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High Performance Computing

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High Performance Computing

High Performance Computing Book
Author : Thomas Sterling,Matthew Anderson,Maciej Brodowicz
Publisher : Morgan Kaufmann
Release : 2017-12-05
ISBN : 0124202152
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

High Performance Computing: Modern Systems and Practices is a fully comprehensive and easily accessible treatment of high performance computing, covering fundamental concepts and essential knowledge while also providing key skills training. With this book, domain scientists will learn how to use supercomputers as a key tool in their quest for new knowledge. In addition, practicing engineers will discover how supercomputers can employ HPC systems and methods to the design and simulation of innovative products, and students will begin their careers with an understanding of possible directions for future research and development in HPC. Those who maintain and administer commodity clusters will find this textbook provides essential coverage of not only what HPC systems do, but how they are used. Covers enabling technologies, system architectures and operating systems, parallel programming languages and algorithms, scientific visualization, correctness and performance debugging tools and methods, GPU accelerators and big data problems Provides numerous examples that explore the basics of supercomputing, while also providing practical training in the real use of high-end computers Helps users with informative and practical examples that build knowledge and skills through incremental steps Features sidebars of background and context to present a live history and culture of this unique field Includes online resources, such as recorded lectures from the authors’ HPC courses

High Performance Computing

High Performance Computing Book
Author : John Levesque,Gene Wagenbreth
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2010-12-14
ISBN : 1420077066
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

High Performance Computing: Programming and Applications presents techniques that address new performance issues in the programming of high performance computing (HPC) applications. Omitting tedious details, the book discusses hardware architecture concepts and programming techniques that are the most pertinent to application developers for achievi

High Performance Computing

High Performance Computing Book
Author : Michèle Weiland,Guido Juckeland,Carsten Trinitis,Ponnuswamy Sadayappan
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-06-05
ISBN : 3030206564
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 34th International Conference on High Performance Computing, ISC High Performance 2019, held in Frankfurt/Main, Germany, in June 2019. The 17 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 70 submissions. The papers cover a broad range of topics such as next-generation high performance components; exascale systems; extreme-scale applications; HPC and advanced environmental engineering projects; parallel ray tracing - visualization at its best; blockchain technology and cryptocurrency; parallel processing in life science; quantum computers/computing; what's new with cloud computing for HPC; parallel programming models for extreme-scale computing; workflow management; machine learning and big data analytics; and deep learning and HPC.

Contemporary High Performance Computing

Contemporary High Performance Computing Book
Author : Jeffrey S. Vetter
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2019-04-30
ISBN : 135103684X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Contemporary High Performance Computing: From Petascale toward Exascale, Volume 3 focuses on the ecosystems surrounding the world’s leading centers for high performance computing (HPC). It covers many of the important factors involved in each ecosystem: computer architectures, software, applications, facilities, and sponsors. This third volume will be a continuation of the two previous volumes, and will include other HPC ecosystems using the same chapter outline: description of a flagship system, major application workloads, facilities, and sponsors. Features: Describes many prominent, international systems in HPC from 2015 through 2017 including each system’s hardware and software architecture Covers facilities for each system including power and cooling Presents application workloads for each site Discusses historic and projected trends in technology and applications Includes contributions from leading experts Designed for researchers and students in high performance computing, computational science, and related areas, this book provides a valuable guide to the state-of-the art research, trends, and resources in the world of HPC.

Introduction to High Performance Computing for Scientists and Engineers

Introduction to High Performance Computing for Scientists and Engineers Book
Author : Georg Hager,Gerhard Wellein
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2010-07-02
ISBN : 1439811938
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Written by high performance computing (HPC) experts, Introduction to High Performance Computing for Scientists and Engineers provides a solid introduction to current mainstream computer architecture, dominant parallel programming models, and useful optimization strategies for scientific HPC. From working in a scientific computing center, the author

High Performance Computing in Finance

High Performance Computing in Finance Book
Author : M. A. H. Dempster,Juho Kanniainen,John Keane,Erik Vynckier
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2018-02-21
ISBN : 1315354691
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

High-Performance Computing (HPC) delivers higher computational performance to solve problems in science, engineering and finance. There are various HPC resources available for different needs, ranging from cloud computing– that can be used without much expertise and expense – to more tailored hardware, such as Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) or D-Wave’s quantum computer systems. High-Performance Computing in Finance is the first book that provides a state-of-the-art introduction to HPC for finance, capturing both academically and practically relevant problems.

