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Global Navigation Satellite System Monitoring Of The Atmosphere

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Global Navigation Satellite System Monitoring of the Atmosphere

Global Navigation Satellite System Monitoring of the Atmosphere Book
Author : Guergana Guerova,Tzvetan Simeonov
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-09-11
ISBN : 0128191538
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) monitoring of the atmosphere is an interdisciplinary topic: a collaboration between geodetic and atmospheric communities. As such, this topic requires sufficient basic knowledge about both GNSS and the atmosphere. Global Navigation Satellite System Monitoring of the Atmosphere begins by introducing GNSS, its components, and signals. It then explains the basics of the atmosphere, starting from the ionosphere to the troposphere. The GNSS tropospheric monitoring is separated for application in numerical weather prediction and nowcasting. Further chapters focus on the application of GNSS for monitoring the climate as well as soil moisture. Finally, the book concludes by discussing GNSS processing along with introducing the latest developments and applications for using atmospheric data to provide precise real-time GNSS products. Explains the basics of GNSS positioning and signals Includes the state of the art in GNSS observations of the atmosphere and hydrosphere Presents the basics of numerical weather prediction and analysis

Springer Handbook of Global Navigation Satellite Systems

Springer Handbook of Global Navigation Satellite Systems Book
Author : Peter Teunissen,Oliver Montenbruck
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-06-16
ISBN : 3319429280
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This Handbook presents a complete and rigorous overview of the fundamentals, methods and applications of the multidisciplinary field of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), providing an exhaustive, one-stop reference work and a state-of-the-art description of GNSS as a key technology for science and society at large. All global and regional satellite navigation systems, both those currently in operation and those under development (GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou, QZSS, IRNSS/NAVIC, SBAS), are examined in detail. The functional principles of receivers and antennas, as well as the advanced algorithms and models for GNSS parameter estimation, are rigorously discussed. The book covers the broad and diverse range of land, marine, air and space applications, from everyday GNSS to high-precision scientific applications and provides detailed descriptions of the most widely used GNSS format standards, covering receiver formats as well as IGS product and meta-data formats. The full coverage of the field of GNSS is presented in seven parts, from its fundamentals, through the treatment of global and regional navigation satellite systems, of receivers and antennas, and of algorithms and models, up to the broad and diverse range of applications in the areas of positioning and navigation, surveying, geodesy and geodynamics, and remote sensing and timing. Each chapter is written by international experts and amply illustrated with figures and photographs, making the book an invaluable resource for scientists, engineers, students and institutions alike.

Global Navigation Satellite System Monitoring of the Atmosphere

Global Navigation Satellite System Monitoring of the Atmosphere Book
Author : Guergana Guerova,Tzvetan Simeonov
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-10-08
ISBN : 012819152X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) monitoring of the atmosphere is an interdisciplinary topic: a collaboration between geodetic and atmospheric communities. As such, this topic requires sufficient basic knowledge about both GNSS and the atmosphere. Global Navigation Satellite System Monitoring of the Atmosphere begins by introducing GNSS, its components, and signals. It then explains the basics of the atmosphere, starting from the ionosphere to the troposphere. The GNSS tropospheric monitoring is separated for application in numerical weather prediction and nowcasting. Further chapters focus on the application of GNSS for monitoring the climate as well as soil moisture. Finally, the book concludes by discussing GNSS processing along with introducing the latest developments and applications for using atmospheric data to provide precise real-time GNSS products. Explains the basics of GNSS positioning and signals Includes the state of the art in GNSS observations of the atmosphere and hydrosphere Presents the basics of numerical weather prediction and analysis

Civil Liability for Damage Caused by Global Navigation Satellite System

Civil Liability for Damage Caused by Global Navigation Satellite System Book
Author : Dejian Kong
Publisher : Kluwer Law International B.V.
Release : 2019-05-24
ISBN : 9403512334
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

