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Histone Modifications In Therapy

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Histone Modifications in Therapy

Histone Modifications in Therapy Book
Author : Pedro Castelo-Branco,Carmen Jeronimo
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-08-21
ISBN : 0128167408
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Histone Modifications in Therapy provides an in-depth analysis of the role of histone mechanisms in major diseases and the promise of targeting histone modifications for disease prevention and treatment. Here, researchers, clinicians and students will discover a thorough, evidence-based discussion of the biology of histones, the diseases engaged by aberrant histone modifications, and pathways with therapeutic potential. Expert chapter addresses the role of histone modifications across a variety of disorders, including cancer, neuropsychiatric, neurodegenerative, cardiac, metabolic, infectious, bacterial, autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, among others. In relation to these disease types, histone modifications are discussed, both as mechanisms of prevention and possible treatment. A concluding chapter brings together future perspectives for targeting histone modifications in therapy and next steps in research. Examines the use of histone modifications in disease prevention and therapy Explores the role of histone modifications in cancer, neuropsychiatric, neurodegenerative, cardiac, metabolic, infectious, bacterial, and inflammatory disease, among others Features chapters from a broad range of international authors and disease specialists

The Histone Code and Beyond

The Histone Code and Beyond Book
Author : Shelley L. Berger,O. Nakanishi,Bernhard Haendler
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-01-19
ISBN : 354037633X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Methylation of DNA at cytosine residues as well as post-translational modifications of histones, including phosphorylation, acetylation, methylation and ubiquitylation, contribute to the epigenetic information carried by chromatin. These changes play an important role in the regulation of gene expression by modulating the access of regulatory factors to the DNA. The use of a combination of biochemical, genetic and structural approaches has allowed demonstration of the role of chromatin structure in transcriptional control. The structure of nucleosomes has been elucidated and enzymes involved in DNA or histone modifications have been extensively characterized. Since deregulation of epigenetic marks has been reported in many cancers, a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms bears the promise that new drug targets may soon be found. The newest developments in this quickly developing field are presented in this book.

The Histone Code and Beyond

The Histone Code and Beyond Book
Author : Shelley L. Berger,O. Nakanishi,Bernhard Haendler
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2009-09-02
ISBN : 9783540813231
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Methylation of DNA at cytosine residues as well as post-translational modifications of histones, including phosphorylation, acetylation, methylation and ubiquitylation, contribute to the epigenetic information carried by chromatin. These changes play an important role in the regulation of gene expression by modulating the access of regulatory factors to the DNA. The use of a combination of biochemical, genetic and structural approaches has allowed demonstration of the role of chromatin structure in transcriptional control. The structure of nucleosomes has been elucidated and enzymes involved in DNA or histone modifications have been extensively characterized. Since deregulation of epigenetic marks has been reported in many cancers, a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms bears the promise that new drug targets may soon be found. The newest developments in this quickly developing field are presented in this book.

Epigenetic Cancer Therapy

Epigenetic Cancer Therapy Book
Author : Steven Gray
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2015-07-01
ISBN : 0128002247
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Epigenetic Cancer Therapy unites issues central to a translational audience actively seeking to understand the topic. It is ideal for cancer specialists, including oncologists and clinicians, but also provides valuable information for researchers, academics, students, governments, and decision-makers in the healthcare sector. The text covers the basic background of the epigenome, aberrant epigenetics, and its potential as a target for cancer therapy, and includes individual chapters on the state of epigenome knowledge in specific cancers (including lung, breast, prostate, liver). The book encompasses both large-scale intergovernmental initiatives as well as recent findings across cancer stem cells, rational drug design, clinical trials, and chemopreventative strategies. As a whole, the work articulates and raises the profile of epigenetics as a therapeutic option in the future management of cancer. Concisely summarizes the therapeutic implications of recent, large-scale epigenome studies, including the cancer epigenome atlas Discusses targeted isoform specific versus pan-specific inhibitors, a rational drug design approach to epigenetics relevant to pharmacoepigenetic clinical applications Covers new findings in the interplay between cancer stem cells (CSCs) and drug resistance, demonstrating that epigenetic machinery is a candidate target for the eradication of these CSCs

