Skip to main content

Green Chemistry And Engineering

Download Green Chemistry And Engineering Full eBooks in PDF, EPUB, and kindle. Green Chemistry And Engineering is one my favorite book and give us some inspiration, very enjoy to read. you could read this book anywhere anytime directly from your device.

Green Chemistry and Engineering

Green Chemistry and Engineering Book
Author : Mukesh Doble,Ken Rollins,Anil Kumar
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2010-07-27
ISBN : 9780080524771
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

Chemical processes provide a diverse array of valuable products and materials used in applications ranging from health care to transportation and food processing. Yet these same chemical processes that provide products and materials essential to modern economies, also generate substantial quantities of wastes and emissions. Green Chemistry is the utilization of a set of principles that reduces or eliminate the use or generation of hazardous substances in design. Due to extravagant costs needed to managing these wastes, tens of billions of dollars a year, there is a need to propose a way to create less waste. Emission and treatment standards continue to become more stringent, which causes these costs to continue to escalate. Green Chemistry and Engineering describes both the science (theory) and engineering (application) principles of Green Chemistry that lead to the generation of less waste. It explores the use of milder manufacturing conditions resulting from the use of smarter organic synthetic techniques and the maintenance of atom efficiency that can temper the effects of chemical processes. By implementing these techniques means less waste, which will save industry millions of dollars over time. Chemical processes that provide products and materials essential to modern economies generate substantial quantities of wastes and emissions, this new book describes both the science (theory) and engineering (application) principles of Green Chemistry that lead to the generation of less waste This book contains expert advise from scientists around the world, encompassing developments in the field since 2000 Aids manufacturers, scientists, managers, and engineers on how to implement ongoing changes in a vast developing field that is important to the environment and our lives

Green Chemistry and Engineering

Green Chemistry and Engineering Book
Author : Concepción Jiménez-González,David J. C. Constable
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2011-04-12
ISBN : 9781118101971
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

The past, present, and future of green chemistry and greenengineering From college campuses to corporations, the past decade witnesseda rapidly growing interest in understanding sustainable chemistryand engineering. Green Chemistry and Engineering: A PracticalDesign Approach integrates the two disciplines into a singlestudy tool for students and a practical guide for working chemistsand engineers. In Green Chemistry and Engineering, theauthors—each highly experienced in implementing greenchemistry and engineering programs in industrialsettings—provide the bottom-line thinking required to notonly bring sustainable chemistry and engineering closer together,but to also move business towards more sustainable practices andproducts. Detailing an integrated, systems-oriented approach thatbridges both chemical syntheses and manufacturing processes, thisinvaluable reference covers: Green chemistry and green engineering in the movement towardssustainability Designing greener, safer chemical synthesis Designing greener, safer chemical manufacturing processes Looking beyond current processes to a lifecycle thinkingperspective Trends in chemical processing that may lead to more sustainablepractices The authors also provide real-world examples and exercises topromote further thought and discussion. The EPA defines green chemistry as the design of chemicalproducts and processes that reduce or eliminate the use orgeneration of hazardous substances. Green engineering is describedas the design, commercialization, and use of products and processesthat are feasible and economical while minimizing both thegeneration of pollution at the source and the risk to human healthand the environment. While there is no shortage of books on eitherdiscipline, Green Chemistry and Engineering is the first totruly integrate the two.

Green Chemistry and Engineering

Green Chemistry and Engineering Book
Author : Anne E. Marteel-Parrish,Martin A. Abraham
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2013-10-10
ISBN : 1118720261
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

Although many were skeptical of the green chemistry movement atfirst, it has become a multimillion-dollar business. In preventingthe creation of hazardous wastes, laboratories and corporations cansave millions in clean up efforts and related health costs. Thisbook supplies students with concepts commonly taught inundergraduate general chemistry and general engineering courses,but with a green perspective. It is unique in presenting anintegrated discussion of green chemistry and engineering from firstprinciples – not as an afterthought. Real-world examples showcreative problem solving based on the latest issues.

Green Chemistry and Green Engineering

Green Chemistry and Green Engineering Book
Author : Shrikaant Kulkarni,Neha Kanwar Rawat,A. K. Haghi
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2020-12-23
ISBN : 1000095223
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

This interdisciplinary and accessible new volume presents a broad range of application-based green chemistry and engineering research. The book familiarizes readers with the integration of tools and spell out the approaches for green engineering of new processes as well as improving the environmental risks of existing processes. The expert authors discuss the myriad opportunities and the challenges facing green chemistry today in both its theoretical and practical implementation. The book expands upon green chemistry concepts with the latest research and new and innovative applications, providing both the breadth and depth researchers need. Topics include solar energy, electrospinning of bio-based polymeric nanofibers, biotransformation, engineered nanomaterials in environmental protection, and much more.