It has come to pass that national security, economic growth, and transportation safety – not to mention such infrastructure as banking and electricity – are severely dependent on the positioning information, navigation capabilities, and time dissemination provided by Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). However, GNSS is not risk-free. The more humanity depends on GNSS, the more risks it has to face. It is irresponsible to wait for an accident to happen merely to justify the need for an appropriate GNSS civil liability regime. This hugely important book examines the structure of such a regime in unprecedented depth and proposes a uniform governance structure composed of an institutional framework and a legal system for GNSS, with safety-of-life signals at its core. Exploring whether the current international law (including air law and space law conventions) is adequate to deal with the issue of civil liability in the context of GNSS, the author confronts and responds to such crucial issues as the following: ensuring that parties suffering damage caused by GNSS get fair, prompt, and adequate compensation; balancing the interests of the GNSS industry in order for it to maintain its sustainable development; identifying legal gaps arising in the GNSS context and how we should move forward; determining which parts of the value chain of GNSS may qualify as origins of damage; and construing GNSS civil liability mainly from contractual, product, and general tort liability perspectives. The author assesses various solutions for GNSS civil liability based on their feasibility, including an institutional defence against the doctrine of sovereign immunity and recommendations on how several international organisations can work together in this endeavour. He examines scholarships, travaux préparatoires, conference documents, and treaties, as well as national legislation. A hypothetical case where damage is caused by GNSS is elaborated, illustrating each legal relationship and causal link. In its committed urging of GNSS signal providers to improve the stability of the satellite navigation systems and its insightful recommendations on how to promote public safety, this book offers a roadmap indicating a truly viable international regime of GNSS civil liability. Relevant international organisations and States, as well as practitioners, are sure to respond positively to its unique and important analysis.

Handbook of Humidity Measurement Volume 1

Handbook of Humidity Measurement  Volume 1 Book
Author : Ghenadii Korotcenkov
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2018-03-15
ISBN : 1351400649
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The first volume of The Handbook of Humidity Measurement focuses on the review of devices based on optical principles of measurement such as optical UV, fluorescence hygrometers, optical and fiber-optic sensors of various types. Numerous methods for monitoring the atmosphere have been developed in recent years, based on measuring the absorption of electromagnetic field in different spectral ranges. These methods, covering the optical (FTIR and Lidar techniques), as well as a microwave and THz ranges are discussed in detail in this volume. The role of humidity-sensitive materials in optical and fiber-optic sensors is also detailed. This volume describes the reasons for controlling the humidity, features of water and water vapors, and units used for humidity measurement.

Monitoring Atmospheric Water Vapour

Monitoring Atmospheric Water Vapour Book
Author : Niklaus Kämpfer
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-09-13
ISBN : 1461439094
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Atmospheric water plays a key role in climate. Water vapour is the most important greenhouse gas and its condensed forms exert a profound influence on both incoming solar and outgoing infrared radiation. Unfortunately, accurate, height-resolved global-scale measurements of atmospheric humidity are difficult to obtain. The change in concentration of five orders of magnitude form the ground to the stratosphere means there is no standard instrument that will measure everywhere. This has led to different measuring techniques, all with strengths and weaknesses. This book assesses all presently available techniques that are used in monitoring networks. Special weight is given to presenting the different technical concepts, the accuracy of different sensor types, addresses calibration issues and retrieval aspects.

Radio Occultation Method for Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Ionosphere

Radio Occultation Method for Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Ionosphere Book
Author : Yuei-An Liou
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2010-02-01
ISBN : 9537619605
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The book is devoted to radio occultation (RO) remote sensing of the earth’s atmosphere and ionosphere as a global method of monitoring. This technique used the radio links satellite-to-satellite when a satellite-receiver setting or rising behind the earth’s atmosphere is relative to a satellite - emitter of radio waves. During setting the radio ray perigee moves through the ionosphere and ionosphere. Atmospheric and ionospheric effects arise in most cases owing to influence of a zone near the radio ray perigee and cause significant variations of the amplitude, phase, and frequency of the radio waves. These variations enable determination of the altitude profiles of temperature, pressure, refractivity, density, humidity and turbulence in the atmosphere, distribution of the electron density in the ionosphere, and the wave phenomena at different altitudes with a global coverage. The aim of this book consists of the systematic description of the different approaches, results of investigation and perspectives of the RO remote sensing as a tool for investigations of the atmosphere and ionosphere.

The Remote Sensing of Tropospheric Composition from Space

The Remote Sensing of Tropospheric Composition from Space Book
Author : John P. Burrows,Ulrich Platt,Peter Borrell
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-01-15
ISBN : 3642147917
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The impact of anthropogenic activities on our atmospheric environment is of growing public concern and satellite-based techniques now provide an essential component of observational strategies on regional and global scales. The purpose of this book is to summarise the state of the art in the field in general, while describing both key techniques and findings in particular. It opens with an historical perspective of the field together with the basic principles of remote sensing from space. Three chapters follow on the techniques and on the solutions to the problems associated with the various spectral regions in which observations are made. The particular challenges posed by aerosols and clouds are covered in the next two chapters. Of special importance is the accuracy and reliability of remote sensing data and these issues are covered in a chapter on validation. The final section of the book is concerned with the exploitation of data, with chapters on observational aspects, which includes both individual and synergistic studies, and on the comparison of global and regional observations with chemical transport and climate models and the added value that the interaction brings to both. The book concludes with scientific needs and likely future developments in the field, and the necessary actions to be taken if we are to have the global observation system that the Earth needs in its present, deteriorating state. The appendices provide a comprehensive list of satellite instruments, global representations of some ancillary data such as fire counts and light pollution, a list of abbreviations and acronyms, and a set of colourful timelines indicating the satellite coverage of tropospheric composition in the foreseeable future. Altogether, this book will be a timely reference and overview for anyone working at the interface of environmental, atmospheric and space sciences.