Epigenetics and Cancer

Epigenetics and Cancer Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2010-11-22
ISBN : 9780123808677
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Genes interact with the environment, experience, and biology of the brain to shape an animal’s behavior. This latest volume in Advances in Genetics, organized according to the most widely used model organisms, describes the latest genetic discoveries in relation to neural circuit development and activity. Explores the latest topics in neural circuits and behavior research in zebrafish, drosophila, C.elegans, and mouse models Includes methods for testing with ethical, legal, and social implications Critically analyzes future prospects

Epigenetic Modifications and Viral Infections

Epigenetic Modifications and Viral Infections Book
Author : Silvia Carolina Galvan,Alejandro García Carrancá,Félix Recillas-Targa,Jiuzhou Song
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2015-07-09
ISBN : 2889195872
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Epigenetics is defined as the study of modifications of the genome, heritable during cell division that does not involve changes in DNA sequences. Up to date, epigenetic modifications involve at least three general mechanisms regulating gene expression: histone modifications, DNA methylation, and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). For the past two decades, an explosion in our interest and understanding of epigenetic mechanisms has been seen. This mainly based on the influence that epigenetic alterations have on an amazing number of biological processes, such as gene expression, imprinting, programmed DNA rearrangements, germ line silencing, developmentally cued stem cell division, and overall chromosomal stability and identity. It has become also evident that the constant exposure of living organisms to environment factors affects their genomes through epigenetic mechanisms. Viruses infecting animal cells are thought to play central roles in shaping the epigenetic scenario of infected cells. In this context it has become obvious that knowing the impact that viral infections have on the epigenetic control of their host cells will certainly lead to a better understanding of the interplay viruses have with animal cells. In fact, DNA viruses use host transcription factors as well as epigenetic regulators in such a way that they affect epigenetic control of gene expression that extends to host gene expression. At the same time, animal cells employ mechanisms controlling transcription factors and epigenetic processes, in order to eliminate viral infections. In summary, epigenetic mechanisms are involved in most virus-cell interactions. We now know that some viruses exhibit epigenetic immune evasion mechanisms to survive and propagate in their host; however, there is still much ambiguity over these epigenetic mechanisms of viral immune evasion, and most of the discovered mechanisms are still incomplete. Other animal viruses associated to cancer often deregulate cellular epigenetic mechanisms, silencing cellular tumor-suppressor genes and/or activating either viral or host cell oncogenes. In addition, in several cancers the down-regulation of tumor suppressor protein-coding genes and ncRNAs with growth inhibitory functions, such as miRNAs, have been closely linked to the presence of cell CpG island promoter hypermethylation. The goal of the aforementioned Research Topic is to bring together the key experimental and theoretical research, linking state-of-the-art knowledge about the epigenetic mechanisms involved in animal virus-cell interactions.

Cancer Epigenetics

Cancer Epigenetics Book
Author : Trygve Tollefsbol
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2019-08-30
ISBN : 9780367386863
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

During the past few decades, it has become increasingly apparent that heredity is not the sole determining factor in disease development, such as cancer. This landmark work covers a wide array of aspects in the relatively new area of epigenetics, ranging from its role in the basic mechanisms of tumorigenesis, to the newest epigenetic drugs being developed and used for cancer therapy. Cancer Epigenetics presents in-depth discussions of DNA methylation alterations, histone and RNA modifications, and nucleosome remodeling, which are all intimately involved in the formation of tumors. It also analyzes metabolic influences on cancer epigenetics and advances in epigenetic cancer gene therapy. Discusses the Latest Advances in the Role of Epigenetics in Tumor Initiation, Progression, and Metastasis With stand-alone chapters written by research pioneers in the field, this definitive resource covers-- DNA methylation and cancer Histone modifications in cancer Emerging areas of cancer epigenetics Epigenetics in the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of cancer Future directions in epigenetic cancer research Bringing together different topics into a single compilation, this text is a prime resource for those with interests ranging from the basic mechanisms of tumor biology to cancer therapy. It also serves as a core textbook for advanced courses with a focus on genetic diseases, molecular biology, and/or cancer. This seminal work answers the call for a thorough and authoritative reference that covers the critical and contemporary aspects of this revolutionary field.

