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Heterogeneous Catalysis Of Mixed Oxides

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Heterogeneous Catalysis of Mixed Oxides

Heterogeneous Catalysis of Mixed Oxides Book
Author : M. Misono
Publisher : Newnes
Release : 2013-02-28
ISBN : 0444538348
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Mixed oxides are the most widely used catalyst materials for industrial catalytic processes. The principal objective of this book is to describe systematically the mixed oxide catalysts, from their fundamentals through their practical applications. After describing concisely general items concerning mixed oxide and mixed oxide catalysts, two important mixed oxide catalyst materials, namely, heteropolyacids and perovskites, are taken as typical examples and discussed in detail. These two materials have several advantages: 1. They are, respectively, typical examples of salts of oxoacids and double oxide, that is, the two main categories of mixed oxides in solid state chemistry. 2. Both exhibit excellent catalytic performance in nearly crystalline state and are used in several industrial applications. 3. They have studied for many years. In addition, metal oxides functioning as a catalyst support (carrier) are included. Although the supports are very important in practical applications, and tremendous progress has been made in the past decades, few systematic reviews exist. It is notable that heteropolyacids and perovskite exhibit unique performance when used as a support. Fundamental catalytic science and technology and solid state chemistry necessary is presented for the proper understanding of mixed oxide catalysts as well as for R&D. For the latter, the concept of design of practical catalysts is very important. This is considered throughout the book. Systematically describes design principles of mixed oxide catalysts Shows how catalysis and solid-state chemistry of metal oxides are inter-related Covers all useful basic concepts of mixed oxide catalysis

Heterogeneous Catalysis of Mixed Oxides

Heterogeneous Catalysis of Mixed Oxides Book
Author : Makoto Misono
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-02-28
ISBN : 0128081090
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The chemistry of metal oxides, both single and mixed metal oxides, relevant to heterogeneous catalysis such as relationships among the composition, structure, and chemical properties of mixed oxides, is provided in perspective. The important chemical properties in heterogeneous catalysis are acid–base and reduction–oxidation (redox) properties, where ionic radii, electronegativity, valency, and tendency to form covalent bond of constituent elements are most influential. Structural factors such as lattice defects and nonstoichiometry are also relevant. Although the surface of metal oxides is different from the solid bulk and changes depending on various factors, the surface reflects more or less the solid bulk and the knowledge of bulk properties is useful to understand the catalysis of mixed oxides. In some cases, the solid bulk actually takes part in catalysis. Other fundamental features of metal oxide catalysis like synergistic effects of more than two different active sites (acid and base, acid and oxidation, etc.) are also discussed.

Heterogeneous Catalysis of Mixed Oxides

Heterogeneous Catalysis of Mixed Oxides Book
Author : Makoto Misono
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-02-28
ISBN : 0128081120
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Several substantial examples of mixed oxide supports that show unique and interesting roles as catalyst supports are described. The examples are perovskites and heteropoly compounds as supports for finely dispersed metals, ceria–zirconia related mixed oxides as supports for noble metals in automobile catalysts, and zeolites for atomically dispersed noble metals. In addition, the general roles of catalyst supports are briefly summarized. Among the different roles of supports, the most important are dispersing the catalytically active components and increasing their surface area, and improving the catalytic performance through chemical interactions between the active component and the support.

Heterogeneous Catalysis of Mixed Oxides

Heterogeneous Catalysis of Mixed Oxides Book
Author : Makoto Misono
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-02-28
ISBN : 0128081082
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A concise introduction is given to the fundamental knowledge required to understand the heterogeneous catalysis of mixed oxides and to the concept of catalyst design. The fundamental knowledge includes the rate versus equilibrium relation; rate equation; the mechanism of catalytic reaction; essential functions of a catalyst, namely, activity, selectivity, and durability (or life); and catalytic reaction engineering such as mass and heat transfer. Typical methods for the preparation and characterization of catalysts and for the elucidation of the reaction mechanism, as well as a short history of industrial catalysts, are also provided.

Heterogeneous Catalysis of Mixed Oxides

Heterogeneous Catalysis of Mixed Oxides Book
Author : Makoto Misono
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-02-28
ISBN : 0128081104
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The chemistry and catalysis of perovskites are described. “Perovskites” are defined here as double oxides having perovskite (ABO3) and related structures. Double oxides are one of the two major groups of mixed oxides. Because of their thermal stability and a variety of physical and chemical properties, which can be controlled by choosing constituent elements, they are widely used as catalysts as well as electronic and magnetic materials. First, an overview is given of the structural characteristics of perovskites, including lattice defects and nonstoichiometry, and the redox properties are interpreted on the basis of the composition and structure. Then the catalysis and catalyst design of perovskites are discussed on the basis of the redox mechanism governed by the redox properties. The strategies for catalyst design are (1) selection of B-site elements, which are usually transition metals; (2) valence control; and (3) synergistic effects of B-site elements and (4) enhancement of surface area by forming fine particles or dispersing on supports.

