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Handbook Of Uv Degradation And Stabilization

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Handbook of UV Degradation and Stabilization

Handbook of UV Degradation and Stabilization Book
Author : George Wypych
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2020-03-09
ISBN : 1927885582
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Handbook of UV Degradation and Stabilization, Third Edition, discusses different aspects of UV-related phenomena that occur when polymeric materials are exposed to UV radiation. It reviews existing literature, looking at how plants, animals and humans protect themselves against UV radiation. This review permits evaluation of mechanisms of protection against UV used by living things and potential application of these mechanisms in the protection of natural and synthetic polymeric materials. Other chapters look at more specific aspects of UV degradation and stabilization, such as specific polymers and rubbers, analytical methods used in UV stabilization, health and safety, and more. This book is an excellent companion to the Databook of UV stabilizers which has also been published recently. Both books supplement each other without repeating the same information – one contains data another theory, mechanisms of action, practical effects and implications of application. Provides a practical reference guide for engineers and scientists who design with plastics and formulate plastic materials Explains the effect of UV light on plastics and how to mitigate its effects through the use of UV stabilizers Surveys the range of UV stabilizers on the market and provides advice on their selection and use

Handbook of UV Degradation and Stabilization Second Edition

Handbook of UV Degradation and Stabilization  Second Edition  Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2021-10-19
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Handbook of UV Degradation and Stabilization Second Edition book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Handbook of UV Degradation and Stabilization

Handbook of UV Degradation and Stabilization Book
Author : George Wypych
Publisher : Chem Tec Pub
Release : 2010-10-03
ISBN : 9781895198461
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

UV and other forms of radiation cause severe damage to a wide range of materials from living organisms to manufactured products. Plastics materials and products exposed to UV light suffer weakening, discoloring and degradation. In this book, George Wypych provides a comprehensive reference guide to help those working with plastics to limit this damage and deterioration through the use of UV stabilizers. The author begins with physics of radiation energy, transmission, and absorption and their effect on materials. The wide range of UV stabilizers available in the market is discussed in terms of their chemistry, physical properties, application specifics, and effects on health and environment. The mechanisms and functionality of stabilizers are discussed and explained through mathematical modeling. Stabilizers are evaluated from the point of view of their effect on other additives in mixtures, and on the efficiency of the materials they are used in. Suggestions are given regarding the selection of stabilizers for different products and polymers. * A practical and comprehensive reference guide for engineers and scientists designing with plastics, and formulating plastics materials. * Explains the effects of UV light on plastics, and how to mitigate its effects through the use of UV stabilizers * Surveys the range of UV stabilizers on the market, and provides advice on their selection and use

Handbook of UV Degradation and Stabilization

Handbook of UV Degradation and Stabilization Book
Author : George Wypych
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2015-03-18
ISBN : 1927885019
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book, the second edition of the first monograph fully devoted to UV degradation and stabilization ever published in English, has 12 chapters discussing different aspects of UV related phenomena occurring when polymeric materials are exposed to UV radiation. In the introduction the existing literature has been reviewed to find out how plants, animals and humans protect themselves against UV radiation. This review permits evaluation of mechanisms of protection against UV used by living things and potential application of these mechanisms in protection of natural and synthetic polymeric materials. This is followed by chapters with a more detailed look at more specific aspects of UV degradation and stabilization. A practical and up-to-date reference guide for engineers and scientists designing with plastics, and formulating plastics materials Explains the effects of UV light on plastics, and how to mitigate its effects through the use of UV stabilizers Surveys the range of UV stabilizers on the market, and provides advice on their selection and use

Handbook of Polymer Degradation

Handbook of Polymer Degradation Book
Author : S. Halim Hamid
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2000-06-30
ISBN : 1482270188
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"Covers recent advances in polymer degradation and stabilization. Focuses on the basics of photo- and bio-degradability. Delineates special and general environmental parameters such as solar irradiation, temperature, and agrochemical exposure. Surveys plastic waste disposal strategies such as recycling, incineration, chemical recovery by pyrolysis,

PVC Degradation and Stabilization

PVC Degradation and Stabilization Book
Author : George Wypych
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2015-03-18
ISBN : 1927885000
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