Alterations of Epigenetics and MicroRNAs in Cancer and Cancer Stem Cell

Alterations of Epigenetics and MicroRNAs in Cancer and Cancer Stem Cell Book
Author : Yoshimasa Saito
Publisher : Frontiers E-books
Release : 2014-11-10
ISBN : 2889193454
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Studies have shown that alterations of epigenetics and microRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in the initiation and progression of human cancer. Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes in cancer cells is generally mediated by DNA hypermethylation of CpG island promoter and histone modification such as methylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) and tri-methylation of H3K27. MiRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that regulate expression of various target genes. Specific miRNAs are aberrantly expressed and play roles as tumor suppressors or oncogenes during carcinogenesis. Important tumor suppressor miRNAs are silenced by epigenetic alterations, resulting in activation of target oncogenes in human malignancies. Stem cells have the ability to perpetuate themselves through self-renewal and to generate mature cells of various tissues through differentiation. Accumulating evidence suggests that a subpopulation of cancer cells with distinct stem-like properties is responsible for tumor initiation, invasive growth, and metastasis formation, which is defined as cancer stem cells. Cancer stem cells are considered to be resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiation therapy, suggesting that these cells are important targets of cancer therapy. DNA methylation, histone modification and miRNAs may be deeply involved in stem-like properties in cancer cells. Restoring the expression of tumor suppressor genes and miRNAs by chromatin modifying drugs may be a promising therapeutic approach for cancer stem cells. In this Research Topic, we discuss about alterations of epigenetics and miRNAs in cancer and cancer stem cell and understand the molecular mechanism underlying the formation of cancer stem cell, which may provide a novel insight for treatment of refractory cancer.

Epigenetic Therapy of Cancer

Epigenetic Therapy of Cancer Book
Author : Michael Lübbert,Peter A. Jones
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-12-12
ISBN : 3642384048
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The growing knowledge about disturbances of epigenetic gene regulation in hematopoietic stem cell disorders is now being translated into treatment approaches that target the epigenetic defects pharmacologically. This book first presents the latest evidence regarding the epigenetic regulation of hematopoietic stem cell differentiation and hemoglobin production. The significance of DNA methylation abnormalities in hematopoietic disorders and of epigenetic disturbances in lung cancer and other solid tumors is then discussed. A major part of the book, however, relates specifically to the translation of basic research and drug development to clinical applications, and in this context both present and future clinical strategies are considered. Individual chapters are devoted to the use of DNA hypomethylating agents and chromatin-modifying agents, and the treatment of hematologic malignancies and solid tumors by means of epigenetic agents is discussed in detail.

The Landscape of Histone Modification in Cancer Metastasis

The Landscape of Histone Modification in Cancer Metastasis Book
Author : Zhaoping Qiu
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Metastasis represents one of the most devastating aspects of cancer. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been shown to play a critical role in tumorigenic metastasis. During metastatic progression, both genetic and epigenetic modifications endow cancer cells with properties that modulate the capacity for metastatic success. Histone modification is profoundly altered in cancer cells and contributes to cancer metastasis by controlling different metastatic phenotypes. Here, we first review histone modifications and discuss their roles in EMT and metastasis, with a particular focus on histone methylation and acetylation. Second, we review the major histone modification enzymes that control chromatin in cancer metastasis. Third, we discuss the transcriptional regulation concerted by these enzymes with EMT transcription factors at different molecular layers. Finally, we discuss pharmacologic manipulation of histone modification enzymes for metastasis treatment. A comprehensive understanding of histone modification in metastasis will not only provide new insights into our knowledge of cancer progression and metastasis, but also offer a novel approach for the development of innovative therapeutic strategies.

Transgenerational Epigenetics

Transgenerational Epigenetics Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-05-18
ISBN : 0128167335
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Transgenerational Epigenetics, Second Edition, offers the only up-to-date, comprehensive analysis of the inheritance of epigenetic phenomena between generations with an emphasis on human disease relevance, drug discovery, and next steps in clinical translation. International experts discuss mechanisms of epigenetic inheritance, its expression in animal and plant models, and how human ailments, such as metabolic disorders and cardiovascular disease are influenced by transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. Where evidence is sufficient, epigenetic clinical interventions are proposed that may help prevent or reduce the severity of disease before offspring are born. This edition has been thoroughly revised in each disease area, featuring newly researched actors in epigenetic regulation, including long noncoding RNA in addition to histone modifications and DNA methylation. Therapeutic pathways in treating cancer and extending human longevity are also considered, as are current debates and future directions for research. Presents a fully-updated and expanded release addressing transgenerational epigenetics, epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation, and the role of epigenetics in human longevity and cancer Examines the field from "bench-to-bedside", discussing basic science, disease management, current debates, and next steps in epigenetic research and drug discovery Features chapter contributions from international experts

