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Policy Issues in Genetically Modified Crops

Policy Issues in Genetically Modified Crops Book
Author : Pardeep Singh,Anwesha Borthakur,Aditya Abha Singh,Ajay Kumar,Kshitij K. Singh
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-11-20
ISBN : 0128209453
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Policy Issues in Genetically Modified Crops: A Global Perspective contains both theoretical and empirical evidence of a broad range of aspects of GM crop policies throughout the world. Emphasizing world agriculture production and ethics of GM crops, the book balances insights into the various discussions around the use of GM crops including soil health, effects on animals, environmental sustainability impact, and ethical issues. The book presents aspects of GM crop policies and prevailing controversies throughout the world, in 5 sections containing 23 chapters. Beginning with the discussion of the policies related to GM crops, the book dives deep into issues related to food insecurity, agricultural sustainability, food safety, and environmental risks. Section 5 also captures the recent advances in agricultural biotechnology encompassing research trends, the nano-biotech approach to plant genetic engineering, and other transformation techniques in crop development. The contributors of the book represent different backgrounds, providing a holistic overview of diverse approaches and perspectives. Policy Issues in Genetically Modified Crops: A Global Perspective is a valuable resource for researchers in agricultural policy and economics, agricultural biotechnology, soil science, genetic engineering, ethics, environmental management, sustainable development, and NGOs. Discusses ethics, varieties, research trends, success, and challenges of genetic modification Addresses both crop production and potential health impacts Includes extensive theoretical research and studies

GM Crop Policies and Challenges

GM Crop Policies and Challenges Book
Author : Pardeep Singh,Anwesha Borthakur,Rishikesh Singh,Ajay Kumar
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2022-01-17
ISBN : 9780323851459
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Policy Issues in Genetically Modified Crops: Global Policies and Practices contains both theoretical and empirical evidence of a broad range of aspects of GM crop policies throughout the world. Emphasizing world agriculture production and ethics of GM crops, the book balances insights into the various discussions around the use of GM crops including soil health, effects on animals, environmental sustainability impact, and ethical issues. Modern agriculture is directly and explicitly characterized by the adoption of new technologies, their developmental processes and emerging scientific approaches. The recent trends of agriculture are not limited to capital-intensive agricultural production. GM is increasingly regarded as an option in transforming traditional agriculture practices to modern and more efficient means of feeding the world. This book will be useful for researchers in agricultural policy and economics, agricultural biotechnology, soil science, genetic engineering, ethics, environmental management, sustainable development and NGOs. Discusses ethics, varieties, research trends, and success stories of genetic modification Includes both crop production and human health impacts Compares and contrasts GM policies from around the world

The Politics of Precaution

The Politics of Precaution Book
Author : Robert L. Paarlberg
Publisher : Intl Food Policy Res Inst
Release : 2001-09-17
ISBN : 0801868238
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Genetically modified (GM) food crops have inspired increasing controversy over the past decade. By the mid-1990s they were widely grown in the U.S., Canada, and Argentina, but precautionary regulations continue to limit their use elsewhere. The restrictive policies of Europe and Japan toward GM crops have been much discussed. Less attention has been paid to the policies affecting the adoption of GM crops in the developing world, where their potential impact on the availability and quality of food is even greater. In this book Robert Paarlberg looks at the policy choices regarding GM food made by four important developing countries: Kenya, Brazil, India, and China. Of these, so far only China has approved the planting of GM crops. Paarlberg identifies five policy areas in which governments of developing countries can either support or discourage GM crops: intellectual property rights, biosafety, trade, food safety, and public research and investment. He notes that highly cautious biosafety policies have so far been the key reason that Kenya, Brazil, and India have hesitated to plant GM crops. These cautious policies have been strongly reinforced by international market forces and international diplomatic and NGO pressures. China has been less cautious toward GM crops, in part because there is less opportunity in China for international organizations or independent critics of GM crops to challenge official policy.

