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Goal Directed Decision Making

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Goal Directed Decision Making

Goal Directed Decision Making Book
Author : Richard W. Morris,Aaron Bornstein,Amitai Shenhav
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2018-08-23
ISBN : 0128120991
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Goal-Directed Decision Making: Computations and Neural Circuits examines the role of goal-directed choice. It begins with an examination of the computations performed by associated circuits, but then moves on to in-depth examinations on how goal-directed learning interacts with other forms of choice and response selection. This is the only book that embraces the multidisciplinary nature of this area of decision-making, integrating our knowledge of goal-directed decision-making from basic, computational, clinical, and ethology research into a single resource that is invaluable for neuroscientists, psychologists and computer scientists alike. The book presents discussions on the broader field of decision-making and how it has expanded to incorporate ideas related to flexible behaviors, such as cognitive control, economic choice, and Bayesian inference, as well as the influences that motivation, context and cues have on behavior and decision-making. Details the neural circuits functionally involved in goal-directed decision-making and the computations these circuits perform Discusses changes in goal-directed decision-making spurred by development and disorders, and within real-world applications, including social contexts and addiction Synthesizes neuroscience, psychology and computer science research to offer a unique perspective on the central and emerging issues in goal-directed decision-making

How We Think

How We Think Book
Author : Alan H. Schoenfeld
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2010-10-18
ISBN : 1136909788
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Teachers try to help their students learn. But why do they make the particular teaching choices they do? What resources do they draw upon? What accounts for the success or failure of their efforts? In How We Think, esteemed scholar and mathematician, Alan H. Schoenfeld, proposes a groundbreaking theory and model for how we think and act in the classroom and beyond. Based on thirty years of research on problem solving and teaching, Schoenfeld provides compelling evidence for a concrete approach that describes how teachers, and individuals more generally, navigate their way through in-the-moment decision-making in well-practiced domains. Applying his theoretical model to detailed representations and analyses of teachers at work as well as of professionals outside education, Schoenfeld argues that understanding and recognizing the goal-oriented patterns of our day to day decisions can help identify what makes effective or ineffective behavior in the classroom and beyond.

Goal based Decision Making

Goal based Decision Making Book
Author : Stephen Slade
Publisher : Psychology Press
Release : 2013-06-17
ISBN : 1134779100
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This work presents a goal-based model of decision making in which the relative priorities of goals drive the decision process -- a psychological alternative to traditional decision analysis. Building on the work of Schank and Abelson, the author uses goals as the basis for a model of interpersonal relations which permits decisions to incorporate personal and adopted goals in a uniform manner. The theory is modelled on the VOTE computer program which simulates Congressional roll-call voting decisions. The VOTE program expands traditional decision making and simulation models by providing not only a choice, but also a natural language explanation, in either English or French. It simulates real members of Congress voting on real bills, and producing reasonable explanations. The program is consistent with much of the descriptive political science literature on Congressional decision making and provides an explicit model of political issues, relationships, and strategies that converge in voting behavior. In developing the VOTE program, the author draws on his own practical experience in politics from four presidential campaigns and the White House. Given the underlying psychological basis of the program, VOTE can be extended to other decision making domains different from politics. Another use for the program is to simulate business decisions such as securities analysis, as well as mundane decision making such as choosing a college or deciding whether to get a Mohawk haircut.

