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High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering

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High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering

High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering Book
Author : Daniel Lundin,Jon Tomas Gudmundsson,Tiberiu Minea
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2019-09-13
ISBN : 0128124547
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering: Fundamentals, Technologies, Challenges and Applications is an in-depth introduction to HiPIMS that emphasizes how this novel sputtering technique differs from conventional magnetron processes in terms of both discharge physics and the resulting thin film characteristics. Ionization of sputtered atoms is discussed in detail for various target materials. In addition, the role of self-sputtering, secondary electron emission and the importance of controlling the process gas dynamics, both inert and reactive gases, are examined in detail with an aim to generate stable HiPIMS processes. Lastly, the book also looks at how to characterize the HiPIMS discharge, including essential diagnostic equipment. Experimental results and simulations based on industrially relevant material systems are used to illustrate mechanisms controlling nucleation kinetics, column formation and microstructure evolution. Includes a comprehensive description of the HiPIMS process from fundamental physics to applications Provides a distinctive link between the process plasma and thin film communities Discusses the industrialization of HiPIMS and its real world applications

Ionized Physical Vapor Deposition

Ionized Physical Vapor Deposition Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 1999-10-14
ISBN : 008054293X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume provides the first comprehensive look at a pivotal new technology in integrated circuit fabrication. For some time researchers have sought alternate processes for interconnecting the millions of transistors on each chip because conventional physical vapor deposition can no longer meet the specifications of today's complex integrated circuits. Out of this research, ionized physical vapor deposition has emerged as a premier technology for the deposition of thin metal films that form the dense interconnect wiring on state-of-the-art microprocessors and memory chips. For the first time, the most recent developments in thin film deposition using ionized physical vapor deposition (I-PVD) are presented in a single coherent source. Readers will find detailed descriptions of relevant plasma source technology, specific deposition systems, and process recipes. The tools and processes covered include DC hollow cathode magnetrons, RF inductively coupled plasmas, and microwave plasmas that are used for depositing technologically important materials such as copper, tantalum, titanium, TiN, and aluminum. In addition, this volume describes the important physical processes that occur in I-PVD in a simple and concise way. The physical descriptions are followed by experimentally-verified numerical models that provide in-depth insight into the design and operation I-PVD tools. Practicing process engineers, research and development scientists, and students will find that this book's integration of tool design, process development, and fundamental physical models make it an indispensable reference. Key Features: The first comprehensive volume on ionized physical vapor deposition Combines tool design, process development, and fundamental physical understanding to form a complete picture of I-PVD Emphasizes practical applications in the area of IC fabrication and interconnect technology Serves as a guide to select the most appropriate technology for any deposition application *This single source saves time and effort by including comprehensive information at one's finger tips *The integration of tool design, process development, and fundamental physics allows the reader to quickly understand all of the issues important to I-PVD *The numerous practical applications assist the working engineer to select and refine thin film processes

Cathodic Arcs

Cathodic Arcs Book
Author : André Anders
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2009-07-30
ISBN : 0387791086
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cathodic arcs are among the longest studied yet least understood objects in science. Plasma-generating, tiny spots appear on the cathode; they are highly dynamic and hard to control. With an approach emphasizing the fractal character of cathode spots, strongly fluctuating plasma properties are described such as the presence of multiply charged ions that move with supersonic velocity. Richly illustrated, the book also deals with practical issues, such as arc source construction, macroparticle removal, and the synthesis of dense, well adherent coatings. The book spans a bridge from plasma physics to coatings technology based on energetic condensation, appealing to scientists, practitioners and graduate students alike.

Discharge Physics of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering

Discharge Physics of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2010
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) is pulsed sputtering where the peak power exceeds the time-averaged power by typically two orders of magnitude. The peak power density, averaged over the target area, can reach or exceed 107 W/m2, leading to plasma conditions that make ionization of the sputtered atoms very likely. A brief review of HIPIMS operation is given in a tutorial manner, illustrated by some original data related to the self-sputtering of niobium in argon and krypton. Emphasis is put on the current-voltage-time relationships near the threshold of self-sputtering runaway. The great variety of current pulse shapes delivers clues on the very strong gas rarefaction, self-sputtering runaway conditions, and the stopping of runaway due to the evolution of atom ionization and ion return probabilities as the gas plasma is replaced by metal plasma. The discussions are completed by considering instabilities and the special case of?gasless? self-sputtering.