Personalized Epigenetics

Personalized Epigenetics Book
Author : Trygve Tollefsbol
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2015-04-28
ISBN : 0128004363
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Personalized Epigenetics discusses the core translatability of epigenetics to health management of individuals who have unique variations in their epigenetic signatures that can guide both disorder and disease prevention and therapy. The book details inter-individual variability in the major epigenetic process in humans consisting of DNA methylation, histone modifications, and noncoding RNA, and the diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic potential of the field, it also reviews the impact of the environment on epigenetic variations among individuals and the role of pharmacology and drug development in personalized epigenetics. Most importantly, the text covers personalized epigenetics from a disease-oriented perspective, presenting chapters that provide advances in widespread disorders or diseases, including diabetes, cancer, autoimmune disorders, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, and pain management. Discusses the core translatability of epigenetics to health management of individuals who have unique variations in their epigenetic signatures Details inter-individual variability in the major epigenetic process in humans consisting of DNA methylation, histone modifications, and noncoding RNA, and the consequent diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic potential of the field Reviews the impact of the environment on epigenetic variations among individuals and the roles of pharmacology and drug development Devotes several chapters to the advances made in widespread disorders or diseases, including diabetes, cancer, autoimmune disorders, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, and pain management

Regulation of the Epigenome and Its Implications in Cancer Therapy

Regulation of the Epigenome and Its Implications in Cancer Therapy Book
Author : Snezana Milutinovic
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2004
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"The regulation of the genome by the epigenetic modifications of DNA methylation and histone modification is increasingly recognized as a vital factor in the development, physiology and pathology of vertebrates. There is mounting evidence suggesting that both aberrant DNA methylation and histone modifications are common events in cancer. This has lead to the establishment of both DNMTs and HDACs as important targets in cancer therapy. There are currently several clinical trials that are testing inhibitors of both DNMTs and HDACs as anticancer agents. This thesis attempts to understand the roles that DNMT1 and HDAC1 play in the regulation of gene expression and epigenomic inheritance. In the first chapter, we examined the effects of DNMT1 inhibitors on gene expression and found that DNMT1 can regulate gene expression independent of its DNA methyltransferase activity. This novel role of DNMT1 has challenged a widely accepted theory that the mechanism of DNMT1 inhibitors involves inhibition of the catalytic activity of DNMT1, thus leading to demethylation and reexpression of tumor suppressors previously silenced by methylation. In chapter 2, we further examined different roles of DNMT1. We showed that different DNMT1 inhibitors inhibit different DNMT1 functions and produce different effects on gene expression. Our data suggests that inhibition of DNMT1 enzymatic activity can produce serious long-term effects as a result of massive non-selective demethylation of the genome. In contrast, reduction of DNMT1 levels was shown to result in a rapid arrest of cell growth, limited demethylation and induction of stress-response genes. We hypothesize that these effects are a result of the activation of an epigenetic check point that has evolved to protect the cell from undergoing replication in the absence of DNMT1. In chapter 3, we further explore the roles of DNMT1 in methylation independent regulation of gene expression, which has been suggested to in" --

Pharmacogenetics

Pharmacogenetics Book
Author : Wendell Weber
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2008-04-02
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Genes are important modifiers of the human response to drugs, hormones, and toxins. In this second edition of 'Pharmacogenetics', Weber brings together laboratory methods and epidemiologic studies in defining the role of heredity in human drug response.

Reprogramming the Genome CRISPR Cas based Human Disease Therapy

Reprogramming the Genome  CRISPR Cas based Human Disease Therapy Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-09-01
ISBN : 0323853242
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Reprogramming the Genome: CRISPR-Cas-based Human Disease Therapy, presents the collation of chapters written by eminent scientists worldwide. CRISPR-Cas9 is a key technology for targeted genome editing and regulation in a number of organisms including mammalian cells. It is a rapid, simple, and cost-effective solution. CRISPR-Cas system has recently gained much scientific and public attention. This volume covers CRISPR-Cas9 based mammalian genome editing, creating disease models, cancer therapy, neurological, heredity, blood disorders, defective gene correction, stem cells therapy, epigenetic modifications, patents, ethics, biosafety and regulatory issues challenges and opportunities. This book is a key source of information on mammalian genome editing available in a single volume. This book will be useful for beginners in mammalian genome editing and also students, researchers, scientists, policymakers, clinicians and stakeholders interested in genome editing in several areas. Offers basic understanding and a clear picture of mammalian genome editing through CRISPR-Cas systems Discusses how to create mammalian disease models, stem cell modification, epigenetic modifications, correction of defective gene in blood disorders, heredity, neurological disorders and many more Discusses the application of CRISPR-Cas9 systems in basic sciences, biomedicine, molecular biology, translational sciences, neurobiology, neurology, cancer, stem cells, and many more