PVC stabilization, the most important aspect of formulation and performance of this polymer, is discussed in details. This book contains all information required to design successful stabilization formula for any product made out of PVC. Separate chapters review information on chemical structure, PVC manufacturing technology, morphology, degradation by thermal energy, UV, gamma, other forms of radiation, mechanodegradation, and chemical degradation. The chapter on analytical methods used in studying of degradative and stabilization processes helps in establishing system of checking results of stabilization with different stabilizing systems. Stabilization and stabilizers are discussed in full detail in the most important chapter of this book. The final chapter contains information on the effects of PVC and its additives on health, safety and environment. This book contains analysis of all essential papers and patents published until recently on the above subject. It either locates the answers to relevant questions and offers solutions or gives references in which such answers can be found. PVC Degradation and Stabilization is must to have for chemists, engineers, scientists, university teachers and students, designers, material scientists, environmental chemists, and lawyers who work with polyvinyl chloride and its additives or have any interest in these products. This book is the one authoritative source on the subject. A practical and up-to-date reference guide for engineers and scientists designing with PVC Covers thermal, UV, gamma radiation, chemical, and other forms of degradation Includes a critical discussion of the sustainability issues faced by PVC and its additives, as well as health and safety concerns

Handbook of Solvents Volume 1

Handbook of Solvents  Volume 1 Book
Author : George Wypych
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2019-02-21
ISBN : 192788540X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Solvents are used in nearly all industries, from cosmetics to semiconductors, and from biotechnology research to iron and steel production. This book is a comprehensive and extensive textual analysis of the principles of solvent selection and use. It is a balanced presentation of solvent performance, processing characteristics, and environment and health issues. The book is intended to help formulators select ideal solvents, safety coordinators to protect workers, legislators and inspectors to define and implement technically correct public safeguards on solvent use, handling, and disposal. The third edition contains the most recent findings and trends in the solvent application. This volume, together with Vol. 2: Use, Health & Environment, Databook of Green Solvents, and Databook of Solvents, contains the most comprehensive, and up to date information ever published on solvents. Each chapter in this volume is focused on a specific aspect of solvent properties which determine its selection, such as effect on properties of solutes and solutions, properties of different groups of solvents and the summary of their applications' effect on health and environment (given in tabulated form), swelling of solids in solvents, solvent diffusion and drying processes, nature of interaction of solvent and solute in solutions, acid-base interactions, effect of solvents on spectral and other electronic properties of solutions, effect of solvents on rheology of solution, aggregation of solutes, permeability, molecular structure, crystallinity, configuration, and conformation of dissolved high molecular weight compounds, methods of application of solvent mixtures to enhance the range of their applicability, and effect of solvents on chemical reactions and reactivity of dissolved substances. Provides key insights that will help engineers and scientists select the best solvent for the job Includes practical information and ideas on how to improve existing processes involving solvents Brings together a selection of authors who are specialists in their areas Presents the latest advances in solvent technology and their applications

Handbook of Polymer Synthesis Characterization and Processing

Handbook of Polymer Synthesis  Characterization  and Processing Book
Author : Enrique Saldivar-Guerra,Eduardo Vivaldo-Lima
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2013-02-28
ISBN : 1118480775
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Covering a broad range of polymer science topics, Handbook of Polymer Synthesis, Characterization, and Processing provides polymer industry professionals and researchers in polymer science and technology with a single, comprehensive handbook summarizing all aspects involved in the polymer production chain. The handbook focuses on industrially important polymers, analytical techniques, and formulation methods, with chapters covering step-growth, radical, and co-polymerization, crosslinking and grafting, reaction engineering, advanced technology applications, including conjugated, dendritic, and nanomaterial polymers and emulsions, and characterization methods, including spectroscopy, light scattering, and microscopy.

Handbook of Antioxidants

Handbook of Antioxidants Book
Author : George Wypych
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2020-03-06
ISBN : 1927885604
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Handbook of Antioxidants provides a wealth of information on the mechanics, practical effects and applications of a wide range of antioxidants. The book starts by introducing the general concepts relating to antioxidants and their application, then segues into a discussion on existing natural and synthetic antioxidants, characterizing their general properties and application. Formation and action of oxidizing species in living organisms, ambient air, industrial environments, and chemical reactions are covered next. Subsequent chapters cover the theories and mechanisms of stabilization, performance indicators, antioxidant selection, degradation and stabilization of different polymers and rubbers, specific effects on other components of formulation, and analytical methods. This book is an excellent companion to the Databook of Antioxidants which has also been published recently. Both books supplement each other without repeating the same information – one contains data another theory, mechanisms of action, practical effects and implications of application. Provides theory, mechanisms of action, practical effects and implications of application for an array of antioxidants Looks at different aspects of phenomena occurring when materials are exposed to ambient air which contains oxygen, ozone, singlet oxygen, and other oxidizing species (radicals) Covers natural and synthetic antioxidants, their stability, performance indicators, degradation and stabilization mechanics, and more