Reactive Sputter Deposition

Reactive Sputter Deposition Book
Author : Diederik Depla,Stijn Mahieu
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2008-06-24
ISBN : 3540766642
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In this valuable work, all aspects of the reactive magnetron sputtering process, from the discharge up to the resulting thin film growth, are described in detail, allowing the reader to understand the complete process. Hence, this book gives necessary information for those who want to start with reactive magnetron sputtering, understand and investigate the technique, control their sputtering process and tune their existing process, obtaining the desired thin films.

High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering Under Industrial Conditions

High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering Under Industrial Conditions Book
Author : Mattias Samuelsson,Linköpings universitet. Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2011
ISBN : 9789173931946
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering Under Industrial Conditions book written by Mattias Samuelsson,Linköpings universitet. Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Plasma Flares in High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering

Plasma Flares in High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2012
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

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The Foundations of Vacuum Coating Technology

The Foundations of Vacuum Coating Technology Book
Author : Donald M. Mattox
Publisher : William Andrew
Release : 2018-08-21
ISBN : 0128130857
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Foundations of Vacuum Coating Technology, Second Edition, is a revised and expanded version of the first edition, which was published in 2003. The book reviews the histories of the various vacuum coating technologies and expands on the history of the enabling technologies of vacuum technology, plasma technology, power supplies, and low-pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The melding of these technologies has resulted in new processes and products that have greatly expanded the application of vacuum coatings for use in our everyday lives. The book is unique in that it makes extensive reference to the patent literature (mostly US) and how it relates to the history of vacuum coating. The book includes a Historical Timeline of Vacuum Coating Technology and a Historical Timeline of Vacuum/Plasma Technology, as well as a Glossary of Terms used in the vacuum coating and surface engineering industries. History and detailed descriptions of Vacuum Deposition Technologies Review of Enabling Technologies and their importance to current applications Extensively referenced text Patents are referenced as part of the history Historical Timelines for Vacuum Coating Technology and Vacuum/Plasma Technology Glossary of Terms for vacuum coating

Handbook of Physical Vapor Deposition PVD Processing

Handbook of Physical Vapor Deposition  PVD  Processing Book
Author : D. M. Mattox
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2014-09-19
ISBN : 0080946585
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book covers all aspects of physical vapor deposition (PVD) process technology from the characterizing and preparing the substrate material, through deposition processing and film characterization, to post-deposition processing. The emphasis of the book is on the aspects of the process flow that are critical to economical deposition of films that can meet the required performance specifications. The book covers subjects seldom treated in the literature: substrate characterization, adhesion, cleaning and the processing. The book also covers the widely discussed subjects of vacuum technology and the fundamentals of individual deposition processes. However, the author uniquely relates these topics to the practical issues that arise in PVD processing, such as contamination control and film growth effects, which are also rarely discussed in the literature. In bringing these subjects together in one book, the reader can understand the interrelationship between various aspects of the film deposition processing and the resulting film properties. The author draws upon his long experience with developing PVD processes and troubleshooting the processes in the manufacturing environment, to provide useful hints for not only avoiding problems, but also for solving problems when they arise. He uses actual experiences, called ""war stories"", to emphasize certain points. Special formatting of the text allows a reader who is already knowledgeable in the subject to scan through a section and find discussions that are of particular interest. The author has tried to make the subject index as useful as possible so that the reader can rapidly go to sections of particular interest. Extensive references allow the reader to pursue subjects in greater detail if desired. The book is intended to be both an introduction for those who are new to the field and a valuable resource to those already in the field. The discussion of transferring technology between R&D and manufacturing provided in Appendix 1, will be of special interest to the manager or engineer responsible for moving a PVD product and process from R&D into production. Appendix 2 has an extensive listing of periodical publications and professional societies that relate to PVD processing. The extensive Glossary of Terms and Acronyms provided in Appendix 3 will be of particular use to students and to those not fully conversant with the terminology of PVD processing or with the English language.