Climate Science for Serving Society

Climate Science for Serving Society Book
Author : Ghassem R. Asrar,James W. Hurrell
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-06-18
ISBN : 9400766920
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume offers a comprehensive survey and a close analysis of efforts to develop actionable climate information in support of vital decisions for climate adaptation, risk management and policy. Arising from submissions and discussion at the 2011 Open Science Conference (OSC) of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP), the book addresses research and intellectual challenges which span the full range of Program activities.

First CHAMP Mission Results for Gravity Magnetic and Atmospheric Studies

First CHAMP Mission Results for Gravity  Magnetic and Atmospheric Studies Book
Author : Christoph Reigber
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2003-02-14
ISBN : 9783540002062
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The German research satellite CHAMP had been launched in summer 2000. Its modern instruments and near Earth orbit allow for the first time to collect data of the gravitational and magnetic fields and in addition to sound out the atmosphere and ionosphere by using GPS techniques. The book is the result of the first meeting of the international CHAMP research groups gathering 18 months later at the GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam. Besides technical information the volume offers a comprehensive overview over the use of CHAMP data for Earth System Research in the fields of Geodesy, Geophysics and Meteorology.

Advanced GNSS Tropospheric Products for Monitoring Severe Weather Events and Climate

Advanced GNSS Tropospheric Products for Monitoring Severe Weather Events and Climate Book
Author : Jonathan Jones,Guergana Guerova,Jan Douša,Galina Dick,Siebren de Haan,Eric Pottiaux,Olivier Bock,Rosa Pacione,Roeland van Malderen
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2019-09-16
ISBN : 3030139018
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The book (COST Action Final report) summarises the proceedings from COST Action ES1206. COST Action ES1206, Advanced GNSS Tropospheric Products for Severe Weather Events and Climate (GNSS4SWEC), was a 4-year project, running from 2013 to 2017, which coordinated new and improved capabilities from concurrent developments in GNSS, meteorological and climate communities. For the first time, the synergy of multi-GNSS constellations was used to develop new, more advanced tropospheric products, exploiting the full potential of multi-GNSS on a wide range of temporal and spatial scales - from real-time products monitoring and forecasting severe weather, to the highest quality post-processed products suitable for climate research. The Action also promoted the use of meteorological data as an input to real-time GNSS positioning, navigation, and timing services and has stimulated knowledge and data transfer throughout Europe and beyond.

Environmental Monitoring using GNSS

Environmental Monitoring using GNSS Book
Author : Joseph L. Awange
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-05-15
ISBN : 3540882561
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are revolutionizing the world in a way their original developers never envisaged. From being military “war” tools, GNSS satellites are rapidly becoming “peace” tools that play a potentially critical role in enabling changing environmental phenomenon that do not permit direct measurements to be remotely observed via their all-weather, highly accurate and continuously updatable positional time series. This is evident, for example, in their use in emerging environmental monitoring methods that are considered in this book. These include: GPS-based radio telemetry, which is enhancing ecological and conservation monitoring by more accurately mapping animal movements, their behaviours, and their impact on the environment; GNSS-meteorology, which is contributing to weather and climate change studies; GNSS-remote sensing, which, for example, allows the rapid monitoring of changes in fresh water resources and cryosphere; Geosensor network techniques, which are earning a crucial role in disaster response management; Epidemiology, for improved efficiency in tracking and studying the spread of infectious diseases and climate change effects on vector-borne diseases; and Economics, to provide data for the econometric modelling of casual impact of policies. In Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA), Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEA), and Sustainability Assessments (SA), GNSS, together with other spaced-based remote sensing techniques, are emerging, not only as modern tools that connect the developers to the community, but also provide information that support Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) methods, which inform decision making and policy formulations. By bringing the two fields of geodesy (the parent of GNSS technology) and environmental studies (potential users of this technology), this book presents the concepts of GNSS in a simplified way that can, on the one hand, be understood and utilised by environmentalists, while on the other, outlines its potential applications to environmental monitoring and management for those engaged more with its technology, which hopefully will further energise the already innovative research that is being carried out. Lastly, this book is most relevant to all the professionals whose work is related to the environment such as hydrologists, meteorologists, epidemiologists, economist, and engineers, to name just a few. A comprehensive yet candid and compelling presentation of Global Navigation Satellite Systems and its application to environmental monitoring and a host of other socio-economic activities. This is an essential and new ground breaking reading for all professional practitioners and even academics seeking to study and become involved in using Global Navigation Satellite Systems in diverse fields ranging from environmental monitoring to economic activities such as monitoring weather and climate in order to design crop failure insurance. Nathaniel O. Agola, Professor of Business and Financial Economics, Ritsumeikan University, Japan

