Skip to main content

Handbook Of Ferroalloys

In Order to Read Online or Download Handbook Of Ferroalloys Full eBooks in PDF, EPUB, Tuebl and Mobi you need to create a Free account. Get any books you like and read everywhere you want. Fast Download Speed ~ Commercial & Ad Free. We cannot guarantee that every book is in the library!

Handbook of Ferroalloys

Handbook of Ferroalloys Book
Author : Michael Gasik
Publisher : Butterworth-Heinemann
Release : 2013-05-04
ISBN : 0080977669
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This handbook gathers, reviews and concisely presents the core principles and varied technology involved in processing ferroalloys. Background content in thermodynamics, kinetics, heat and mass transfer is accompanied by an overview of electrical furnaces theory and practice as well as sustainability issues. The work includes detailed coverage of the major technologies of ferrosilicon, ferronickel, ferromolybdenum, ferrotungsten, ferrovanadium, ferromanganese and lesser known minor ferroalloys. Distilling the results of many years' experience in ferroalloys, Michael Gasik has assembled contributions from the worlds' foremost experts. The work is therefore a unique source for scientists, engineers and university students, exploring in depth an area which is one of the most versatile and increasingly used fields within modern metallurgy. All-in-one source for the major ferroalloys and their metallurgical processing technologies, cutting research time otherwise spent digging through old handbooks or review articles. In-depth discussion of the C, Si, Al-reduction, groups II-VIII of the periodic table, supporting analysis of metallurgical processing. Contemporary coverage includes environment and energy saving issues.

Handbook of Ferroalloys

Handbook of Ferroalloys Book
Author : Merete Tangstad
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-04
ISBN : 0128054999
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This chapter examines the theory and technology of the production of silicon and ferrosilicon alloys. An overview of silica raw materials, silica transformations, and carbon reductants for smelting is presented together with an exploration of the thermodynamics of silicon reduction and the formation of silicon carbide. For industrial practice, the results of furnace operation and zones formation are discussed, along with the main parameters required to ensure a smooth furnace operation. Finally, post–tap hole processes (refining and casting) and environmental issues (fumes and dust formation and handling) are described.

Handbook of Ferroalloys

Handbook of Ferroalloys Book
Author : Lauri Holappa
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-04
ISBN : 0128054956
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

The word ferroalloy refers to an alloy of iron containing a significant proportion of one or more other elements like silicon, manganese, chromium, aluminum, or titanium. The main applications of ferroalloys occur in the steelmaking process. They are added to steel to improve properties like strength, ductility, and fatigue or corrosion resistance. Additionally, ferroalloys can have several other tasks, such as in refining, deoxidation, modification, and control of nonmetallic inclusions and precipitates. The production and role of ferroalloys are briefly introduced, both from a historical perspective and in light of current and future prospects. Examples of production figures, producers, and markets are presented. Recent developments and main drivers in ferroalloys processing, including energy saving, environmental issues, primary and secondary raw materials resources, and development trends in technology, are briefly discussed.

Handbook of Ferroalloys

Handbook of Ferroalloys Book
Author : Heikki Jalkanen,Michael Gasik
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-04
ISBN : 0128054964
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

The metallurgical processing of ferroalloys is based on a coherent combination of many scientific fields, which are briefly outlined in this chapter. The metal’s recovery process is based on reduction reactions, where metallurgical thermodynamics and kinetics are of a paramount importance. This includes the knowledge and ability to calculate, monitor, and change the formation of solutions and phases, rate of the reactions, and handling of reaction products in the most efficient way. In parallel, theoretical and engineering data on heat, mass, momentum, and charge transfer are critical for the development and design of ferroalloy production processes and furnaces. The chapter also discusses the basics of the structure and properties of metal and oxide (slag) when melted together with carbon reductants.

Handbook of Ferroalloys

Handbook of Ferroalloys Book
Author : Mihail I. Gasik
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-04
ISBN : 012805512X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This chapter deals with alkaline-earth metals (Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) and their ferroalloys technology. The chapter provides an overview of these metals, their properties, and their reactions with other elements, and it outlines major relevant phase equilibria diagrams. Oxide systems equilibria are also considered. Different raw materials and methods for producing alkaline-earth ferroalloys and master alloys are presented. Specific details of the technology for smelting are described depending on the alloy type and grade. Additionally, the theory and technology used to produce calcium carbide and oxide (metallurgical lime) are described.