Parallel and High Performance Computing

Parallel and High Performance Computing Book
Author : Robert Robey,Yuliana Zamora
Publisher : Simon and Schuster
Release : 2021-08-24
ISBN : 1638350388
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Parallel and High Performance Computing offers techniques guaranteed to boost your code’s effectiveness. Summary Complex calculations, like training deep learning models or running large-scale simulations, can take an extremely long time. Efficient parallel programming can save hours—or even days—of computing time. Parallel and High Performance Computing shows you how to deliver faster run-times, greater scalability, and increased energy efficiency to your programs by mastering parallel techniques for multicore processor and GPU hardware. About the technology Write fast, powerful, energy efficient programs that scale to tackle huge volumes of data. Using parallel programming, your code spreads data processing tasks across multiple CPUs for radically better performance. With a little help, you can create software that maximizes both speed and efficiency. About the book Parallel and High Performance Computing offers techniques guaranteed to boost your code’s effectiveness. You’ll learn to evaluate hardware architectures and work with industry standard tools such as OpenMP and MPI. You’ll master the data structures and algorithms best suited for high performance computing and learn techniques that save energy on handheld devices. You’ll even run a massive tsunami simulation across a bank of GPUs. What's inside Planning a new parallel project Understanding differences in CPU and GPU architecture Addressing underperforming kernels and loops Managing applications with batch scheduling About the reader For experienced programmers proficient with a high-performance computing language like C, C++, or Fortran. About the author Robert Robey works at Los Alamos National Laboratory and has been active in the field of parallel computing for over 30 years. Yuliana Zamora is currently a PhD student and Siebel Scholar at the University of Chicago, and has lectured on programming modern hardware at numerous national conferences. Table of Contents PART 1 INTRODUCTION TO PARALLEL COMPUTING 1 Why parallel computing? 2 Planning for parallelization 3 Performance limits and profiling 4 Data design and performance models 5 Parallel algorithms and patterns PART 2 CPU: THE PARALLEL WORKHORSE 6 Vectorization: FLOPs for free 7 OpenMP that performs 8 MPI: The parallel backbone PART 3 GPUS: BUILT TO ACCELERATE 9 GPU architectures and concepts 10 GPU programming model 11 Directive-based GPU programming 12 GPU languages: Getting down to basics 13 GPU profiling and tools PART 4 HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTING ECOSYSTEMS 14 Affinity: Truce with the kernel 15 Batch schedulers: Bringing order to chaos 16 File operations for a parallel world 17 Tools and resources for better code

Industrial Applications of High Performance Computing

Industrial Applications of High Performance Computing Book
Author : Anwar Osseyran,Merle Giles
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2015-04-01
ISBN : 1466596813
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Industrial Applications of High-Performance Computing: Best Global Practices offers a global overview of high-performance computing (HPC) for industrial applications, along with a discussion of software challenges, business models, access models (e.g., cloud computing), public-private partnerships, simulation and modeling, visualization, big data analysis, and governmental and industrial influence. Featuring the contributions of leading experts from 11 different countries, this authoritative book: Provides a brief history of the development of the supercomputer Describes the supercomputing environments of various government entities in terms of policy and service models Includes a case study section that addresses more subtle and technical aspects of industrial supercomputing Shows how access to supercomputing matters, and how supercomputing can be used to solve large-scale and complex science and engineering problems Emphasizes the need for collaboration between companies, political organizations, government agencies, and entire nations Industrial Applications of High-Performance Computing: Best Global Practices supplies computer engineers and researchers with a state-of-the-art supercomputing reference. This book also keeps policymakers and industrial decision-makers informed about the economic impact of these powerful technological investments.