Databook of UV Stabilizers

Databook of UV Stabilizers Book
Author : Anna Wypych,George Wypych
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2020-03-05
ISBN : 1927885566
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Databook of UV Stabilizers, Second Edition, provides general indicators regarding the performance of UV stabilizers and includes details on the data fields included in the description of individual stabilizers. It provides details such as acronyms, molecular weight, odor, product form, transmittance, DOT hazard class, NFPA flammability/reactivity, aquatic toxicity, typical applications, processing methods, conditions to avoid, and much more for each stabilizer covered. Importantly, the Ecological properties section contains data on Biodegradation probability, Aquatic toxicity LC (Algae, Rainbow trout, Bluegill sunfish, Fathead minnow, Zebrafish, and Daphnia magna), Bioaccumulation potential, Bioconcentration factor, Biodegradation probability, Hydroxyl rate, and Partition coefficients (log Koc, log Kow). This book is an excellent companion to the Handbook of UV stabilizers which has also been published recently. Both books supplement each other without repeating the same information – one contains data another theory, mechanisms of action, practical effects and implications of application Discusses general indicators of performance of UV stabilizers and information on data fields included in the description of individual stabilizers Includes five distinct sections, breaking content up into useful and manageable topics Presents data that belongs to over 100 data fields, accommodating a variety of data available in source publications

The Effect of UV Light and Weather on Plastics and Elastomers

The Effect of UV Light and Weather on Plastics and Elastomers Book
Author : Laurence W. McKeen
Publisher : William Andrew
Release : 2019-03-22
ISBN : 0128172711
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Effect of UV Light and Weather on Plastics and Elastomers, Fourth Edition, provides critical data on the effect of UV light and weathering on plastics and elastomers, enabling engineers, designers and R&D professionals to select the right materials when developing plastics products for a range of industries and applications. This information will also support academic researchers and scientists in developing polymeric materials for advanced applications. Provides vital data on the effects of weather and UV light exposure on plastics and elastomers Offers practical guidance for engineers and scientists working with plastics for outdoor applications Expanded revision includes the latest data, polymer classes and newly available materials, including bio-based polymers and plastics for 3D printing

Service Life Prediction of Polymers and Coatings

Service Life Prediction of Polymers and Coatings Book
Author : Christopher White,Mark Nichols,James Pickett
Publisher : William Andrew
Release : 2020-04-28
ISBN : 0128183683
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Service Life Prediction of Polymers and Coatings: Enhanced Methods focuses on the cutting-edge science behind how plastic and polymer materials are modified by the effects of weathering, offering the latest advances in service life prediction methods. The chapters have been developed by experts based on their contributions as part of the 7th Service Life Prediction Meeting. The volume begins with the premise that it is possible to produce and design life predictions, also looking at how these predictions can be used. Subsequent chapters present new developments in service life prediction, examining the most important considerations in SLP design, timescales, and other major issues. The book also considers the current state of the field in terms of both accomplishments and areas that require significant research going forward. This is a highly valuable reference for engineers, designers, technicians, scientists and R&D professionals who are looking to develop materials, components or products for outdoor applications across a range of industries. The book also supports academic researchers, scientists and advanced students with an interest in service life, the effects of weathering, material degradation, failure analysis, or sustainability across the fields of plastics engineering, polymer science and materials science. Presents novel prediction techniques for plastics and polymers exposed to outdoor weathering Provides a consensus roadmap on the scientific barriers related to a validated, predictive model for the response of polymer and plastics to outdoor exposure Enables the reader to assess and compare different methods and approaches to service life prediction

Durability and Reliability of Polymers and Other Materials in Photovoltaic Modules