Scientific Satellite and Moon Based Earth Observation for Global Change

Scientific Satellite and Moon Based Earth Observation for Global Change Book
Author : Huadong Guo,Wenxue Fu,Guang Liu
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-06-27
ISBN : 9811380317
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Global change involves complex and far-reaching variations in the Earth’s systems, and satellite observations have been widely used in global change studies. Over the past five decades, Earth observation has developed into a comprehensive system that can conduct dynamic monitoring of the land, the oceans and the atmosphere at the local, regional and even global scale. At the same time, although a large number of Earth observation satellites have been launched, very few of them are used in global change studies. The lack of scientific satellite programs greatly hinders research on global change. This book proposes using a series of global change scientific satellites to establish a scientific observation grid for global environmental change monitoring from space, and offers the first comprehensive review of lunar-based Earth observation. These scientific satellites could provide not only basic datasets but also scientific support in facilitating advances in international global change research.

Atmosphere and Climate

Atmosphere and Climate Book
Author : Ulrich Foelsche,Gottfried Kirchengast,Andrea Steiner
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2006-08-11
ISBN : 3540341218
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents carefully edited and peer-reviewed papers from the 2nd International Workshop on Occultations for Probing Atmosphere and Climate (OPAC-2), held in Graz, Austria. It starts with a general introductory paper and proceeds to address the full range from methodology in general via specific occultation methods (GNSS-LEO, LEO-LEO, stellar and solar) to the use of occultation data, with focus on atmospheric physics, meteorology and climate.

Space Physics and Aeronomy Upper Atmosphere Dynamics and Energetics

Space Physics and Aeronomy  Upper Atmosphere Dynamics and Energetics Book
Author : Wenbin Wang,Yongliang Zhang
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2021-04-14
ISBN : 1119815568
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A comprehensive overview of the structure and variability of the upper atmosphere Earth's upper atmosphere is an open system that is strongly influenced by energy and momentum inputs from both above and below. New observation and modeing techniques have provided insights into dynamics, energetics, and chemical processes in the upper atmosphere. Upper Atmosphere Dynamics and Energetics presents an overview of key research advances in upper atmospheric physics, and measurement and modeling techniques, along with remaining challenges for understanding the state and variability of the upper atmospheric system. Volume highlights include: Insights into the interconnections between different areas of upper atmospheric science Appreciation of the dynamics and complexity of the global upper atmospheric system Techniques for observing and measuring the upper atmosphere Responses of the upper atmosphere to external drivers The American Geophysical Union promotes discovery in Earth and space science for the benefit of humanity. Its publications disseminate scientific knowledge and provide resources for researchers, students, and professionals. Find out more about the Space Physics and Aeronomy collection in this Q&A with the Editors in Chief

From weather observations to atmospheric and climate sciences in Switzerland

From weather observations to atmospheric and climate sciences in Switzerland Book
Author : Saskia Willemse,Markus Furger
Publisher : vdf Hochschulverlag AG
Release : 2016-06-02
ISBN : 3728137456
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In 2016 the Swiss Society for Meteorology (Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Meteorologie, SGM) celebrates its 100th anniversary. Compared to other meteorological societies it is not among the oldest ones. Nevertheless, meteorology has gone through such a remarkable evolution in the past 100 years that it is worthwhile to take a look back and recapitulate the developments of both science and SGM – and to reveal their interaction. The idea of this book is to give an overview of what has happened in the field of atmospheric sciences in Switzerland since the first systematic long-term meteorological observations until today.

Advances in Earth Observation of Global Change

Advances in Earth Observation of Global Change Book
Author : Emilio Chuvieco,Jonathan Li,Xiaojun Yang
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2010-08-04
ISBN : 9048190851
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Global Change studies are increasingly being considered a vital source of information to understand the Earth Environment, in particular in the framework of human-induced climate change and land use transformation. Satellite Earth Observing systems provide a unique tool to monitor those changes. While the range of applications and innovative techniques is constantly increasing, this book provides a summary of key case studies where satellite data offer critical information to understand the causes and effects of those environmental changes, minimizing their negative impacts. This book will be of interest to researchers and practitioners in the field of remote sensing, geographical information, meteorology and environmental sciences. Also scientists and graduate up to post-graduate level students in environmental science will find valuable information in this book.