Green Chemical Engineering

Green Chemical Engineering Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2018-07-19
ISBN : 3527688404
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

Green chemistry and chemical engineering belong together and this twelth volume in the successful Handbook of Green Chemistry series represents the perfect one-stop reference on the topic. Written by an international team of specialists with each section edited by international leading experts, this book provides first-hand insights into the field, covering chemical engineering process design, innovations in unit operations and manufacturing, biorefining and much more besides. An indispensable source for every chemical engineer in industry and academia.

Innovations in Green Chemistry and Green Engineering

Innovations in Green Chemistry and Green Engineering Book
Author : Paul T. Anastas,Julie B. Zimmerman
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-13
ISBN : 146145817X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

Processes that meet the objectives of green chemistry and chemical engineering minimize waste and energy use, and eliminate toxic by-products. Given the ubiquitous nature of products from chemical processes in our lives, green chemistry and chemical engineering are vital components of any sustainable future. Gathering together ten peer-reviewed articles from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology, Innovations in Green Chemistry and Green Engineering provides a comprehensive introduction to the state-of-the-art in this key area of sustainability research. Worldwide experts present the latest developments on topics ranging from organic batteries and green catalytic transformations to green nanoscience and nanotoxicology. An essential, one-stop reference for professionals in research and industry, this book also fills the need for an authoritative course text in environmental and green chemistry and chemical engineering at the upper-division undergraduate and graduate levels.

Integrating Green Chemistry and Sustainable Engineering

Integrating Green Chemistry and Sustainable Engineering Book
Author : Shahid Ul-Islam
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2019-04-01
ISBN : 1119509823
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

Over the past decade, the population explosion, rise in global warming, depletion of fossil fuel resources and environmental pollution has been the major driving force for promoting and implementing the principles of green chemistry and sustainable engineering in all sectors ranging from chemical to environmental sciences. It is noteworthy to mention that production of biofuels, exploitation of renewable energy sources and use of ecologically safer products in applied sectors are becoming increasingly important for the development of alternative sustainable technologies. Integrating Green Chemistry and Sustainable Engineering focusses on latest sustainable technologies and developments and describes how sustainable chemistry and engineering practices are being applied and integrated in various industrial sectors. The book addresses emerging topics including biofuel production, CO2 conversation to green fuels, advanced green polymers in coating applications, biological macromolecules in medical sector, biofertilizers for agricultural sector, bioadsorption and much more.

Catalysis Green Chemistry and Sustainable Energy

Catalysis  Green Chemistry and Sustainable Energy Book
Author : Angelo Basile,Gabriele Centi,Marcello De Falco,Gaetano Iaquaniello
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2019-11-22
ISBN : 0444643389
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

Catalysis, Green Chemistry and Sustainable Energy: New Technologies for Novel Business Opportunities offers new possibilities for businesses who want to address the current global transition period to adopt low carbon and sustainable energy production. This comprehensive source provides an integrated view of new possibilities within catalysis and green chemistry in an economic context, showing how these potential new technologies may become useful to business. Fundamentals and specific examples are included to guide the transformation of idea to innovation and business. Offering an overview of the new possibilities for creating business in catalysis, energy and green chemistry, this book is a beneficial tool for students, researchers and academics in chemical and biochemical engineering. Discusses new developments in catalysis, energy and green chemistry from the perspective of converting ideas to innovation and business Presents case histories, preparation of business plans, patent protection and IP rights, creation of start-ups, research funds and successful written proposals Offers an interdisciplinary approach combining science and business

Green Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

Green Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Book
Author : Buxing Han,Tianbin Wu
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-08-29
ISBN : 9781493990597
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

This expanded, revised, and updated second edition of Innovations in Green Chemistry and Green Engineering provides a comprehensive introduction to the state-of-the-art in this key area of sustainability research. Processes that meet the objectives of green chemistry and chemical engineering minimize waste and energy use, and eliminate toxic by-products. Given the ubiquitous nature of products from chemical processes in our lives, green chemistry and chemical engineering are vital components of any sustainable future. Peer-reviewed articles from worldwide experts present the latest developments on topics ranging from organic batteries and green catalytic transformations to green nanoscience and nanotoxicology. Now under the leadership of distinguished Editors from the Chinese Academy of Sciences, this volume in the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology, Second Edition, is an essential, one-stop reference for professionals in research and industry. The book also fills the need for an authoritative course text in environmental and green chemistry and chemical engineering at the upper-division undergraduate and graduate levels.