Durability and Reliability of Polymers and Other Materials in Photovoltaic Modules Book
Author : Hsinjin Edwin Yang,Roger French,Laura Bruckman
Publisher : William Andrew
Release : 2019-04-15
ISBN : 0128115459
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Durability and Reliability of Polymers and Other Materials in Photovoltaic Modules describes the durability and reliability behavior of polymers used in Si-photovoltaic modules and systems, particularly in terms of physical aging and degradation process/mechanisms, characterization methods, accelerated exposure chamber and testing, module level testing, and service life prediction. The book compares polymeric materials to traditional materials used in solar applications, explaining the degradation pathways of the different elements of a photovoltaic module, including encapsulant, front sheet, back sheet, wires and connectors, adhesives, sealants, and more. In addition, users will find sections on the tests needed for the evaluation of polymer degradation and aging, as well as accelerated tests to aid in materials selection. As demand for photovoltaics continues to grow globally, with polymer photovoltaics offering significantly lower production costs compared to earlier approaches, this book will serve as a welcome resource on new avenues. Provides comprehensive coverage of photovoltaic polymers, from fundamental degradation mechanisms, to specific case studies of durability and materials failure Offers practical, actionable information in relation to service life prediction of photovoltaic modules and accelerated testing for materials selection Includes up-to-date information and interpretation of safety regulations and testing of photovoltaic modules and materials

Mechanisms of Polymer Degradation and Stabilisation

Mechanisms of Polymer Degradation and Stabilisation Book
Author : G. Scott
Publisher : Springer
Release : 1990-11-30
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The purpose of this publication is two-fold. In the first place it is intended to review progress in the development of practical stabilising systems for a wide range of polymers and applications. A complemen tary and ultimately more important objective is to accommodate these practical developments within the framework of antioxidant theory, since there can be little question that further major advances in the practice of stabilisation technology will only be possible on a firm mechanistic foundation. With the continual increase in the number of commercial anti oxidants and stabilisers, often functioning by mechanisms not even considered ten years ago, there is a need for a general theory which will allow the potential user to predict the performance of a particular antioxidant structure under specific practical conditions. Any such predictive tool must involve a simplified kinetic approach to inhibited oxidation and, in Chapter 1, Denisov outlines a possible mechanistic approach with the potential to predict the most useful antioxidant to use and the limits of its usefulness. In Chapter 2, Schwetlick reviews the current state of knowledge on the antioxidant mechanisms of the phosphite esters with particular emphasis on their catalytic peroxidolytic activity. Dithiophosphate v vi PREFACE derivatives show a similar behaviour but for quite different reasons and, in Chapter 3, AI-Malaika reviews information available from analytical studies, particularly using 31p_NMR spectroscopy, to elucid ate the complex chemistry that leads to the formation of the antioxidant -active agents.

Databook of Solvents

Databook of Solvents Book
Author : Anna Wypych,George Wypych
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2014-12-29
ISBN : 1895198801
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Use of solvents is increasing in various applications, from cleaning to chemical manufacturing, and solvent selection has a major impact on the costs, health and safety and environmental considerations of any given project. Selecting the ideal solvent can improve economic, environmental and operational performance in processing. Based on the Solvents Database by George Wypych, the Databook of Solvents presents – for the first time – this information in book form for ease of reference. More than 300 of the most essential solvents are included, selected by expert George Wypych. Physical properties are included, as are health and safety considerations (such as carcinogenicity, reproduction/developmental toxicity, flammability) and first aid guidance. Emphasis is given in particular to cost-saving and more efficient replacements for more toxic solvents. Detailed information is also given for usage considerations, including outstanding properties, potential substitutes, features and benefits for each solvent and for which products the solvent is recommended. Includes more than 300 of the most essential solvents Practical information for use in the lab and the field, including recommended processing methods, recommended dosages, and potential substitutes Particular emphasis given to environmental considerations, enabling practitioners to find more efficient replacements for toxic solvents

Innovative and Emerging Technologies for Texile Dyeing and Finishing

Innovative and Emerging Technologies for Texile Dyeing and Finishing Book
Author : Luqman Jameel Rather,Aminoddin Haji,Mohd Shabbir
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2021-01-20
ISBN : 1119710294
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