Climate and Weather of the Sun Earth System CAWSES

Climate and Weather of the Sun Earth System  CAWSES  Book
Author : Franz-Josef Lübken
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-08-14
ISBN : 9400743483
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

CAWSES (Climate and Weather of the Sun-Earth System) is the most important scientific program of SCOSTEP (Scientific Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Physics). CAWSES has triggered a scientific priority program within the German Research Foundation for a period of 6 years. Approximately 30 scientific institutes and 120 scientists were involved in Germany with strong links to international partners. The priority program focuses on solar influence on climate, atmospheric coupling processes, and space climatology. This book summarizes the most important results from this program covering some important research topics from the Sun to climate. Solar related processes are studied including the evolution of solar radiation with relevance to climate. Results regarding the influence of the Sun on the terrestrial atmosphere from the troposphere to the thermosphere are presented including stratospheric ozone, mesospheric ice clouds, geomagnetic effects, and their relevance to climate. Several chapters highlight the importance of coupling mechanisms within the atmosphere, covering transport mechanisms of photochemically active species, dynamical processes such as gravity waves, tides, and planetary waves, and feedback mechanisms between the thermal and dynamical structure of the atmosphere. Special attention is paid to climate signals in the middle and upper atmosphere and their significance relative to natural variability.

Global Satellite Meteorological Observation GSMO Theory

Global Satellite Meteorological Observation  GSMO  Theory Book
Author : Stojče Dimov Ilčev
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-10-11
ISBN : 3319671197
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents the principal structure of space systems, functionality, media and applications for modern remote sensing, transmission systems, meteorological antennas, propagation meteorological observation and transferring weather data from satellite to the ground infrastructures and users. The book starts with a short background to the development of Radio and Space systems including overview, concepts and applications of satellite communications in function of transfer meteorological observation data and images. It goes on to discuss the fundamental principles of the space platforms and orbital parameters, lows of satellite motions, new types of launching systems, satellite orbits and geometric relations, spacecraft configuration, payload structure, type of onboard antenna systems, satellite orbits and components of satellite bus. The author also provides comprehensive coverage of baseband and transmission systems, fundamentals of atmospheric electromagnetic radiation, satellite meteorological parameters and instruments, and research and applications in antenna systems and propagation. This is a companion book of Global Satellite Meteorological Observation Applications (Springer).

Environmental Geoinformatics

Environmental Geoinformatics Book
Author : Joseph Awange,John Kiema
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-12-08
ISBN : 3030030172
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This second edition includes updated chapters from the first edition as well as five additional new chapters (Light detection and ranging (LiDAR), CORONA historical de-classified products, Unmanned Aircraft Vehicles (UAVs), GNSS-reflectometry and GNSS applications to climate variability), shifting the main focus from monitoring and management to extreme hydro-climatic and food security challenges and exploiting big data. Since the publication of first edition, much has changed in terms of technology, and the demand for geospatial data has increased with the advent of the big data era. For instance, the use of laser scanning has advanced so much that it is unavoidable in most environmental monitoring tasks, whereas unmanned aircraft vehicles (UAVs)/drones are emerging as efficient tools that address food security issues as well as many other contemporary challenges. Furthermore, global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) are now responding to challenges posed by climate change by unravelling the impacts of teleconnection (e.g., ENSO) as well as advancing the use of reflected signals (GNSS-reflectometry) to monitor, e.g., soil moisture variations. Indeed all these rely on the explosive use of “big data” in many fields of human endeavour. Moreover, with the ever-increasing global population, intense pressure is being exerted on the Earth’s resources, leading to significant changes in its land cover (e.g., deforestation), diminishing biodiversity and natural habitats, dwindling fresh water supplies, and changing weather and climatic patterns (e.g., global warming, changing sea level). Environmental monitoring techniques that provide information on these are under scrutiny from an increasingly environmentally conscious society that demands the efficient delivery of such information at a minimal cost. Environmental changes vary both spatially and temporally, thereby putting pressure on traditional methods of data acquisition, some of which are highly labour intensive, such as animal tracking for conservation purposes. With these challenges, conventional monitoring techniques, particularly those that record spatial changes call for more sophisticated approaches that deliver the necessary information at an affordable cost. One direction being pursued in the development of such techniques involves environmental geoinformatics, which can act as a stand-alone method or complement traditional methods.