Motivation Effort and the Neural Network Model

Motivation  Effort  and the Neural Network Model Book
Author : Theodore Wasserman,Lori Wasserman
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-10-27
ISBN : 303058724X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Our understanding of how the human brain operates and completes its essential tasks continues is fundamentally altered from what it was ten years ago. We have moved from an understanding based on the modularity of key structural components and their specialized functions to an almost diametrically opposed, highly integrated neural network model, based on a vertically organized brain dependent on small world hub principles. This new understanding completely changes how we understand essential psychological constructs such as motivation. Network modeling posits that motivation is a construct that describes a modified aspect of the operation of the human learning system that is specifically designed to cause a person to pursue a goal. Anthropologically and developmentally, these goals were initially basic, including things like food, shelter and reproduction. Over the course of time and development they develop into a complex web of extrinsic and then intrinsic goals, objectives and values. The core for all of this development is the inborn flight or fight reaction has been modified over time by a combination of inborn human temperamental characteristics and life experiences. This process of modification is, in part, based on the operation of a network based error-prediction network working in concert with the reward network to produce a system of ever evolving valuations of goals and objectives. These valuations are never truly fixed. They are constantly evolving, being modified and shaped by experience. The error prediction network and learning related networks work in concert with the limbic system to allow affect laden experiences to inform the process of valuation. These networks, operating in concert, produce a cognitive process we call motivation. Like most networks, the motivation system of networks is recruited when the task demands of the situation require them. Understanding motivation from this perspective has profound implications for many scientific disciplines in general and psychology in specific. Psychologically, this new understanding will alter how we understand client behavior in therapy and when being evaluated. This new understanding will provide direction for new therapeutic intervention for a variety of disorders of mental health. It will also inform testing practices concerning the evaluation of effort and malingering. This book is not a project in reductionism. It is the polar opposite. A neural network understanding of the operation of the human brain allows for the integration of what has come before into a comprehensive and integrated model. It will likely provide the basis for future research for years to come.

Thinking and Deciding

Thinking and Deciding Book
Author : Jonathan Baron
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2006-10-22
ISBN : 113946602X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Beginning with its first edition and through subsequent editions, Thinking and Deciding has established itself as the required text and important reference work for students and scholars of human cognition and rationality. In this fourth edition, first published in 2007, Jonathan Baron retains the comprehensive attention to the key questions addressed in the previous editions - how should we think? What, if anything, keeps us from thinking that way? How can we improve our thinking and decision making? - and his expanded treatment of topics such as risk, utilitarianism, Baye's theorem, and moral thinking. With the student in mind, the fourth edition emphasises the development of an understanding of the fundamental concepts in judgement and decision making. This book is essential reading for students and scholars in judgement and decision making and related fields, including psychology, economics, law, medicine, and business.

Neuroeconomics

Neuroeconomics Book
Author : Paul W. Glimcher,Ernst Fehr
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2013-08-13
ISBN : 0123914698
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In the years since it first published, Neuroeconomics: Decision Making and the Brain has become the standard reference and textbook in the burgeoning field of neuroeconomics. The second edition, a nearly complete revision of this landmark book, will set a new standard. This new edition features five sections designed to serve as both classroom-friendly introductions to each of the major subareas in neuroeconomics, and as advanced synopses of all that has been accomplished in the last two decades in this rapidly expanding academic discipline. The first of these sections provides useful introductions to the disciplines of microeconomics, the psychology of judgment and decision, computational neuroscience, and anthropology for scholars and students seeking interdisciplinary breadth. The second section provides an overview of how human and animal preferences are represented in the mammalian nervous systems. Chapters on risk, time preferences, social preferences, emotion, pharmacology, and common neural currencies—each written by leading experts—lay out the foundations of neuroeconomic thought. The third section contains both overview and in-depth chapters on the fundamentals of reinforcement learning, value learning, and value representation. The fourth section, “The Neural Mechanisms for Choice, integrates what is known about the decision-making architecture into state-of-the-art models of how we make choices. The final section embeds these mechanisms in a larger social context, showing how these mechanisms function during social decision-making in both humans and animals. The book provides a historically rich exposition in each of its chapters and emphasizes both the accomplishments and the controversies in the field. A clear explanatory style and a single expository voice characterize all chapters, making core issues in economics, psychology, and neuroscience accessible to scholars from all disciplines. The volume is essential reading for anyone interested in neuroeconomics in particular or decision making in general. Editors and contributing authors are among the acknowledged experts and founders in the field, making this the authoritative reference for neuroeconomics Suitable as an advanced undergraduate or graduate textbook as well as a thorough reference for active researchers Introductory chapters on economics, psychology, neuroscience, and anthropology provide students and scholars from any discipline with the keys to understanding this interdisciplinary field Detailed chapters on subjects that include reinforcement learning, risk, inter-temporal choice, drift-diffusion models, game theory, and prospect theory make this an invaluable reference Published in association with the Society for Neuroeconomics—www.neuroeconomics.org Full-color presentation throughout with numerous carefully selected illustrations to highlight key concepts

