responses. This research work has focused on examining DC responses to different model self-assembled monolayer (SAM) biomaterial chemistries, as an in vitro readout of the potential of these biomaterials to trigger DC maturation. The underlying hypothesis was that DCs recognize and respond to biomaterials either indirectly through the adsorbed protein layer, specifically through carbohydrate modifications of these proteins, or through carbohydrates inherent in the biomaterial chemistry, using PRRs to initiate an immune response. Towards this goal, DCs were derived from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by culture with DC differentiation cytokines and the culture systems were characterized as being composed of DCs as well as associated T and B lymphocytes. Culture of DCs on different SAM chemistries implied differential DC responses in terms of morphology, maturation marker expression and allostimulatory capacities as well as distinct underlying mechanisms responsible for these responses. Enzyme-linked lectin (ELLA) assays were used to characterize the profiles of carbohydrates associated with serum/plasma proteins adsorbed to different SAM chemistries. Differential profiles of DC carbohydrate ligands of CLRs were present on different chemistries. Furthermore, the profiles of human serum/plasma proteins adsorbed to and eluted from different SAM chemistries were assessed using immunoblot analysis. Finally, to observe the roles of carbohydrates in supporting DC maturation in the presence of a biomaterial, DCs were cultured in the presence of partially de-glycosylated FBS from which DC carbohydrate ligands were selectively removed. This research is significant towards the ultimate development of optimal design criteria for biomaterials for use in diverse tissue-engineering or vaccine development applications for which a wide spectrum of adjuvant effects are required.

Biological Performance of Materials

Biological Performance of Materials Book
Author : Jonathan Black
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2005-12-20
ISBN : 9780849339592
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Bioengineers need a thorough grounding in biocompatibility - the biological performance of materials. Until now, there were no publications suitable for a neophyte in the field; prior publications were either not comprehensive or focused on rather narrow interests. Drawing on the author's 35 years of experience as a teacher, researcher, and consultant in biomaterials science and engineering (BSE), Biological Performance of Materials: Fundamentals of Biocompatibility, Fourth Edition focuses primarily on principles of biological performance at a relatively fundamental level, analyzing interactions between living organisms and nonliving materials used in medical devices - the subject that sets BSE apart as a distinct field of investigation. Following an introductory section, the book is divided into three sections: the material response to biological systems, host response to biomaterials, and test methods for determining biological response in vitro as well as in animal models and clinical settings. Supplemental "Interparts" summarize the physical properties of commonly used metallic, polymeric, and ceramic biomaterials. They also provide a guide to understanding the clinical performance of implanted biomaterials.

Implantation Biology

Implantation Biology Book
Author : Ralph S. Greco
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 1994-03-24
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This new book is the first of its kind to characterize the host implant interface at both the basic science and clinical level. The book defines the interactions of various cell types with a variety of biomaterials by discussing the basic science of these interactions. This study is important because in today's world of bionics, implantable devices represent a major component of medical practice. They are associated with significant cost and substantial benefit to many patients and morbid complications for many others. Advances in biotechnology promise to lead to the development of artificial prosthetic organs in the near future, compounding this already complex milieu. Implantation Biology enumerates the clinical applications of biomaterials from the surface viewpoint in multiple disciplines. It provides the reader with an historical perspective of the evolution of these clinically utilized biomaterials, as well as an important look at future directions in biomaterials and artificial organs research. Chapters are written by internationally respected experts in their fields and offer both a comprehensive review of biomaterial sciences and a unique specialty-by-specialty analysis of clinical applications.

Cellular Response to Biomaterials

Cellular Response to Biomaterials Book
Author : Lucy Di Silvio
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2008-12-22
ISBN : 184569547X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The response of cells to biomaterials is critical in medical devices. Traditionally inert biomaterials were used to minimise the reaction in cells in contact with the material. However, it has been realised that specific cell responses may be beneficial in such areas as encouraging adhesion, healing or cell multiplication. Cellular response to biomaterials discusses the response of cells to a wide range of biomaterials targeted at specific medical applications. Part one discusses cell responses to a variety of polymers and ceramics with chapters on such topics as degradable polymers and biocompatibility. Part two covers cell responses and regenerative medicine with coverage of themes such as vascular grafts, nerve repair and Bioglass®. Part three examines the effect of surfaces and proteins on cell response. Specific chapters review nano-engineered surfaces, the influence of plasma proteins on bone cell adhesion and surface modification of titanium implants. With its distinguished editor and team of international contributors, Cellular response to biomaterials is an essential read for those researching or studying medical devices in industry and academia. Examines the response of cells to a wide range of biomaterials targeted at specific medical applications Discusses cell responses and regenerative medicine with specific chapters on vascular grafts and nerve repair Assesses the effect of surfaces and proteins on cell response including the influence of plasma proteins on cell adhesion and surface modification of titanium implants

Biomaterials for Passive and Active Immunomodulation

Biomaterials for Passive and Active Immunomodulation Book
Author : Jessica Leigh Schlosser
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 9781321022452
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

To mitigate a chronic inflammatory host response, engineers often choose an inert biomaterial that limits unwanted effects on the immune system. Poly(ethylene glycol)(PEG) is one such material used to passively modulate immune activation. PEG's unique ability to tightly associate with multiple water molecules per monomer, attributed to the hydrophilicity and charge distribution across the polymerized macromer, renders the material "invisible" to the body. Additionally, PEG is non-toxic, water soluble, and easily modified, making this polymer one of the most useful biomaterials in the field today. Unfortunately, PEG still ilicits an undesired inflammatory response from macrophages, characterized by release of cytokines TNF-[alpha] and IL-1[beta]. In previous studies, embedding or administering a protein that actively decreases this cytokine release profile can increase the biocompatibility of a biomaterial. CD200, a membrane glycoprotein whose receptor is found exclusively on myeloid cells, is one such anti-inflammatory protein. This self-recognition molecule sends an inhibitory signal when bound to CD200R on macrophages, thus reducing TNF-[alpha] and IL-[beta] expression. We proposed to combine passive (PEG) and active (CD200) immunomodulatory mechanisms for further control of biomaterial compatibility. Through confocal microscopy we show evidence of CD200 immobilization onto a PEG hydrogel, and ultimately demonstrate that these CD200-functionalized PEG hydrogels not only decrease the concentration of inflammatory cytokines in BMDMs, but also limit the inflammatory response in vivo up to 24 hours.