Biotechnology Regulation and Trade

Biotechnology Regulation and Trade Book
Author : Stuart J. Smyth,William A. Kerr,Peter W. B Phillips
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-03-02
ISBN : 3319532952
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book discusses the regulatory and trade challenges facing the global adoption of biotechnological products and offers strategies for overcoming these obstacles and moving towards greater global food security. The first section of the book establishes the context of the conflict, discussing the challenges of global governance, international trade, and the history of regulation of genetically modified (GM) crops. In this section, the authors emphasize the shift from exclusively science-based regulation to the more socio-economically focused framework established by the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, which was adopted in 2000. The second section of the book provides a snapshot of the current state of international GM crop adoption and regulation, highlighting the US, Canada, and the EU. The final section of the book identifies options for breaking the gridlock of regulation and trade that presently exist. This book adds to the current literature by providing new information about innovative agricultural technologies and encouraging debate by providing an alternative to the narratives espoused by environmental non-governmental organizations. This book will appeal to students of economics, political science, and policy analysis, as well as members of regulatory agencies and agricultural industry firms.

Regulating Next Generation Agri Food Biotechnologies

Regulating Next Generation Agri Food Biotechnologies Book
Author : Michael Howlett,David Laycock
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2013-05-07
ISBN : 1136338446
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Agri-food bio-technology policy and regulation is transitioning from an early period focused on genetic engineering technologies to ‘next-generation’ rules and regulatory processes linked to challenges originating in a wide variety of new technological processes and applications. Can lessons learned from past and current regulatory oversights of agricultural biotechnology – and other high-technology sectors – help us address new and emerging regulatory challenges in the agri-food genetics sector? The expert contributors in this volume discuss the experiences of a wide range of North American, European and Asian countries with high technology regulation to address four key questions related to the past and future development of agri-food genomics regulation across the globe. how unique is agri-food biotechology regulation, and how can it be evaluated using the existing tools of regulatory analysis developed in examinations of other sectors? is a ‘government to governance’ model of regulatory regime development found in many other sectors relevant in this rapidly evolving sphere of activity? is a stages model of regulatory regime development accurate? And, if so, at which stage are we currently positioned in the regulation of agri-food genomics products and technologies? what drives movement between stages in different countries and sectors? In assessing such drivers, what are the key links between sectoral (meso) developments and more general macro and micro developments such as international relations and administrative behaviour? By updating, extending and challenging earlier empirical and theoretical social science perspectives on agricultural bio-technological regulation, this volume helps to inform future policy formulation. It will be of interest to practitioners and students of biotechnology, agriculture, and science and technology policy, and regulatory processes more generally.

Genetically Modified Crops

Genetically Modified Crops Book
Author : Nuffield Council on Bioethics
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1999
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This report examines the ethical and social issues associated with the development and cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops, particularly in relation to: the scientific background and techniques used in genetic modification; the potential of GM crops; commercial and legal implications; implications for the developing world; consumer concerns; environmental concerns; regulation and policy issues.

Towards a new regulatory framework for GM crops in the European Union

Towards a new regulatory framework for GM crops in the European Union Book
Author : Leire Escajedo San-Epifanio
Publisher : Wageningen Academic Publishers
Release : 2017-09-11
ISBN : 9086868452
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Aware of the significant potential of nascent biotechnologies, the European Economic Community (the predecessor to the European Union) was one of the first regions in the world to develop a regulatory framework for them. Back in the 1980s, the objective of Community member countries was to strengthen the standards of consensus and collaboration, and of environmental and health safety, as well as to promote an industrial sector of enormous potential. In spite of all effort, towards the end of the 1990s it was a widely accepted fact that a number of political and economic factors were blocking the development of biotechnology in Europe. From that crisis emerged what in some aspects is probably the most comprehensive and rigorous body of regulations for biotechnology in the world today. However, the very high technical level of those regulations did not prevent a new crisis which EU institutions aim to solve with a new regulatory framework. Thus, since March 2015, the way towards the third regulatory framework for Biotechnology in the EU has been open. Will this third regulatory framework finally offer sufficient guarantees to allow a healthy and sustainable development of biotechnology in the EU? What do we need to do so that 'third time is lucky'? In this work, a group of European and non-European experts, from different disciplines and approaches, discuss the past and the present, as well as the various possible futures, of Genetically Modified Crops in the EU.