Exploring Opportunities in Green Chemistry and Engineering Education

Exploring Opportunities in Green Chemistry and Engineering Education Book
Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology,Chemical Sciences Roundtable
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2007-02-12
ISBN : 9780309179881
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

Going green is a hot topic in both chemistry and chemical engineering. Green chemistry is the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. Green engineering is the development and commercialization of economically feasible industrial processes that reduce the risk to human health and the environment. This book summarizes a workshop convened by the National Research Council to explore the widespread implementation of green chemistry and chemical engineering concepts into undergraduate and graduate education and how to integrate these concepts into the established and developing curricula. Speakers highlighted the most effective educational practices to date and discussed the most promising educational materials and software tools in green chemistry and engineering. The goal of the workshop was to inform the Chemical Sciences Roundtable, which provides a science-oriented, apolitical forum for leaders in the chemical sciences to discuss chemically related issues affecting government, industry, and universities.

Biofuels and Bioenergy

Biofuels and Bioenergy Book
Author : Sunggyu Lee,Y.T. Shah
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2012-08-30
ISBN : 1420089552
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

The newest addition to the Green Chemistry and Chemical Engineering series from CRC Press, Biofuels and Bioenergy: Processes and Technologies provides a succinct but in-depth introduction to methods of development and use of biofuels and bioenergy. The book illustrates their great appeal as tools for solving the economic and environmental challenges associated with achieving energy sustainability and independence through the use of clean, renewable alternative energy. Taking a process engineering approach rooted in the fuel and petrochemical fields, this book masterfully integrates coverage of current conventional processes and emerging techniques. Topics covered include: Characterization and analysis of biofuels Process economics Chemistry of process conversion Process engineering and design and associated environmental technologies Energy balances and efficiencies Reactor designs and process configurations Energy materials and process equipment Integration with other conventional fossil fuel processes Byproduct utilization Governmental regulations and policies and global trends After an overview of the subject, the book discusses crop oils, biodiesel, and algae fuels. It examines ethanol from corn and from lignocelluloses and then explores fast pyrolysis and gasification of biomass. Discussing the future of biofuel production, it also describes the conversion of waste to biofuels, bioproducts, and bioenergy and concludes with a discussion of mixed feedstock. Written for readers with college-level backgrounds in chemistry, biology, physics, and engineering, this reference explores the science and technology involved in developing biofuels and bioenergy. It addresses the application of these and other disciplines, covering key issues of special interest to fuel process engineers, fuel scientists, and energy technologists, among others.

Quality Living Through Chemurgy and Green Chemistry

Quality Living Through Chemurgy and Green Chemistry Book
Author : Peter C.K. Lau
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-01-25
ISBN : 3662537044
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

This book is intended to give readers an appreciation of what the future holds, as cutting-edge technologies in synthetic biology and pathway engineering and advanced bioprocessing development pave the way for providing goods and services to benefit humankind that are based on the synergy of two biomasses - i.e. of what a renewable feedstock could yield and an infinite microbial biomass could provide in terms of enzymes and biocatalysts. This 13-chapter book, with an introductory treatise on the guiding principles of green chemistry and engineering metrics, brings together a broad range of research and innovation agendas and perspectives from industries, academia and government laboratories using renewable feedstocks that include macroalgae and lignins. In addition, social-economic aspects and the pillars of competitiveness in regional cluster development are explored as we transition from fossil-fuel-based economies to a circular bioeconomy, with chemurgy and green chemistry being implicit to the innovation movement. The bulk of the book covers specific applications including the bioproduction of amino sugars, dicarboxylic acids, omega-3 fatty acids, starch and fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic materials, and phenolics as building blocks for polymer synthesis. Enzymatic systems for accessing chiral and special-purpose chemicals, as well as the development of specialized enzymes from macroalgae for biofuel and biochemical production are also addressed. Research gaps, hurdles to overcome in various biological processes, and present achievements in the production of biofuels and biochemicals from lignocellulosic materials are discussed. Going beyond the conventional expectation of discussing the production of drop-in chemicals, the book instead emphasizes how the potential of new chemicals and materials can be harnessed through innovative thinking and research. As such, it provides an invaluable reference source for researchers and graduate students interested in Chemurgy and Green Chemistry, as well as for practitioners in the field of industrial biotechnology and biobased industry. Peter C.K. Lau is a Distinguished Professor at Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and an Adjunct Professor at the Departments of Chemistry and Microbiology & Immunology, McGill University, Canada.