Goal Directed Decision Making

Goal Directed Decision Making Book
Author : Richard W. Morris,Aaron Bornstein,Amitai Shenhav
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2018-09-13
ISBN : 9780128120989
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Goal-Directed Decision Making: Computations and Neural Circuits examines the role of goal-directed choice. It begins with an examination of the computations performed by associated circuits, but then moves on to in-depth examinations on how goal-directed learning interacts with other forms of choice and response selection. This is the only book that embraces the multidisciplinary nature of this area of decision-making, integrating our knowledge of goal-directed decision-making from basic, computational, clinical, and ethology research into a single resource that is invaluable for neuroscientists, psychologists and computer scientists alike. The book presents discussions on the broader field of decision-making and how it has expanded to incorporate ideas related to flexible behaviors, such as cognitive control, economic choice, and Bayesian inference, as well as the influences that motivation, context and cues have on behavior and decision-making. Details the neural circuits functionally involved in goal-directed decision-making and the computations these circuits perform Discusses changes in goal-directed decision-making spurred by development and disorders, and within real-world applications, including social contexts and addiction Synthesizes neuroscience, psychology and computer science research to offer a unique perspective on the central and emerging issues in goal-directed decision-making

The Routines of Decision Making

The Routines of Decision Making Book
Author : Tilmann Betsch,Susanne Haberstroh
Publisher : Psychology Press
Release : 2014-04-04
ISBN : 1135622949
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Experience is currently a hot theme in decision making. For a long time, decision research was almost exclusively focused on new decisions and neglected the importance of experience. It took the field until the 1990s for a new direction in research and theorizing to become visible in the literature. There are parallel movements happening in sociology, political science, social psychology, and business. The purpose of this edited book is to provide a balanced and representative overview of what is currently known about the dynamics of experienced-based decision making. The chapters are written by renowned experts in the field and provide the latest theoretical developments, integrative frameworks, and state-of-the-art reviews of research in the laboratory and in the field.

Goal directed Behavior

Goal directed Behavior Book
Author : Henk Aarts,Andrew J. Elliot
Publisher : Psychology Press
Release : 2012
ISBN : 1848728735
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

First Published in 2012. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

The Prefrontal Cortex

The Prefrontal Cortex Book
Author : Joaquin M. Fuster
Publisher : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Release : 1997
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download The Prefrontal Cortex book written by Joaquin M. Fuster, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Neuroscience of Decision Making

Neuroscience of Decision Making Book
Author : Oshin Vartanian,David R. Mandel
Publisher : Psychology Press
Release : 2011-04-14
ISBN : 113685987X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume€capitalizes on recent advances in the neurosciences to address key issues in behavioral decision theory, with implications for psychology, economics, and law. Drawing on the insights of leading researchers, it provides a broad overview of how decision processes may be grounded within a brain model.

Applied and Systemic Structural Activity Theory

Applied and Systemic Structural Activity Theory Book
Author : Gregory Z. Bedny,Inna S. Bedny
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2019
ISBN : 9780429466311
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents new data in Applied Activity Theory (AAT) and Systemic-Structural Activity Theory (SSAT), that can be used in the study of human performance. The SSAT is the high-level generality theory that offers standardized principles of the analyses of human activity. These principles can be utilized in theoretical and applied studies. This multi-contributed book offers a selection of works that will provide a holistic picture of the field. The new data can be utilized for the study of extremely complex human-machine and human-computer interaction systems, and for evaluation of efficiency, complexity, and reliability of such systems at the design stage. Features Shows examples of self-regulative models of various cognitive processes Illustrates a method of study of production process in the construction industry Includes topics on learning, training, and management Covers a new method of computer based automated support of decision making under risk and uncertainty Presents a new method of evaluation of probabilistic structure of tasks, and the method of assessing reliability of human performance