High Performance Computing in Power and Energy Systems

High Performance Computing in Power and Energy Systems Book
Author : Siddhartha Kumar Khaitan,Anshul Gupta
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-09-07
ISBN : 364232682X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The twin challenge of meeting global energy demands in the face of growing economies and populations and restricting greenhouse gas emissions is one of the most daunting ones that humanity has ever faced. Smart electrical generation and distribution infrastructure will play a crucial role in meeting these challenges. We would need to develop capabilities to handle large volumes of data generated by the power system components like PMUs, DFRs and other data acquisition devices as well as by the capacity to process these data at high resolution via multi-scale and multi-period simulations, cascading and security analysis, interaction between hybrid systems (electric, transport, gas, oil, coal, etc.) and so on, to get meaningful information in real time to ensure a secure, reliable and stable power system grid. Advanced research on development and implementation of market-ready leading-edge high-speed enabling technologies and algorithms for solving real-time, dynamic, resource-critical problems will be required for dynamic security analysis targeted towards successful implementation of Smart Grid initiatives. This books aims to bring together some of the latest research developments as well as thoughts on the future research directions of the high performance computing applications in electric power systems planning, operations, security, markets, and grid integration of alternate sources of energy, etc.

High Performance Computing Using FPGAs

High Performance Computing Using FPGAs Book
Author : Wim Vanderbauwhede,Khaled Benkrid
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-08-23
ISBN : 1461417910
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

High-Performance Computing using FPGA covers the area of high performance reconfigurable computing (HPRC). This book provides an overview of architectures, tools and applications for High-Performance Reconfigurable Computing (HPRC). FPGAs offer very high I/O bandwidth and fine-grained, custom and flexible parallelism and with the ever-increasing computational needs coupled with the frequency/power wall, the increasing maturity and capabilities of FPGAs, and the advent of multicore processors which has caused the acceptance of parallel computational models. The Part on architectures will introduce different FPGA-based HPC platforms: attached co-processor HPRC architectures such as the CHREC’s Novo-G and EPCC’s Maxwell systems; tightly coupled HRPC architectures, e.g. the Convey hybrid-core computer; reconfigurably networked HPRC architectures, e.g. the QPACE system, and standalone HPRC architectures such as EPFL’s CONFETTI system. The Part on Tools will focus on high-level programming approaches for HPRC, with chapters on C-to-Gate tools (such as Impulse-C, AutoESL, Handel-C, MORA-C++); Graphical tools (MATLAB-Simulink, NI LabVIEW); Domain-specific languages, languages for heterogeneous computing(for example OpenCL, Microsoft’s Kiwi and Alchemy projects). The part on Applications will present case from several application domains where HPRC has been used successfully, such as Bioinformatics and Computational Biology; Financial Computing; Stencil computations; Information retrieval; Lattice QCD; Astrophysics simulations; Weather and climate modeling.

High Performance Computing in Remote Sensing

High Performance Computing in Remote Sensing Book
Author : Antonio J. Plaza,Chein-I Chang
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2007-10-18
ISBN : 9781420011616
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Solutions for Time-Critical Remote Sensing Applications The recent use of latest-generation sensors in airborne and satellite platforms is producing a nearly continual stream of high-dimensional data, which, in turn, is creating new processing challenges. To address the computational requirements of time-critical applications, researchers have begun incorporating high performance computing (HPC) models in remote sensing missions. High Performance Computing in Remote Sensing is one of the first volumes to explore state-of-the-art HPC techniques in the context of remote sensing problems. It focuses on the computational complexity of algorithms that are designed for parallel computing and processing. A Diverse Collection of Parallel Computing Techniques and Architectures The book first addresses key computing concepts and developments in remote sensing. It also covers application areas not necessarily related to remote sensing, such as multimedia and video processing. Each subsequent chapter illustrates a specific parallel computing paradigm, including multiprocessor (cluster-based) systems, large-scale and heterogeneous networks of computers, grid computing platforms, and specialized hardware architectures for remotely sensed data analysis and interpretation. An Interdisciplinary Forum to Encourage Novel Ideas The extensive reviews of current and future developments combined with thoughtful perspectives on the potential challenges of adapting HPC paradigms to remote sensing problems will undoubtedly foster collaboration and development among many fields.