Green Chemical Engineering

Green Chemical Engineering Book
Author : S. Suresh,S. Sundaramoorthy
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2014-12-18
ISBN : 1466558857
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

While chemical products are useful in their own right—they address the demands and needs of the masses—they also drain our natural resources and generate unwanted pollution. Green Chemical Engineering: An Introduction to Catalysis, Kinetics, and Chemical Processes encourages minimized use of non-renewable natural resources and fosters maximized pollution prevention. This text stresses the importance of developing processes that are environmentally friendly and incorporate the role of green chemistry and reaction engineering in designing these processes. Focused on practical application rather than theory, the book integrates chemical reaction engineering and green chemical engineering, and is divided into two sections. The first half of the book covers the basic principles of chemical reaction engineering and reactor design, while the second half of the book explores topics on green reactors, green catalysis, and green processes. The authors mix in elaborate illustrations along with important developments, practical applications, and recent case studies. They also include numerous exercises, examples, and problems covering the various concepts of reaction engineering addressed in this book, and provide MATLAB® software used for developing computer codes and solving a number of reaction engineering problems. Consisting of six chapters organized into two sections, this text: Covers the basic principles of chemical kinetics and catalysis Gives a brief introduction to classification and the various types of chemical reactors Discusses in detail the differential and integral methods of analysis of rate equations for different types of reactions Presents the development of rate equations for solid catalyzed reactions and enzyme catalyzed biochemical reactions Explains methods for estimation of kinetic parameters from batch reactor data Details topics on homogeneous reactors Includes graphical procedures for the design of multiple reactors Contains topics on heterogeneous reactors including catalytic and non-catalytic reactors Reviews various models for non-catalytic gas–solid and gas–liquid reactions Introduces global rate equations and explicit design equations for a variety of non-catalytic reactors Gives an overview of novel green reactors and the application of CFD technique in the modeling of green reactors Offers detailed discussions of a number of novel reactors Provides a brief introduction to CFD and the application of CFD Highlights the development of a green catalytic process and the application of a green catalyst in the treatment of industrial effluent Comprehensive and thorough in its coverage, Green Chemical Engineering: An Introduction to Catalysis, Kinetics, and Chemical Processes explains the basic concepts of green engineering and reactor design fundamentals, and provides key knowledge for students at technical universities and professionals already working in the industry.

Green Sustainable Process for Chemical and Environmental Engineering and Science

Green Sustainable Process for Chemical and Environmental Engineering and Science Book
Author : Dr Inamuddin,Rajender Boddula,Abdullah M. Asiri
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-11-26
ISBN : 0128198516
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

Green Sustainable Process for Chemical and Environmental Engineering and Science: Switchable Solvents explores the preparation, properties, chemical processes and applications of this class of green solvents. The book provides an in-depth overview on the area of switchable solvents in various industrial applications, focusing on the purification and extraction of chemical compounds utilizing green chemistry protocols that include liquid-liquid, solid-liquid, liquid-gas and lipids separation technologies. In addition, it includes recent advances in greener extraction and separation processes. This book will be an invaluable guide to students, professors, scientists and R&D industrial specialists working in the field of sustainable chemistry, organic, analytical, chemical engineering, environmental and pharmaceutical sciences. Provides a broad overview of switchable solvents in sustainable chemical processes Compares the use of switchable solvents as greener solvents over conventional solvents Outlines eco-friendly organic synthesis and chemical processes using switchable solvents Lists various industrial separations/extraction processes using switchable solvents

Process Intensification Technologies for Green Chemistry

Process Intensification Technologies for Green Chemistry Book
Author : Kamelia Boodhoo,Adam Harvey
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2013-01-03
ISBN : 1118498534
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

The successful implementation of greener chemical processesrelies not only on the development of more efficient catalysts forsynthetic chemistry but also, and as importantly, on thedevelopment of reactor and separation technologies which candeliver enhanced processing performance in a safe, cost-effectiveand energy efficient manner. Process intensification has emerged asa promising field which can effectively tackle the challenges ofsignificant process enhancement, whilst also offering the potentialto diminish the environmental impact presented by the chemicalindustry. Following an introduction to process intensification and theprinciples of green chemistry, this book presents a number ofintensified technologies which have been researched and developed,including case studies to illustrate their application to greenchemical processes. Topics covered include: • Intensified reactor technologies: spinning discreactors, microreactors, monolith reactors, oscillatory flowreactors, cavitational reactors • Combined reactor/separator systems: membrane reactors,reactive distillation, reactive extraction, reactiveabsorption • Membrane separations for green chemistry • Industry relevance of process intensification,including economics and environmental impact, opportunities forenergy saving, and practical considerations for industrialimplementation. Process Intensification for Green Chemistry is a valuableresource for practising engineers and chemists alike who areinterested in applying intensified reactor and/or separator systemsin a range of industries to achieve green chemistry principles.