Heterogeneous Catalysis of Mixed Oxides

Heterogeneous Catalysis of Mixed Oxides Book
Author : Makoto Misono
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-02-28
ISBN : 0128081112
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The chemistry and catalysis of solid heteropoly compounds are described. Heteropoly compounds are heteropolyanions and their derivatives that maintain the polyanion structure (metal oxide clusters), and catalysts of which the compounds are the essential components are called heteropoly catalyst. Heteropoly compounds are called polyoxometalates as well. First, the structure and chemical properties of heteropoly compounds are summarized, emphasizing the acidic and redox properties. The polyanion structure can be preserved in the solid state, if appropriate cautions are paid, and the acid and redox properties can be controlled in a wide range by choosing the polyanion structure and constituent elements. These are the remarkable advantages of the heteropoly catalysts. Then the catalysis and catalyst design of the heteropoly compounds are described in detail. There are actually several industrial processes using heteropoly catalysts as solid acids and oxidation catalysts. It is important to recognize the presence of hierarchical structures (primary, secondary, and tertiary structures) and three major types of catalysis (surface-type and two bulk-type catalyses). Due to this, catalyst design becomes more realistic and unique properties like shape-selective catalysis develop. Moreover, the dynamic behavior of protons and organic molecules can be elucidated by spectroscopic techniques.

Metal Oxides in Heterogeneous Catalysis

Metal Oxides in Heterogeneous Catalysis Book
Author : Jacques C. Vedrine
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2018-01-11
ISBN : 0128116323
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Metal Oxides in Heterogeneous Catalysis is an overview of the past, present and future of heterogeneous catalysis using metal oxides catalysts. The book presents the historical, theoretical, and practical aspects of metal oxide-based heterogeneous catalysis. Metal Oxides in Heterogeneous Catalysis deals with fundamental information on heterogeneous catalysis, including reaction mechanisms and kinetics approaches.There is also a focus on the classification of metal oxides used as catalysts, preparation methods and touches on zeolites, mesoporous materials and Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) in catalysis. It will touch on acid or base-type reactions, selective (partial) and total oxidation reactions, and enzymatic type reactions The book also touches heavily on the biomass applications of metal oxide catalysts and environmentally related/depollution reactions such as COVs elimination, DeNOx, and DeSOx. Finally, the book also deals with future trends and prospects in metal oxide-based heterogeneous catalysis. Presents case studies in each chapter that provide a focus on the industrial applications Includes fundamentals, key theories and practical applications of metal oxide-based heterogeneous catalysis in one comprehensive resource Edited, and contributed, by leading experts who provide perspectives on synthesis, characterization and applications

Methane Combustion over Lanthanum based Perovskite Mixed Oxides

Methane Combustion over Lanthanum based Perovskite Mixed Oxides Book
Author : Hamidreza Arandiyan
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-10-29
ISBN : 9783662516669
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents current research into the catalytic combustion of methane using perovskite-type oxides (ABO3). Catalytic combustion has been developed as a method of promoting efficient combustion with minimum pollutant formation as compared to conventional catalytic combustion. Recent theoretical and experimental studies have recommended that noble metals supported on (ABO3) with well-ordered porous networks show promising redox properties. Three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) materials with interpenetrated and regular mesoporous systems have recently triggered enormous research activity due to their high surface areas, large pore volumes, uniform pore sizes, low cost, environmental benignity, and good chemical stability. These are all highly relevant in terms of the utilization of natural gas in light of recent catalytic innovations and technological advances. The book is of interest to all researchers active in utilization of natural gas with novel catalysts. The research covered comes from the most important industries and research centers in the field. The book serves not only as a text for researcher into catalytic combustion of methane, 3DOM perovskite mixed oxide, but also explores the field of green technologies by experts in academia and industry. This book will appeal to those interested in research on the environmental impact of combustion, materials and catalysis.