Animal Thinking

Animal Thinking Book
Author : Randolf Menzel,Julia Fischer
Publisher : MIT Press
Release : 2011-11-04
ISBN : 026201663X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Experts from psychology, neuroscience, philosophy, ecology, and evolutionary biology assess the field of animal cognition. Do animals have cognitive maps? Do they possess knowledge? Do they plan for the future? Do they understand that others have mental lives of their own? This volume provides a state-of-the-art assessment of animal cognition, with experts from psychology, neuroscience, philosophy, ecology, and evolutionary biology addressing these questions in an integrative fashion. It summarizes the latest research, identifies areas where consensus has been reached, and takes on current controversies. Over the last thirty years, the field has shifted from the collection of anecdotes and the pursuit of the subjective experience of animals to a rigorous, hypothesis-driven experimental approach. Taking a skeptical stance, this volume stresses the notion that in many cases relatively simple rules may account for rather complex and flexible behaviors. The book critically evaluates current concepts and puts a strong focus on the psychological mechanisms that underpin animal behavior. It offers comparative analyses that reveal common principles as well as adaptations that evolved in particular species in response to specific selective pressures. It assesses experimental approaches to the study of animal navigation, decision making, social cognition, and communication and suggests directions for future research. The book promotes a research program that seeks to understand animals' cognitive abilities and behavioral routines as individuals and as members of social groups.

Goal based Reasoning for Argumentation

Goal based Reasoning for Argumentation Book
Author : Douglas Walton
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2015-08-25
ISBN : 1107119049
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Practical argumentation is intelligent reasoning from an agent's goals and known circumstances , and from an action selected as a means, to arrive at a decision on what action to take. This book will appeal to a wide audience, from designers of multi-agent and robotics systems to social scientists.

Working with Goals in Psychotherapy and Counselling

Working with Goals in Psychotherapy and Counselling Book
Author : Mick Cooper,Duncan Law
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2018-01-05
ISBN : 0192512374
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Recent evidence has shown that the successful setting of goals brings about positive outcomes in psychological therapy. Goals help to focus and direct clients' and therapists' attention in therapeutic work. They also engender hope and help energise clients. No longer are clients victims of their circumstances, but through goal setting they become people who have the potential to act towards and achieve their desired futures. Through the discussing and setting of goals, clients develop a deeper insight into what it is that they really want in life: a crucial first step towards being able to get there. Recent policies in both child and adult mental health services have supported the use of goals in therapy. However, the differing cultures, histories, psychologies, and philosophical assumptions of each form of therapy has brought about varying attitudes and approaches to goal setting. Working with Goals in Counselling and Psychotherapy brings the attitudes of all the major therapeutic orientations together in one volume. With examples from cognitive behaviour therapy, psychodynamic therapy, humanistic therapy, interpersonal therapy, and systemic therapy Working with Goals in Counselling and Psychotherapy truly is the definitive guide for therapists seeking to work with goals in any of the psychological therapies.