Genetically modified crops in Africa

Genetically modified crops in Africa Book
Author : Falck-Zepeda, José Benjamin,Gruère, Guillaume P.,Sithole-Niang, Idah
Publisher : Intl Food Policy Res Inst
Release : 2013-10-02
ISBN : 0896297950
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A variable climate, political instability, and other constraints have limited agricultural development in African countries south of the Sahara. Genetically modified (GM) crops are one tool for enhancing agricultural productivity and food security despite such constraints. Genetically Modified Crops in Africa: Economic and Policy Lessons from Countries South of the Sahara investigates how this tool might be effectively used by evaluating the benefits, costs, and risks for African countries of adopting GM crops. The authors gather together studies on GM crops’ economic effects and impact on trade, how consumers view such crops, and other issues. They find that GM crops have had, on average, a positive economic effect in the nations where they were used and identify future steps for enhancing GM crop adoption’s positive effects. Promising policy initiatives include making biosafety regulations that do not make GM crop development prohibitively expensive, fostering intraregional trade in GM crops, and providing more and better information about GM crops to consumers who might currently be skeptical of them. These and other findings in Genetically Modified Crops in Africa indicate ways biotechnology can contribute to economic development in Africa south of the Sahara.

International Trade and Policies for Genetically Modified Products

International Trade and Policies for Genetically Modified Products Book
Author : Robert Eugene Evenson,V. Santaniello
Publisher : CABI
Release : 2006
ISBN : 0851990568
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Part 1: Analytical Studies: 1.Biotechnology risks and project interdependence, Odin K. Knudsen and Pasquale L. Scandizzo. 2. Restricted monopoly R & D pricing: uncertainty, irreversibility and non-market effect, Robert D. Weaver and Justus Wesseler. 3. Biotechnology and the emergence of club behavior in agricultural trade, Monika Tothova and James F. Oehmke. 4. The labelling of genetically modified products in a global trading environment, Stefania Scandizzo. Part 2: Empirical trade studies: 5. Tree biotechnology: regulation and international trade, Roger A. Sedjo. 6. Commercialized products of biotechnology and trade pattern effects, Stuart Smyth, William A. Kerr and Kelley A. Davey. Part 3: Spillover dimensions: 7. The coexistence of GM and non-GM arable crops in the EU: economic and market considerations, Graham Brookes. 8. Research spillovers in biotech industry: The case of canola, Richard S. Gray, Stavroula Malla and Kien Tran. 9. Mergers, acquisitions and flows of agbiotech intellectual property, David Schimmelpfennig and John King. 10. The Impact of regulation on the development of new products in the food industry, Klaus Menrad and Knut Blind. Part 4: Intellectual property rights. 11. Patents versus plant varietal protection, Derek Eaton and Frank van Tongerun. 12. Governing innovative science: challenges facing the commercialization of plant-made pharmaceuticals, Stuart Smyth, George Khachatourians and Peter W.B. Phillips. 13. Are GURTs needed to remedy intellectual property failures and environmental Problems with GM Crops?, Geoff Budd. Part 5: Applied general equilibrium trade models 14. Economic effects of producing or banning G.M. crops, Janine Flatau and P. Michael Schmitz. 15. Opposition to genetically modified wheat and global food security, Faycal Haggui, Peter W.B. Phillips and Richard S. Gray. 16. International impacts of Bt cotton adoption, George B. Frisvold, Russell Trosvold, Russell Tronstad and Jeanne M. Reeves.

Global Governance of Food Production and Consumption

Global Governance of Food Production and Consumption Book
Author : Peter Oosterveer
Publisher : Edward Elgar Publishing
Release : 2007-01-01
ISBN : 9781782543893
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The provision of food is undergoing radical transformations throughout the global community. Peter Oosterveer argues that, as a consequence, conventional national governmental regulations can no longer adequately respond to existing and emerging food risks and to environmental concerns. This book examines these challenges.