Cybersecurity and High Performance Computing Environments

Cybersecurity and High Performance Computing Environments Book
Author : Kuan-Ching Li,Nitin Sukhija,Elizabeth Bautista,Jean-Luc Gaudiot
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2022-05-09
ISBN : 1000553698
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In this fast-paced global economy, academia and industry must innovate to evolve and succeed. Today’s researchers and industry experts are seeking transformative technologies to meet the challenges of tomorrow. Cutting-edge technological advances in cybersecurity solutions aid in enabling the security of complex heterogeneous high-performance computing (HPC) environments. On the other hand, HPC facilitates powerful and intelligent innovative models for reducing time to response to identify and resolve a multitude of potential, newly emerging cyberattacks. Cybersecurity and High-Performance Computing Environments provides a collection of the current and emergent research innovations, practices, and applications focusing on the interdependence of cybersecurity and HPC domains for discovering and resolving new emerging cyber-threats. KEY FEATURES Represents a substantial research contribution to the state-of-the-art solutions for addressing the threats to confidentiality, integrity, and availability (CIA triad) in HPC environments Covers the groundbreaking and emergent solutions that utilize the power of the HPC environments to study and understand the emergent, multifaceted, anomalous, and malicious characteristics The content will help university students, researchers, and professionals understand how HPC research fits broader cybersecurity objectives and vice versa.

High Performance Computing

High Performance Computing Book
Author : Heike Jagode,Hartwig Anzt,Hatem Ltaief,Piotr Luszczek
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021-11-12
ISBN : 303090539X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book constitutes the refereed post-conference proceedings of 9 workshops held at the 35th International ISC High Performance 2021 Conference, in Frankfurt, Germany, in June-July 2021: Second International Workshop on the Application of Machine Learning Techniques to Computational Fluid Dynamics and Solid Mechanics Simulations and Analysis; HPC-IODC: HPC I/O in the Data Center Workshop; Compiler-assisted Correctness Checking and Performance Optimization for HPC; Machine Learning on HPC Systems;4th International Workshop on Interoperability of Supercomputing and Cloud Technologies;2nd International Workshop on Monitoring and Operational Data Analytics;16th Workshop on Virtualization in High-Performance Cloud Computing; Deep Learning on Supercomputers; 5th International Workshop on In Situ Visualization. The 35 papers included in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected. They cover all aspects of research, development, and application of large-scale, high performance experimental and commercial systems. Topics include high-performance computing (HPC), computer architecture and hardware, programming models, system software, performance analysis and modeling, compiler analysis and optimization techniques, software sustainability, scientific applications, deep learning.

Parallel Programming for Modern High Performance Computing Systems

Parallel Programming for Modern High Performance Computing Systems Book
Author : Pawel Czarnul
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2018-03-05
ISBN : 1351385798
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In view of the growing presence and popularity of multicore and manycore processors, accelerators, and coprocessors, as well as clusters using such computing devices, the development of efficient parallel applications has become a key challenge to be able to exploit the performance of such systems. This book covers the scope of parallel programming for modern high performance computing systems. It first discusses selected and popular state-of-the-art computing devices and systems available today, These include multicore CPUs, manycore (co)processors, such as Intel Xeon Phi, accelerators, such as GPUs, and clusters, as well as programming models supported on these platforms. It next introduces parallelization through important programming paradigms, such as master-slave, geometric Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) and divide-and-conquer. The practical and useful elements of the most popular and important APIs for programming parallel HPC systems are discussed, including MPI, OpenMP, Pthreads, CUDA, OpenCL, and OpenACC. It also demonstrates, through selected code listings, how selected APIs can be used to implement important programming paradigms. Furthermore, it shows how the codes can be compiled and executed in a Linux environment. The book also presents hybrid codes that integrate selected APIs for potentially multi-level parallelization and utilization of heterogeneous resources, and it shows how to use modern elements of these APIs. Selected optimization techniques are also included, such as overlapping communication and computations implemented using various APIs. Features: Discusses the popular and currently available computing devices and cluster systems Includes typical paradigms used in parallel programs Explores popular APIs for programming parallel applications Provides code templates that can be used for implementation of paradigms Provides hybrid code examples allowing multi-level parallelization Covers the optimization of parallel programs