Goal driven Learning

Goal driven Learning Book
Author : Ashwin Ram,David B. Leake,David Leake
Publisher : MIT Press
Release : 1995
ISBN : 9780262181655
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Brings together a diversity of research on goal-driven learning to establish a broad, interdisciplinary framework that describes the goal-driven learning process. In cognitive science, artificial intelligence, psychology, and education, a growing body of research supports the view that the learning process is strongly influenced by the learner's goals. The fundamental tenet of goal-driven learning is that learning is largely an active and strategic process in which the learner, human or machine, attempts to identify and satisfy its information needs in the context of its tasks and goals, its prior knowledge, its capabilities, and environmental opportunities for learning. This book brings together a diversity of research on goal-driven learning to establish a broad, interdisciplinary framework that describes the goal-driven learning process. It collects and solidifies existing results on this important issue in machine and human learning and presents a theoretical framework for future investigations. The book opens with an an overview of goal-driven learning research and computational and cognitive models of the goal-driven learning process. This introduction is followed by a collection of fourteen recent research articles addressing fundamental issues of the field, including psychological and functional arguments for modeling learning as a deliberative, planful process; experimental evaluation of the benefits of utility-based analysis to guide decisions about what to learn; case studies of computational models in which learning is driven by reasoning about learning goals; psychological evidence for human goal-driven learning; and the ramifications of goal-driven learning in educational contexts. The second part of the book presents six position papers reflecting ongoing research and current issues in goal-driven learning. Issues discussed include methods for pursuing psychological studies of goal-driven learning, frameworks for the design of active and multistrategy learning systems, and methods for selecting and balancing the goals that drive learning. A Bradford Book

The Routines of Decision Making

The Routines of Decision Making Book
Author : Tilmann Betsch,Susanne Haberstroh
Publisher : Psychology Press
Release : 2014-04-04
ISBN : 1135622957
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Experience is currently a hot theme in decision making. For a long time, decision research was almost exclusively focused on new decisions and neglected the importance of experience. It took the field until the 1990s for a new direction in research and theorizing to become visible in the literature. There are parallel movements happening in sociology, political science, social psychology, and business. The purpose of this edited book is to provide a balanced and representative overview of what is currently known about the dynamics of experienced-based decision making. The chapters are written by renowned experts in the field and provide the latest theoretical developments, integrative frameworks, and state-of-the-art reviews of research in the laboratory and in the field.

The Handbook of Behavior Change

The Handbook of Behavior Change Book
Author : Martin S. Hagger,Linda D. Cameron,Kyra Hamilton,Nelli Hankonen,Taru Lintunen
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2020-07-15
ISBN : 1108750117
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Social problems in many domains, including health, education, social relationships, and the workplace, have their origins in human behavior. The documented links between behavior and social problems have compelled governments and organizations to prioritize and mobilize efforts to develop effective, evidence-based means to promote adaptive behavior change. In recognition of this impetus, The Handbook of Behavior Change provides comprehensive coverage of contemporary theory, research, and practice on behavior change. It summarizes current evidence-based approaches to behavior change in chapters authored by leading theorists, researchers, and practitioners from multiple disciplines, including psychology, sociology, behavioral science, economics, philosophy, and implementation science. It is the go-to resource for researchers, students, practitioners, and policy makers looking for current knowledge on behavior change and guidance on how to develop effective interventions to change behavior.

Motivating Humans

Motivating Humans Book
Author : Martin E. Ford
Publisher : SAGE Publications
Release : 1992-10-06
ISBN : 1452245762
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume provides a precise and comprehensive description of human motivation. Drawing on psychology, education and management, Ford integrates classic and contemporary motivation theory into a unified framework - Motivational Systems Theory - from which he derives 17 principles for motivating people. The book provides concrete examples throughout and includes a chapter on practical applications such as: promoting social responsibility in young people; increasing motivation for learning and school achievement; increasing work productivity and job satisfaction; and helping people lead emotionally healthy lives.

Serotonin and Sleep Molecular Functional and Clinical Aspects

Serotonin and Sleep  Molecular  Functional and Clinical Aspects Book
Author : Jaime M. Monti,S. R. Pandi-Perumal,Barry L. Jacobs,David J. Nutt
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2008-03-04
ISBN : 3764385618
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book focuses on the neuropsychopharmacology of serotonin and its role in sleep and wakefulness, presenting neurochemical, electrophysiological, and neuropharmacological approaches to understand the mechanisms of serotonin and related substances. Covering core and contemporary topics in the area, this volume is valuable for all researchers interested in interdisciplinary studies concerning drugs affecting the central nervous system.