Cancer Epigenetics

Cancer Epigenetics Book
Author : Antonio Giordano,Marcella Macaluso
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2011-10-07
ISBN : 9781118005736
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cancer Epigenetics: Biomolecular Therapeutics in Human Cancer is the only resource to focus on biomolecular approaches to cancer therapy. Its presentation of the latest research in cancer biology reflects the interdisciplinary nature of the field and aims to facilitate collaboration between the basic, translational, and clinical sciences.

Targeting Histone Methyltransferases and Demethylases in Clinical Trials for Cancer Therapy

Targeting Histone Methyltransferases and Demethylases in Clinical Trials for Cancer Therapy Book
Author : Ludovica Morera,Michael Lübbert,Manfred Jung
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Abstract: The term epigenetics is defined as heritable changes in gene expression that are not due to alterations of the DNA sequence. In the last years, it has become more and more evident that dysregulated epigenetic regulatory processes have a central role in cancer onset and progression. In contrast to DNA mutations, epigenetic modifications are reversible and, hence, suitable for pharmacological interventions. Reversible histone methylation is an important process within epigenetic regulation, and the investigation of its role in cancer has led to the identification of lysine methyltransferases and demethylases as promising targets for new anticancer drugs. In this review, we describe those enzymes and their inhibitors that have already reached the first stages of clinical trials in cancer therapy, namely the histone methyltransferases DOT1L and EZH2 as well as the demethylase LSD1

Epigenetic Approaches in Drug Discovery Development and Treatment

Epigenetic Approaches in Drug Discovery  Development and Treatment Book
Author : Shibashish Giri,Chandravanu Dash
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2020-08-07
ISBN : 2889639320
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Establishment of a normal phenotype involves dynamic epigenetic regulation of gene expression that when affected contributes to human diseases. On a molecular level, epigenetic regulation is marked by specific covalent modifications (acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, sumoylation, PARylation and ubiquitylation) of DNA and its associated histones. Studies also suggest the influence of such epigenetic modifications on non-coding RNA expression implicated in normal and diseased phenotypes. Epigenetic control of genetic expression is a reversible process essential for normal development and function of an organism. Alteration of epigenetic regulation leads to various disease forms such as cancer, diabetes, inflammation and neuropsychiatric disorders. Assessing these alterations provides a deeper insight into the changes induced in the genome, which is often informative for identifying disease subtypes or developing suitable treatments. Therefore, epigenetics proves to be a key area of clinical investigation in diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of complex diseases. Genetic mutations, environmental stress, pathogens and drugs of abuse are some of the predominant factors that induce and impact changes on chromatin, which directly dictate a diseased phenotype. It is essential to consider the interaction between genetic and epigenetic factors to understand the molecular mechanisms of complex human diseases for safer and efficient drug development. Furthermore, genetic variation in absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) genes is insufficient to account for interindividual variability of drug response. Therefore, current efforts aim to identify epigenetic components of ADME gene regulation, which include phase-I and phase-II enzymes, uptake transporters, efflux transporters and nuclear receptors involved in regulation of ADME genes. Monitoring circulatory epigenetic biomarkers in liquid biopsies (blood, saliva, urine, cerebrospinal fluid) of disease-associated and drug-associated epigenetic alterations may prove useful for decision support for routine clinical treatment and drug discovery. Hence, recent drug discovery efforts on targeting the epigenome, has emerged an area of interest with several new drugs being developed, tested and some already approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). These new insights into the complexities of epigenetic regulation are key contributors to our basic understanding of this process in human health and disease, which will provide scope for innovative drug therapies. It is of urgency to aid the present understanding of epigenomics driven diseased outcomes, with the expectation that further studies will identify early markers of disease and targets for therapeutics.