Silicon Photonics for High Performance Computing and Beyond

Silicon Photonics for High Performance Computing and Beyond Book
Author : Mahdi Nikdast,Sudeep Pasricha,Gabriela Nicolescu,Ashkan Seyedi,Di Liang
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2021-11-17
ISBN : 1000480143
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Silicon photonics is beginning to play an important role in driving innovations in communication and computation for an increasing number of applications, from health care and biomedical sensors to autonomous driving, datacenter networking, and security. In recent years, there has been a significant amount of effort in industry and academia to innovate, design, develop, analyze, optimize, and fabricate systems employing silicon photonics, shaping the future of not only Datacom and telecom technology but also high-performance computing and emerging computing paradigms, such as optical computing and artificial intelligence. Different from existing books in this area, Silicon Photonics for High-Performance Computing and Beyond presents a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art technology and research achievements in applying silicon photonics for communication and computation. It focuses on various design, development, and integration challenges, reviews the latest advances spanning materials, devices, circuits, systems, and applications. Technical topics discussed in the book include: • Requirements and the latest advances in high-performance computing systems • Device- and system-level challenges and latest improvements to deploy silicon photonics in computing systems • Novel design solutions and design automation techniques for silicon photonic integrated circuits • Novel materials, devices, and photonic integrated circuits on silicon • Emerging computing technologies and applications based on silicon photonics Silicon Photonics for High-Performance Computing and Beyond presents a compilation of 19 outstanding contributions from academic and industry pioneers in the field. The selected contributions present insightful discussions and innovative approaches to understand current and future bottlenecks in high-performance computing systems and traditional computing platforms, and the promise of silicon photonics to address those challenges. It is ideal for researchers and engineers working in the photonics, electrical, and computer engineering industries as well as academic researchers and graduate students (M.S. and Ph.D.) in computer science and engineering, electronic and electrical engineering, applied physics, photonics, and optics.

High Performance Computing

High Performance Computing Book
Author : Michèle Weiland,Guido Juckeland,Sadaf Alam,Heike Jagode
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2019-12-02
ISBN : 3030343561
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book constitutes the refereed post-conference proceedings of 13 workshops held at the 34th International ISC High Performance 2019 Conference, in Frankfurt, Germany, in June 2019: HPC I/O in the Data Center (HPC-IODC), Workshop on Performance & Scalability of Storage Systems (WOPSSS), Workshop on Performance & Scalability of Storage Systems (WOPSSS), 13th Workshop on Virtualization in High-Performance Cloud Computing (VHPC '18), 3rd International Workshop on In Situ Visualization: Introduction and Applications, ExaComm: Fourth International Workshop on Communication Architectures for HPC, Big Data, Deep Learning and Clouds at Extreme Scale, International Workshop on OpenPOWER for HPC (IWOPH18), IXPUG Workshop: Many-core Computing on Intel, Processors: Applications, Performance and Best-Practice Solutions, Workshop on Sustainable Ultrascale Computing Systems, Approximate and Transprecision Computing on Emerging Technologies (ATCET), First Workshop on the Convergence of Large Scale Simulation and Artificial Intelligence, 3rd Workshop for Open Source Supercomputing (OpenSuCo), First Workshop on Interactive High-Performance Computing, Workshop on Performance Portable Programming Models for Accelerators (P^3MA). The 48 full papers included in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected. They cover all aspects of research, development, and application of large-scale, high performance experimental and commercial systems. Topics include HPC computer architecture and hardware; programming models, system software, and applications; solutions for heterogeneity, reliability, power efficiency of systems; virtualization and containerized environments; big data and cloud computing; and artificial intelligence.