With the public enhanced awareness towards eco-preservation, eco-safety and health concerns, environmentally benign, nontoxic and sustainable bioresource materials produced mainly from non-food crops have revolutionized all industrial sectors particularly textile industry. In recent years, textile industries in developed countries are getting increasing interest in global interest due to the varied and changing world market conditions in terms of price, durability and fiber mixtures as well as design, colors, weight, ease of handling and product safety. The increasing environmental and health concerns owing to the use of large quantities of water and hazardous chemicals in conventional textile finishing processes lead to the design and development of new dyeing strategies and technologies. Effluents produced from these textiles wet processing industries are very diverse in chemical composition, ranging from inorganic finishing agents, surfactants, chlorine compounds, salts, total phosphate to polymers and organic products. This aspect forced western countries to exploit their high technical skills in the advancements of textile materials for high quality technical performances, and development of cleaner production technologies for cost effective and value-added textile materials. Therefore, vast and effective research investigations have been undertaken all over the world to minimize the negative environmental impact of synthetic chemical agents through the sustainable harvest of eco-friendly bioresource materials. The book will discuss following research developments in academic and industry: Improvement in dye extraction and its applications Impact of textile dyeing on environment Textile finishing by natural and ecofriendly means Natural dyes as environmental-friendly bioresource products Textile effluent remediation via physical, chemical and biological processes.

The Effect of Long Term Thermal Exposure on Plastics and Elastomers

The Effect of Long Term Thermal Exposure on Plastics and Elastomers Book
Author : Laurence W. McKeen
Publisher : William Andrew
Release : 2021-05-01
ISBN : 0323854370
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Effect of Long Term Thermal Exposure on Plastics and Elastomers, Second Edition brings together a wide range of essential data on the effect of long-term thermal exposure on plastics and elastomers, enabling engineers to make optimal material choices and design decisions. This second edition has been thoroughly revised to include the latest data and materials. This highly valuable handbook will support engineers, product designers, R&D professionals, and scientists who are working on plastics products or parts for high temperature environments across a range of industries. This readily available data will make it easy for practitioners to learn about plastic materials and their long- term thermal exposure without having to search the general literature or depend on suppliers. This book will also be of interest to researchers and advanced students in plastics engineering, polymer processing, coatings, and materials science and engineering. Provides essential data and practical guidance for engineers and scientists working with plastics in high temperature environments Includes introductory chapters on the effect of heat aging and testing methods, providing the underpinning knowledge required to utilize the data Covers a wide range of commercial polymer classes that are updated to include the latest developments in plastics materials

Plastics and Environmental Sustainability

Plastics and Environmental Sustainability Book
Author : Anthony L. Andrady
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2015-02-13
ISBN : 1119009391
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Survey’s the issues typically raised in discussions ofsustainability and plastics Discusses current issues not covered in detail previously suchas ocean litter, migration of additives into food products and therecovery of plastics Covers post-consumer fate of plastics on land and in theoceans, highlighting the environmental impacts of disposalmethods Details toxicity of plastics, particularly as it applies tohuman health Presents a clear analysis of the key plastic-related issuesincluding numerous citations of the research base that supports andcontradicts the popularly held notions

Szycher s Handbook of Polyurethanes First Edition

Szycher s Handbook of Polyurethanes  First Edition Book
Author : Michael Szycher, Ph.D
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 1999-04-23
ISBN : 9780849306020
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Handbook of Polyurethanes serves as the first source of information of useful polymers. This new book thoroughly covers the entire spectrum of polyurethanes - from current technology to buyer's information. Discussions include: block and heteroblock systems rubber plasticity structure-property relations microphase separation catalysis of isocyanate reactions synthesis of polyurethanes for thermoplastics, thermosets, and curable compositions by either heat or U.V. energy biomedical applications of urethane elastomers castables, sealants, and caulking compounds flexible and semi-flexible foams health and safety This handbook compiles data from many sources, exhaustively illustrating the complex principles involved in polyurethane chemistry and technology. Handbook of Polyurethanes represents invaluable information for corporations, universities, or independent inventors.

Photochemistry

Photochemistry Book
Author : Angelo Albini,Elisa Fasani
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2012-10-11
ISBN : 1849734887
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Photochemistry reviews photo-induced processes that have relevance to the above wide-ranging academic and commercial desciplines, and interests in chemistry, physics, biology and technology. In order to provide easy access to this vast and varied literature, Photochemistry comprises sections sub-divided by chromophore and reaction type, and also a comprehensive section on polymer photochemistry. Throughout emphasis is placed on useful applications of photochemistry. Specialist Periodical Reports provide systematic and detailed review coverage in major areas of chemical research and are compiled by teams of leading experts - a unique service for the active research chemist.