The Limits to Governance

The Limits to Governance Book
Author : Theo Papaioannou
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2016-03-03
ISBN : 1317025296
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Does the state still frame debates about new technology? Can policy-makers ensure the benefits of health developments through genomics while still satisfying the expectations of society and the economic imperatives? In this critique of the new governance agenda for research and innovation in life sciences, the authors discuss the world-wide policy decisions needed, with particular reference to genomics. They suggest the many facets of policy and could be treated as a government-governance continuum, where different aspects of genomics may sit at different points, and co-exist. Their findings offer valuable insights for the future and will help promote a global solution to this problem.

Environmental Pest Management

Environmental Pest Management Book
Author : Moshe Coll,Eric Wajnberg
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2017-10-02
ISBN : 1119255554
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

18.4 Characteristics of Top-down, Environmental Pest Management -- References -- Index -- EULA

Governing the GM Crop Revolution

Governing the GM Crop Revolution Book
Author : Peter Gruhn,Robert L. Paarlberg,Francesco Goletti,Montague Yudelman
Publisher : Intl Food Policy Res Inst
Release : 2000
ISBN : 0896296385
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Governing the GM Crop Revolution book written by Peter Gruhn,Robert L. Paarlberg,Francesco Goletti,Montague Yudelman, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Assessing the development impacts of bio innovations The case of genetically modified maize and cassava in Tanzania

Assessing the development impacts of bio innovations  The case of genetically modified maize and cassava in Tanzania Book
Author : Benfica, Rui,Patricia Zambrano,Judy Chambers,Jose Falck-Zepeda
Publisher : Intl Food Policy Res Inst
Release : 2022-02-28
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Tanzania’s agriculture faces persistent low crop productivity due to endogenous and exogenous factors, particularly low and unpredictable rainfall, and the incidence of pests. To address these challenges, the government and partners are making efforts to develop and deploy Genetically Modified (GM) Maize varieties with drought tolerance and insect resistant traits (WEMA), and Cassava Brown Streak Disease (CBSD) resistant varieties. This analysis overcomes limitations from earlier assessments of the impacts of those GM crops by accounting for trade-offs in resource competition and considering the indirect effects of adoption and yield gains from GM maize and cassava varieties on the broader economy, the Agri-Food System (AFS), and on household level outcomes. It extends the BioRAPP analysis to an ex-ante economywide framework. We reveal several findings. First, GM maize and cassava (individually and jointly) have positive impacts in the economy, the AFS, and the poverty, particularly in rural areas and among the poorest households. Second, given its relatively greater relevance in output and employment, and the stronger linkages in the AFS, the effects of GM maize on GDP and AFS growth, and poverty is relatively stronger than those from GM cassava. Third, as expected, relatively greater effects are found in higher adoption and high yield gains scenarios, and, in each scenario, the effects on the poorest households are greater than that for the higher quintiles. Furthermore, differential impact across scenarios is also greater amongst the poorest, while the differences are minimal for the top quintile. Finally, the high variation of results across scenarios, and the significant effects of the high adoption/high yield change scenario, suggest that efforts will be critical to ensure the realization of the maximization of adoption rates while ensuring the materialization of the yield growth potential of the GM varieties through the efficient use of technical recommendations on crop production management, and the introduction of the right investments and policy incentives.

Food Farms and Solidarity

Food  Farms  and Solidarity Book
Author : Chaia Heller
Publisher : Duke University Press
Release : 2013-01-28
ISBN : 0822394804
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Confédération Paysanne, one of France's largest farmers' unions, has successfully fought against genetically modified organisms (GMOs), but unlike other allied movements, theirs has been led by producers rather than consumers. In Food, Farms, and Solidarity, Chaia Heller analyzes the group's complex strategies and campaigns, including a call for a Europe-wide ban on GM crops and hormone-treated beef, and a protest staged at a McDonald's. Her study of the Confédération Paysanne shows the challenges small farms face in a postindustrial agricultural world. Heller also reveals how the language the union uses to argue against GMOs encompasses more than the risks they pose; emphasizing solidarity has allowed farmers to focus on food as a cultural practice and align themselves with other workers. Heller's examination of the Confédération Paysanne's commitment to a vision of alter-globalization, the idea of substantive alternatives to neoliberal globalization, demonstrates how ecological and social justice can be restored in the world.