A Review Comparing Cathodic Arcs and High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering HiPIMS

A Review Comparing Cathodic Arcs and High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering  HiPIMS   Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2022-10-03
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) has been in the center of attention over the last years as it is an emerging physical vapor deposition (PVD) technology that combines advantages of magnetron sputtering with various forms of energetic deposition of films such as ion plating and cathodic arc plasma deposition. It should not come at a surprise that many extension and variations of HiPIMS make use, intentionally or unintentionally, of previously discovered approaches to film processing such as substrate surface preparation by metal ion sputtering and phased biasing for film texture and stress control. Therefore, in this review, an overview is given on some historical developments and features of cathodic arc and HiPIMS plasmas, showing commonalities and differences. To limit the scope, emphasis is put on plasma properties, as opposed to surveying the vast literature on specific film materials and their properties.

Erratum

Erratum Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2007
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

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                                    Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1985
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Characterization of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering Discharges

Characterization of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering Discharges Book
Author : Matej Hala
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2013
ISBN : 9780494909126
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Characterization of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering Discharges book written by Matej Hala, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Magnetic Field Optimization for High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering

Magnetic Field Optimization for High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering Book
Author : Priya Raman
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Magnetic Field Optimization for High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering book written by Priya Raman, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Deposition Rates of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering

Deposition Rates of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Deposition by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) is considered by some as the new paradigm of advanced sputtering technology, yet this is met with skepticism by others for the reported lower deposition rates, if compared to rates of more conventional sputtering of equal average power. In this contribution, the underlying physical reasons for the rate changes are discussed, including (i) ion return to the target and self-sputtering, (ii) the less-than-linear increase of the sputtering yield with increasing ion energy, (iii) yield changes due to the shift of species responsible for sputtering, (iv) changes to due to greater film density, limited sticking, and self-sputtering on the substrate, (v) noticeable power losses in the switch module, (vi) changes of the magnetic balance and particle confinement of the magnetron due to self-fields at high current, and (vii) superposition of sputtering and sublimation/evaporation for selected materials. The situation is even more complicated for reactive systems where the target surface chemistry is a function of the reactive gas partial pressure and discharge conditions. While most of these factors imply a reduction of the normalized deposition rate, increased rates have been reported for certain conditions using hot targets and less poisoned targets. Finally, some points of economics and HIPIMS benefits considered.

Fundamentals of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering

Fundamentals of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering Book
Author : Johan Böhlmark,Linköpings universitet. Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2006
ISBN : 9789185523962
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Fundamentals of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering book written by Johan Böhlmark,Linköpings universitet. Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering

High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2007
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The commonly used current-voltage characteristics are foundinadequate for describing the pulsed nature of the high power impulsemagnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) discharge, rather, the description needs tobe expanded to current-voltage-time characteristics for each initial gaspressure. Using different target materials (Cu, Ti, Nb, C, W, Al, Cr) anda pulsed constant-voltage supply it is shown that the HIPIMS dischargestypically exhibit an initial pressure dependent current peak followed bya second phase that is power and material dependent. This suggests thatthe initial phase of a HIPIMS discharge pulse is dominated by gas ionswhereas the later phase has a strong contribution from self-sputtering. For some materials the discharge switches into a mode of sustainedself-sputtering. The very large differences between materials cannot beascribed to the different sputter yields but they indicate thatgeneration and trapping ofsecondary electrons plays a major role forcurrent-voltage-time characteristics. In particular, it is argued thatthe sustained self-sputtering phase is associated with thegeneration ofmultiply charged ions because only they can cause potential emission ofsecondary electrons whereas the yield caused by singly charged metal ionsis negligibly small.

High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering and Related Discharges

High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering and Related Discharges Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) and related self-sputtering techniques are reviewed from a viewpoint of plasma-based ion implantation and deposition (PBII & D). HIPIMS combines the classical, scalable sputtering technology with pulsed power, which is an elegant way of ionizing the sputtered atoms. Related approaches, such as sustained self-sputtering, are also considered. The resulting intense flux of ions to the substrate consists of a mixture of metal and gas ions when using a process gas, or of metal ions only when using 'gasless? or pure self-sputtering. In many respects, processing with HIPIMS plasmas is similar to processing with filtered cathodic arc plasmas, though the former is easier to scale to large areas. Both ion implantation and etching (high bias voltage, without deposition) and thin film deposition (low bias, or bias of low duty cycle) have been demonstrated.