Handbook of Ferroalloys

Handbook of Ferroalloys Book
Author : Merete Tangstad
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-04
ISBN : 0128055006
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This chapter examines the theory and technology applied for the production of manganese ferroalloys. The focus is on smelting of ferromanganese, silicomanganese, and manganese metal in electric furnaces with different process types. The properties of manganese as well as its major compounds, minerals, and ores are presented. Agglomeration methods used to prepare ores for smelting are described. Refining techniques for low-carbon manganese ferroalloys are discussed, and postprocessing operations are outlined, together with tapping and casting processes. Additionally, the energy balance of manganese alloys smelting is outlined, and some potential hazards of the smelting technology are discussed, together with their preventive actions.

Handbook of Ferroalloys

Handbook of Ferroalloys Book
Author : Johan Basson,Jorma Daavittila
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-04
ISBN : 0128055022
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

High carbon ferrochrome is one of the most common ferroalloys produced and is almost exclusively used in the production of stainless steel and high chromium steels. Production takes place primarily in countries with substantial chromite ore supply. Relatively cheap electricity and reductants also contribute to the viability of high carbon ferrochrome. The most common production technology utilized is submerged arc smelting in AC furnaces, although open arc smelting in DC furnaces is becoming increasingly common. A more advanced technology route that includes a prereduction step is only utilized at significant scale by one producer. Production processes have become more energy and metallurgically efficient by utilizing advanced processes such as prereduction, preheating, agglomeration of ore, and CO gas utilization. Recently installed plants display manageable risks in terms of environmental pollution and occupational health.

Handbook of Ferroalloys

Handbook of Ferroalloys Book
Author : Michael Gasik
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-04
ISBN : 0128055049
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This chapter deals with tungsten and its ferroalloy technology. An overview of tungsten is presented, its properties are described, and reactions with other elements and compounds are outlined with major relevant phase equilibria diagrams. The raw materials, sources, and methods for reducing tungsten are presented. Different technologies for smelting ferrotungsten alloy are described.

Handbook of Ferroalloys

Handbook of Ferroalloys Book
Author : Michael Gasik
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-04
ISBN : 0128055065
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This chapter explores the technology of vanadium recovery from raw materials and the production of vanadium ferroalloys (FeV, FeSiV, FeMnV, and FeVN). The properties of vanadium and its main reactions with other elements are outlined. Different sources of vanadium are presented, and the methods used for processing vanadium slags and vanadium pentoxide are listed. Smelting of ferrovanadium alloys in combination with silicon and aluminum reduction is presented.

Handbook of Ferroalloys

Handbook of Ferroalloys Book
Author : Michael M. Gasik
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-04
ISBN : 0128054948
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This introductory chapter describes the importance of ferroalloys in modern steelmaking and the benefits of applying ferroalloys instead of pure alloying elements. The idea, scope, and structure of the book are outlined.

Handbook of Ferroalloys

Handbook of Ferroalloys Book
Author : Michael Gasik
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-04
ISBN : 0128055081
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This chapter deals with the technology of ferrotitanium alloys. An overview of titanium, its basic properties, and its reactions with other elements is presented, and major relevant phase equilibria diagrams are given. The raw materials for titanium are discussed, and methods for titanium oxide reduction are presented. Ferrotitanium grades are described, and the technology for smelting ferrotitanium by aluminum reduction is discussed.

Handbook of Ferroalloys

Handbook of Ferroalloys Book
Author : Michael Gasik
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-04
ISBN : 0128055057
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This chapter deals with molybdenum and its ferroalloy technology. An overview of molybdenum is presented, its properties are discussed, and its reactions with other elements and compounds are outlined with major relevant phase equilibria diagrams. The raw materials, sources, and methods for preparing and reducing molybdenum are presented. Different technologies for smelting ferromolybdenum alloys are described.

Handbook of Ferroalloys

Handbook of Ferroalloys Book
Author : Michael Gasik
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-04
ISBN : 012805509X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This chapter deals with zirconium and its ferroalloys technology. An overview of zirconium and of its properties and its reactions with other elements is presented, and major relevant phase equilibria diagrams are given. Zirconium sources (raw materials) and methods for zirconium reduction are discussed. Technologies for smelting ferrosilicozirconium (FeSiZr) and ferro-alumino-zirconium (FeAlZr) alloys are described.