High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering 14

High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering    14 Book
Author : Wolfgang E. Nagel,Dietmar H. Kröner,Michael M. Resch
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-02-14
ISBN : 3319108107
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents the state-of-the-art in supercomputer simulation. It includes the latest findings from leading researchers using systems from the High Performance Computing Center Stuttgart (HLRS). The reports cover all fields of computational science and engineering ranging from CFD to computational physics and from chemistry to computer science with a special emphasis on industrially relevant applications. Presenting findings of one of Europe’s leading systems, this volume covers a wide variety of applications that deliver a high level of sustained performance. The book covers the main methods in high-performance computing. Its outstanding results in achieving the best performance for production codes are of particular interest for both scientists and engineers. The book comes with a wealth of color illustrations and tables of results.

Problem solving in High Performance Computing

Problem solving in High Performance Computing Book
Author : Igor Ljubuncic
Publisher : Morgan Kaufmann
Release : 2015-09-01
ISBN : 0128010649
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Problem-Solving in High Performance Computing: A Situational Awareness Approach with Linux focuses on understanding giant computing grids as cohesive systems. Unlike other titles on general problem-solving or system administration, this book offers a cohesive approach to complex, layered environments, highlighting the difference between standalone system troubleshooting and complex problem-solving in large, mission critical environments, and addressing the pitfalls of information overload, micro, and macro symptoms, also including methods for managing problems in large computing ecosystems. The authors offer perspective gained from years of developing Intel-based systems that lead the industry in the number of hosts, software tools, and licenses used in chip design. The book offers unique, real-life examples that emphasize the magnitude and operational complexity of high performance computer systems. Provides insider perspectives on challenges in high performance environments with thousands of servers, millions of cores, distributed data centers, and petabytes of shared data Covers analysis, troubleshooting, and system optimization, from initial diagnostics to deep dives into kernel crash dumps Presents macro principles that appeal to a wide range of users and various real-life, complex problems Includes examples from 24/7 mission-critical environments with specific HPC operational constraints

High Performance Computing

High Performance Computing Book
Author : Charles Severance,Kevin Dowd
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2010
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download High Performance Computing book written by Charles Severance,Kevin Dowd, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Tools for High Performance Computing

Tools for High Performance Computing Book
Author : Rainer Keller,Valentin Himmler,Bettina Krammer,Alexander Schulz
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2008-06-03
ISBN : 3540685642
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Developing software for current and especially for future architectures will require knowledge about parallel programming techniques of applications and library p- grammers. Multi-core processors are already available today, and processors with a dozen and more cores are on the horizon. The major driving force in hardware development, the game industry, has - ready shown interest in using parallel programming paradigms, such as OpenMP for further developments. Therefore developers have to be supported in the even more complex task of programming for these new architectures. HLRS has a long-lasting tradition of providing its user community with the most up-to-date software tools. Additionally, important research and development projects are worked on at the center: among the software packages developed are the MPI correctness checker Marmot, the OpenMP validation suite and the M- implementations PACX-MPI and Open MPI. All of these software packages are - ing extended in the context of German and European community research projects, such as ParMA, the InterActive European Grid (I2G) project and the German C- laborative Research Center (Sonderforschungsbereich 716). Furthermore, ind- trial collaborations, i.e. with Intel and Microsoft allow HLRS to get its software production-grade ready. In April 2007, a European project on Parallel Programming for Multi-core - chitectures, in short ParMA was launched, with a major focus on providing and developing tools for parallel programming.