Complex Catalytic Behaviors of CuTiOx Mixed oxide During CO Oxidation

Complex Catalytic Behaviors of CuTiOx Mixed oxide During CO Oxidation Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Mixed metal oxides have attracted considerable attention in heterogeneous catalysis due to the unique stability, reactivity, and selectivity. Here, the activity and stability of the CuTiOx monolayer film supported on Cu(111), CuTiOx/Cu(111), during CO oxidation was explored using density functional theory (DFT). The unique structural frame of CuTiOx is able to stabilize and isolate a single Cu+ site on the terrace, which is previously proposed active for CO oxidation. Furthermore, it is not the case, where the reaction via both the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) and the Mars-van Krevelen (M-vK) mechanisms are hindered on such single Cu+ site. Upon the formation of step-edges, the synergy among Cu[delta]+ sites, TiOx matrix, and Cu(111) is able to catalyze the reaction well. Depending on temperatures and partial pressure of CO and O2, the surface structure varies, which determines the dominant mechanism. In accordance with our results, the Cu[delta]+ ion alone does not work well for CO oxidation in the form of single sites, while the synergy among multiple active sites is necessary to facilitate the reaction.

Heterogeneous Catalytic Materials

Heterogeneous Catalytic Materials Book
Author : Guido Busca
Publisher : Newnes
Release : 2014-05-23
ISBN : 044459521X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Heterogeneous Catalytic Materials discusses experimental methods and the latest developments in three areas of research: heterogeneous catalysis; surface chemistry; and the chemistry of catalysts. Catalytic materials are those solids that allow the chemical reaction to occur efficiently and cost-effectively. This book provides you with all necessary information to synthesize, characterize, and relate the properties of a catalyst to its behavior, enabling you to select the appropriate catalyst for the process and reactor system. Oxides (used both as catalysts and as supports for catalysts), mixed and complex oxides and salts, halides, sulfides, carbides, and unsupported and supported metals are all considered. The book encompasses applications in industrial chemistry, refinery, petrochemistry, biomass conversion, energy production, and environmental protection technologies. Provides a systematic and clear approach of the synthesis, solid state chemistry and surface chemistry of all solid state catalysts Covers widely used instrumental techniques for catalyst characterization, such as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and more Includes characterization methods and lists all catalytic behavior of the solid state catalysts Discusses new developments in nanocatalysts and their advantages over conventional catalysts

How to Stabilize Highly Active Cu Cations in a Mixed oxide Catalyst

How to Stabilize Highly Active Cu  Cations in a Mixed oxide Catalyst Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Mixed-metal oxides exhibit novel properties that are not present in their isolated constituent metal oxides and play a significant role in heterogeneous catalysis. In this study, a titanium-copper mixed-oxide (TiCuOx) film has been synthesized on Cu(111) and characterized by complementary experimental and theoretical methods. At sub-monolayer coverages of titanium, a Cu2O-like phase coexists with TiCuOx and TiOx domains. When the mixed-oxide surface is exposed at elevated temperatures (600-650 K) to oxygen, the formation of a well-ordered TiCuOx film occurs. Stepwise oxidation of TiCuOx shows that the formation of the mixed-oxide is faster than that of pure Cu2O. As the Ti coverage increases, Ti-rich islands (TiOx) form. The adsorption of CO has been used to probe the exposed surface sites on the TiOx-CuOx system, indicating the existence of a new Cu+ adsorption site that is not present on Cu2O/Cu(111). Adsorption of CO on Cu+ sites of TiCuOx is thermally more stable than on Cu(111), Cu2O/Cu(111) or TiO2(110). The Cu+ sites in TiCuOx domains are stable under both reducing and oxidizing conditions whereas the Cu2O domains present on sub-monolayer loads of Ti can be reduced or oxidized under mild conditions. Furthermore, the results presented here demonstrate novel properties of TiCuOx films, which are not present on Cu(111), Cu2O/Cu(111), or TiO2(110), and highlight the importance of the preparation and characterization of well-defined mixed-metal oxides in order to understand fundamental processes that could guide the design of new materials.

Heterogeneous Catalysis and its Industrial Applications

Heterogeneous Catalysis and its Industrial Applications Book
Author : Martin Schmal
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-09-22
ISBN : 3319092502
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book aims to introduce the basic concepts involved in industrial catalytic processes. It is profusely illustrated with experimental results with the main objective of guiding how to select a suitable catalyst for specific processes. The book is divided in two parts. In the first part the basic concepts are addressed, regarding the existing theories, activity patterns and adsorption-desorption phenomena. In the second part the key experimental methods for the physicochemical characterization of catalysts are presented, as well as the currently used catalyst pre and post treatments. The last chapter describes some important in situ characterization techniques (e.g. XPS and TEM) and surface model patterns related to surface modifications occurring during the reaction. Thoroughly illustrated with microscopy images, spectroscopy data and schematics of reaction mechanisms, the book provides a powerful learning tool for students in undergraduate and graduate level courses on the field of catalysis. Exercises and resolved problems are provided, as well as experimental procedures to support laboratory classes. Furthermore, the content is presented in a carefully chosen sequence, reflecting the 30 year teaching experience of the author. The author, Professor Martin Schmal, sees the present book as a way of conveying basic knowledge needed for the development of more efficient catalysts (i.e. nanostructured materials) and novel industrial chemical processes in the fields of environmental chemistry, fine chemistry, hydrotreating of heavy oils, hydrogen production and biomass processing.