Hydrogen Safety

Hydrogen Safety Book
Author : Fotis Rigas,Paul Amyotte
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2012-07-09
ISBN : 1439862311
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

Hydrogen Safety highlights physiological, physical, and chemical hazards associated with hydrogen production, storage, distribution, and use systems. It also examines potential accident scenarios that could occur with hydrogen use under certain conditions. The number of potential applications for hydrogen continues to grow—from cooling power station generators to widespread commercial use in hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles and other fuel-cell applications. However, this volatile substance poses unique challenges, including easy leakage, low ignition energy, a wide range of combustible fuel-air mixtures, buoyancy, and its ability to embrittle metals that are required to ensure safe operation. Focused on providing a balanced view of hydrogen safety—one that integrates principles from physical sciences, engineering, management, and social sciences—this book is organized to address questions associated with the hazards of hydrogen and the ensuing risk associated with its industrial and public use. What are the properties of hydrogen that can render it a hazardous substance? How have these hazards historically resulted in undesired incidents? How might these hazards arise in the storage of hydrogen and with its use in vehicular transportation? The authors address issues of inherently safer design, safety management systems, and safety culture. They highlight hydrogen storage facilities —which pose greater hazards because of the increased quantities stored and handled—and the dangers of using hydrogen as a fuel for transport. Presented experiments are included to verify computer simulations with the aid of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) of both gaseous and liquefied hydrogen. The book also provides an overview of the European Commission (EC) Network of Excellence for Hydrogen Safety (HySafe) and presents various case studies associated with hydrogen and constructional materials. It concludes with a brief look at future research requirements and current legal requirements for hydrogen safety.

Green Chemistry and Computational Chemistry

Green Chemistry and Computational Chemistry Book
Author : Liliana L. Mammino
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-12-10
ISBN : 0128198796
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

Green chemistry already draws on many techniques and approaches developed by theoretical chemists, whilst simultaneously revealing a whole range of interesting new challenges for theoretical chemists to explore. Highlighting how work at the intersection of these fields has already produced beneficial results, Green Chemistry and Computational Chemistry: Shared Lessons in Sustainability is a practical, informative guide to combining green and theoretical chemistry principles and approaches in the development of more sustainable practices. Beginning with an introduction to both theoretical chemistry and green chemistry, the book goes on to explore current approaches being taken by theoretical chemists to address green and sustainable chemistry issues, before moving on to highlight ways in which green chemists are employing the knowledge and techniques of theoretical chemistry to help in developing greener processes. The future possibilities for theoretical chemistry in addressing sustainability issues are discussed, before a selection of case studies provides good insight into how these interactions and approaches have been successfully used in practice. Highlights the benefits of green and theoretical chemistry groups working together to tackle sustainability issues across both academia and industry Supports readers in easily selecting the most appropriate path through the book for their own needs Presents a range of examples examining the practical implications and outcomes of interdisciplinary approaches

Green Chemistry and Technology

Green Chemistry and Technology Book
Author : Mark Anthony Benvenuto,George Ruger
Publisher : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Release : 2021-03-08
ISBN : 3110669986
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

The 6th volume of Green Chemical Processing considers sustainable chemistry in the context of innovative and emerging technologies, explaining how they can support the “greening” of industry processes. The American Chemical Society’s 12 Principles of Green Chemistry are woven throughout this text as well as the series to which this book belongs.

Lithium Ion Batteries

Lithium Ion Batteries Book
Author : Xianxia Yuan,Hansan Liu,Jiujun Zhang
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2016-04-19
ISBN : 1439841292
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

Written by a group of top scientists and engineers in academic and industrial R&D, Lithium-Ion Batteries: Advanced Materials and Technologies gives a clear picture of the current status of these highly efficient batteries. Leading international specialists from universities, government laboratories, and the lithium-ion battery industry share th

Green Chemistry and Biodiversity

Green Chemistry and Biodiversity Book
Author : Cristobal N. Aguilar,Suresh C. Ameta,A. K. Haghi
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2019-12-06
ISBN : 0429514638
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

Green Chemistry and Biodiversity: Principles, Techniques, and Correlations reports on new approaches to designing chemicals and chemical transformations that are beneficial for human health and the environment, a continuing emerging important field of study. This volume provides a collection of innovative research on the development of alternative sustainable technologies, taking a broad view of the subject and integrating a wide variety of approaches. With a focus on the interdisciplinary applications of green chemistry and biodiversity, this volume will be a rich resource for scientists and researchers in many subfields of chemistry and chemical engineering.