Handbook of Ferroalloys

Handbook of Ferroalloys Book
Author : Oleg Polyakov
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-04
ISBN : 0128055138
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This chapter deals with ferroalloys as well as several alloying elements (complex ferroalloys) that are normally used as efficient steel and alloy deoxidizers. Some other minor ferroalloys and master alloys (including those intended for nonferrous applications) are also described in brief. The emphasis is on alloy composition, processing, and applications, because raw materials, the reduction process, and the peculiarities of the behavior of specific elements are discussed in relevant chapters. The exothermic ferroalloy mixtures and their application are also presented.

Handbook of Ferroalloys

Handbook of Ferroalloys Book
Author : Isobel Mc Dougall
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-04
ISBN : 0128054972
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

The process by which ore is converted to a ferroalloy contains a number of steps. These include mining of the ore; preparing the ore by processes such as crushing, screening, washing, grinding, or milling; and sometimes applying beneficiation processes such as flotation, followed by smelting and refining. This chapter describes the equipment used for the smelting of ferroalloys. The first section covers furnace technology and operation by discussing AC and DC furnaces, their electrical operation, electrodes, and related plant such as raw material handling systems, exhaust gas handling, and furnace crucibles, which includes the linings, and cooling of the furnace and the roof. The second section discusses the more important processing steps, which may be applied to the raw materials at the smelter prior to their smelting in the furnace. These include agglomeration by briquetting or the production of sintered pellets, sintering of ore, prereduction, and preheating. The third section describes the treatment of the product and slag after it leaves the furnace, whereas the final section provides a short description of other furnaces for ferroalloys production.

Handbook of Ferroalloys

Handbook of Ferroalloys Book
Author : Oleg Polyakov
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-04
ISBN : 0128055111
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This chapter deals with ferroalloys containing rare-earth metals (REM). Among known REM, only three have significant metallurgical relevance (lanthanum, yttrium, and cerium), and they are considered in more detail. This chapter presents an overview of these REM, their properties, and their reactions with other elements and explores major relevant phase equilibria diagrams. REM sources (raw materials) and methods for their reduction are also presented. Technology for smelting of FeSiREM alloys by carbon and aluminum reduction methods is described.

Handbook of Ferroalloys

Handbook of Ferroalloys Book
Author : Oleg Polyakov
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-04
ISBN : 0128055103
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This chapter describes the technology of boron ferroalloys and master alloys. Properties of boron and its reactions with iron, silicon, aluminum, carbon, and oxygen are presented. Major boron minerals, ores, and their compositions are shown. The technologies of ferroboron and other boron ferroalloys are discussed for aluminum reduction and for carbon reduction smelting processes. Composition and processing of other boron master alloys are also explored.

Handbook of Ferroalloys

Handbook of Ferroalloys Book
Author : Mihail I. Gasik
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-04
ISBN : 0128055014
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This chapter deals with chromium and its ferroalloys technology (with the exception of high-carbon ferrochromium, which is addressed in a separate dedicated chapter). The chapter presents an overview of chromium, its properties, main compounds, and reactions with other elements, as well as major relevant phase equilibria diagrams. Chromium sources (raw materials) and methods for chromium reduction with carbon, silicon, and aluminum are presented. Different technologies for smelting of medium-, low-, and ultra-low carbon ferrochrome, ferrosilicochrome (FeSiCr), nitrided FeCr (FeCrN), and metallic chromium are described. Finally, environmental issues of chromium alloys technology are discussed.

Handbook of Ferroalloys

Handbook of Ferroalloys Book
Author : Gudrun Saevarsdottir
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-04
ISBN : 0128054980
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Almost all ferroalloys are produced by smelting in submerged arc furnaces, powered by either AC or DC sources. To understand the smelting process and furnace operations, it is important to manage the theory of electrical circuits, efficiently apply and control active and reactive parts of the system, optimize the power factor and the operation of the electric arc, and so on. These issues are outlined and discussed in this chapter, which provides necessary theoretical and practical knowledge for those who do not have a background in electrical engineering. They are complemented with discussions of heat balance and electrical control of the smelting furnaces and different emissions associated with the ferroalloys production processes.

Handbook of Ferroalloys

Handbook of Ferroalloys Book
Author : Oleg Polyakov
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-04
ISBN : 0128055030
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This chapter deals with ferronickel technology. Properties of nickel and its reactions with relevant elements are described. The mineral resources of nickel are outlined with emphasis on oxide–silicate (laterite) ores processing. The technology of ferronickel smelting and all steps in the processing chain (roasting, smelting, desulfurization, and oxygen refining in converters) are discussed. Some examples of known industrial ferronickel practice are presented.