Synthesis and Characterization of Support modified Nanoparticle based Catalysts and Mixed Oxide Catalysts for Low Temperature CO Oxidation

Synthesis and Characterization of Support modified Nanoparticle based Catalysts and Mixed Oxide Catalysts for Low Temperature CO Oxidation Book
Author : Andrew Justin Binder
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Heterogeneous catalysts are responsible for billions of dollars of industrial output and have a profound, if often understated, effect on our everyday lives. New catalyst technologies and methods to enhance existing catalysts are essential to meeting consumer demands and overcoming environmental concerns. This dissertation focuses on the development of catalysts for low temperature carbon monoxide oxidation. CO [carbon monoxide] oxidation is often used as a probe reaction to test overall oxidation activity of a given catalyst and is an important reaction in the elimination of toxic pollutants from automotive exhaust streams. The work included here presents three new heterogeneous catalysts developed over the last 4 years in our group. The first type Au/SiO2 [gold/silica] catalyst synthesized using a new method for the deposition of Au nanoparticles onto SiO2 via a nitrogen-containing polymer, C3N4 [carbon nitride]. C3N4-modification of SiO2 allows us to ignore unfavorable electrostatic effects that hinder standard Au deposition onto this support. While removal of the C3N4 is necessary for good CO oxidation, this new method is an improvement over the standard deposition-precipitation procedure for supports with low isoelectric point that enables the successful deposition of Au nanoparticles onto SiO2. The second type includes precious metal catalysts deposited on an “inert” silica support but promoted by the addition of an “active” metal oxide. Here we present a Au/FeOx̳/SiO2 [gold/iron oxide/silica] and a Pd/ZrO2/SiO2 [palladium/zirconia/silica] catalyst which show increased activity and stability effects due to the presence of the metal oxide promoter. They are synthesized by a C3N4-deposition and sol-gel methods, respectively. These catalysts were also tested in simulated automotive exhaust streams. The results show that inhibition effects play a major role in the activity of these catalysts. The third type of catalyst is a mixed oxide catalyst, CuO-Co3O4-CeO2 [copper oxide-cobalt oxide-cerium oxide], developed with the goal of overcoming the inhibition effects seen in the previous precious metal catalysts. The catalyst was synthesized by co-precipitation method and shows exceptional activity for CO oxidation under simulated exhaust conditions. Also noteworthy is the observation that this catalyst also shows a lack of inhibition by a common exhaust component, propene.

Advances in Catalyst Design

Advances in Catalyst Design Book
Author : Mauro Graziani
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1993
ISBN : 9789814535465
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Advances in Catalyst Design book written by Mauro Graziani, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Mesostructured Sr AND Ti Mixed Oxide Catalysts for Synthesis of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters

Mesostructured Sr AND Ti Mixed Oxide Catalysts for Synthesis of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters Book
Author : Boontawee Lertpanyapornchai
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The objectives of this research were synthesis of mesostructured Sr and Ti mixed oxides (MSTs) via a self-assembly sol-gel combustion method using Pluronic P123 as a structure-directing agent, in order to use them as heterogeneous catalyst in transesterification of palm kernel oil (PKO) and methanol. Firstly, the effects of synthesis parameters on physicochemical properties of MSTs were studied. The results showed that the MST synthesized with molar ratio of citric acid: total metals at 1: 1, amount of Pluronic P123 at 0.17 mmol and calcination temperature at 600 °C exhibited good structural and textural properties. After that, the catalytic activity and stability of MST synthesized without citric acid (MST-0C-0.17P(600)) and MST synthesized with adding citric acid at molar ratio of citric acid: total metals 1: 1 (MST-1C-0.17P(600)) were comparatively studied in transesterification. Although the reaction over MST-1C-0.17P(600)) required the temperature higher than that over MST-0C-0.17P(600)), to achieve the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) yield of 99.8 wt%, the MST-1C-0.17P(600)) showed superior chemical stability compared to the MST-0C-0.17P(600)) in the transesterification. Finally, the results from in situ FTIR showed that MST-1C-0.17P(600)) had Lewis acid sites and 4 types with different strength of basic sites. Furthermore, in situ FTIR results provided the information about the nature of adsorbed methanol and ethyl propionate species on the active sites of MST-1C-0.17P(600). Moreover, the reaction mechanism for the transesterification using the MST-1C-0.17P(600) as catalyst was proposed.