Unfinished Puzzle

Unfinished Puzzle Book
Author : May Ling Chan,Eduardo Francisco Freyre Roach
Publisher : Food First Books
Release : 2013-01-01
ISBN : 0935028404
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cuba is widely recognized for its social achievements including health care, education, social security, subsidized food and other benefits and opportunities, despite well-meaning, or sometimes not so well-meaning, international criticisms. For more than 50 years, this Caribbean island has defended and sustained these economic, political, social and cultural gains, and has maintained a commitment to humanitarianism and international solidarity that persists to this day. Part one of Unfinished Puzzle describes the socioeconomic context of Cuban agriculture, the natural environment that affect it and the international political context in which it has developed. Part two explores the unique agricultural policies Cubans implemented to confront the food and economic crises of the early 1990s. Finally, part three examines the lessons to be learned from the Cuban experience with respect to local development, sustainable agriculture, agroecology, food security and food sovereignty. It highlights the elements of the Cuban system most suitable for replication in other countries facing similar circumstances or challenges.

Building Sustainable Agriculture for Food Security in the Euro Mediterranean Area

Building Sustainable Agriculture for Food Security in the Euro Mediterranean Area Book
Author : Maria Cristina Paciello
Publisher : Edizioni Nuova Cultura
Release : 2015-06-19
ISBN : 8868125080
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Sustainable agrocolture and food security are of particular concern for the countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, and represent one of the biggest challenges facing the area. As a consequence of the region’s heavy reliance on food imports, the sharp increase in food prices since 2007 and the consequent world food crisis has had macro-economic problems (inflation, trade deficits, fiscal pressure), increased poverty and political instability. This challenge, coupled with the consequences of environmental degradation, water scarcity, urbanization and climate stress, call for the urgent development of sustainable agriculture has mostly been ignored in Euro-Mediterranean relations, due to strong opposition from the EU. However, academics and policymakers have increasingly acknowlendged that agriculture that needs to be placed at the core of Euro-Mediterranean regional cooperation. Given the sensitiveness and strategic importance of agriculture for both shores of the Mediterranean, the IAI and the OCP Policy Center jointly organized a two-day conference in Rabat on November 20-21, 2014, to discuss food security and agriculture challeges in the framework of Euro-Mediterranean relations. The present colume collects the updated and revised versions of the twelve papers that were discussed in that meeting.

Meeting Policy Challenges for a Sustainable Bioeconomy

Meeting Policy Challenges for a Sustainable Bioeconomy Book
Author : OECD
Publisher : OECD Publishing
Release : 2018-04-19
ISBN : 9264292349
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This publication investigates key aspects surrounding the sustainability of bioeconomy development: the use of biomass as feedstock for future production; the design and building of biorefineries for the manufacture of a range of fuels, chemicals and materials, and also for electricity generation.

International Conference on 21st Century Challenges to Sustainable Agri Food Systems

International Conference on 21st Century Challenges to Sustainable Agri Food Systems Book
Author : P. G. Chengappa,Nareppa Nagaraj,Ramesh Kanwar
Publisher : I. K. International Pvt Ltd
Release : 2007-01-01
ISBN : 818986629X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Of late, farming community in India has been facing new challenges of food and nutrition security, human health and structural adjustment to comply with WTO stipulations on the one hand and sustainable environment on the other. The overuse of fertilizers and chemicals, and depleting water resources are essentially threatening the sustainability of Indian agriculture. The slow growth of agriculture sector mainly due to stagnation in productivity growth is a grave concern for policy-makers and development planners. The key challenge to India's agriculture in the 21st century in the wake of open global economy lies in designing, developing and managing agricultural systems that enable farmers to be efficient, equitable and sustainable in the bio-physical and socio-cultural environments. This book has deliberated on the key issues of sustainable agriculture in the context of emerging technologies, policies and institutions by promoting efficiency, equity and better management of natural resources. In the process, thoughts and experience of world-class leaders in agricultural education, research, extension, policy, agri-business and development in addressing the challenges confronting farmers have been documented