Preparation of Catalysts I

Preparation of Catalysts I Book
Author : G. Poncelet,P.A. Jacobs,B. Delmon
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2011-09-22
ISBN : 0080887635
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Preparation of Catalysts I

Novel Metal Dissolution Approach for The Synthesis of Mesoporous Multi valent Metal Oxide Based Materials and Green Heterogeneous Catalytic Activities and Excellent Adsorption Properties

Novel Metal Dissolution Approach for The Synthesis of Mesoporous  Multi valent Metal Oxide Based Materials and Green  Heterogeneous Catalytic Activities and Excellent Adsorption Properties Book
Author : Wimalika Rasangi Kumari Thalgaspitiya
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2019
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Research conducted on the synthesis, characterization, and catalytic activities on mesoporous metal oxide-based materials are reported. A novel metal dissolution approach is introduced to synthesize a series of mesoporous metal oxides which includes s block, p block, transition metal, and post-transition metal oxides. The materials show excellent liquid phase heterogeneous catalytic activities, dye adsorption, and photocatalytic dye degradation under green reaction conditions. Green, highly efficient sp2-sp3 C-C coupling by mesoporous molybdenum oxide and catalytic oxidation of organosulfur compounds by mesoporous tungsten oxide are reported. Furthermore, the syntheses and characterization of novel molybdenum tungsten mixed oxide (Mo0.5W0.5O3) and a series of high surface area metal titanates (where the metal = Bi, Mg, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, W, and Ce) are reported. Highly efficient catalytic sp3-sp2 C-C coupling reactions are conducted with mesoporous molybdenum tungsten mixed oxide. Furthermore, green catalytic oxidation of aniline to nitrosobenzene is conducted using mesoporous W/Ti binary metal oxide. A series of transition metal-doped titanium dioxide- reduced graphene oxide composites is synthesized by doping TiO2 with different transition metals (Mn, Co, Ni, Mo, and W) followed by anchoring the nano-particles on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets. The catalytic acetal formation and excellent dye adsorption and photocatalytic dye degradation properties of the composites are studied. The synthesized materials are comprehensively characterized using PXRD, in-situ PXRD, Raman, FT-IR, SEM, EDX, TEM, XPS, TGA, BET, and UV-visible spectroscopy. The products obtained from heterogeneous catalysis are analyzed using GCMS, 1H, and 13C NMR spectroscopic techniques.

Catalysis

Catalysis Book
Author : G C Bond,G Webb
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2007-10-31
ISBN : 1847553206
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

There is an increasing challenge for chemical industry and research institutions to find cost-efficient and environmentally sound methods of converting natural resources into fuels chemicals and energy. Catalysts are essential to these processes and the Catalysis Specialist Periodical Report series serves to highlight major developments in this area. This series provides systematic and detailed reviews of topics of interest to scientists and engineers in the catalysis field. The coverage includes all major areas of heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis and also specific applications of catalysis such as NOx control kinetics and experimental techniques such as microcalorimetry. Each chapter is compiled by recognised experts within their specialist fields and provides a summary of the current literature. This series will be of interest to all those in academia and industry who need an up-to-date critical analysis and summary of catalysis research and applications. Catalysis will be of interest to anyone working in academia and industry that needs an up-to-date critical analysis and summary of catalysis research and applications. Specialist Periodical Reports provide systematic and detailed review coverage in major areas of chemical research. Compiled by teams of leading experts in their specialist fields, this series is designed to help the chemistry community keep current with the latest developments in their field. Each volume in the series is published either annually or biennially and is a superb reference point for researchers. www.rsc.org/spr

Handbook Of Advanced Methods And Processes In Oxidation Catalysis From Laboratory To Industry

Handbook Of Advanced Methods And Processes In Oxidation Catalysis  From Laboratory To Industry Book
Author : Duprez Daniel,Cavani Fabrizio
Publisher : World Scientific
Release : 2014-07-24
ISBN : 1783263342
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book offers a comprehensive overview of the most recent developments in both total oxidation and combustion and also in selective oxidation. For each topic, fundamental aspects are paralleled with industrial applications. The book covers oxidation catalysis, one of the major areas of industrial chemistry, outlining recent achievements, current challenges and future opportunities. One distinguishing feature of the book is the selection of arguments which are emblematic of current trends in the chemical industry, such as miniaturization, use of alternative, greener oxidants, and innovative systems for pollutant abatement. Topics outlined are described in terms of both catalyst and reaction chemistry, and also reactor and process technology.