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Germanium Based Technologies

Germanium Based Technologies Book
Author : Cor Claeys,Eddy Simoen
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2011-07-28
ISBN : 9780080474908
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Germanium is a semiconductor material that formed the basis for the development of transistor technology. Although the breakthrough of planar technology and integrated circuits put silicon in the foreground, in recent years there has been a renewed interest in germanium, which has been triggered by its strong potential for deep submicron (sub 45 nm) technologies. Germanium-Based technologies: From Materials to Devices is the first book to provide a broad, in-depth coverage of the field, including recent advances in Ge-technology and the fundamentals in material science, device physics and semiconductor processing. The contributing authors are international experts with a world-wide recognition and involved in the leading research in the field. The book also covers applications and the use of Ge for optoelectronics, detectors and solar cells. An ideal reference work for students and scientists working in the field of physics of semiconductor devices and materials, as well as for engineers in research centres and industry. Both the newcomer and the expert should benefit from this unique book. State-of-the-art information available for the first time as an all-in-source Extensive reference list making it an indispensable reference book Broad coverage from fundamental aspects up to industrial applications

Metal Impurities in Silicon and Germanium Based Technologies

Metal Impurities in Silicon  and Germanium Based Technologies Book
Author : Cor Claeys,Eddy Simoen
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-08-13
ISBN : 3319939254
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides a unique review of various aspects of metallic contamination in Si and Ge-based semiconductors. It discusses all of the important metals including their origin during crystal and/or device manufacturing, their fundamental properties, their characterization techniques and their impact on electrical devices’ performance. Several control and possible gettering approaches are addressed. The book offers a valuable reference guide for all researchers and engineers studying advanced and state-of-the-art micro- and nano-electronic semiconductor devices and circuits. Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, it combines perspectives from e.g. material science, defect engineering, device processing, defect and device characterization, and device physics and engineering.

Metal Impurities in Silicon and Germanium based Technologies

Metal Impurities in Silicon  and Germanium based Technologies Book
Author : Cor L. Claeys,Eddy Simoen
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 9783319939261
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book gives a unique review of different aspects of metallic contaminations in Si and Ge-based semiconductors. All important metals are discussed including their origin during crystal and/or device manufacturing, their fundamental properties, their characterization techniques and their impact on the electrical device performance. Several control and possible gettering approaches are addressed. The book is a reference for researchers and engineers studying advanced and state-of-the-art micro- and nano-electronic semiconductor devices and circuits. It has an interdisciplinary nature by combining different disciplines such as material science, defect engineering, device processing, defect and device characterization and device physics and engineering.

SiGe and Ge

SiGe and Ge Book
Author : David Louis Harame
Publisher : The Electrochemical Society
Release : 2006-01-01
ISBN : 1566775078
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The second International SiGe & Ge: Materials, Processing, and Devices Symposium was part of the 2006 ECS conference held in Cancun, Mexico from October 29-Nov 3, 2006. This meeting provided a forum for reviewing and discussing all materials and device related aspects of SiGe & Ge. The hardcover edition includes a bonus CD-ROM containing the PDF of the entire issue.

Extended Defects in Germanium

Extended Defects in Germanium Book
Author : Cor Claeys,Eddy Simoen
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2010-11-30
ISBN : 9783642099212
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The aim is to give an overview of the physics of extended defects in Germanium, i.e. dislocations (line defects), grain boundaries, stacking faults, twins and {311} defects (two-dimensional defects) and precipitates, bubbles, etc. The first part covers fundamentals, describing the crystallographic structure and other physical and electrical properties, mainly of dislocations. Since dislocations are essential for the plastic deformation of Germanium, methods for analysis and imaging of dislocations and to evaluate their structure are described. Attention is given to the electrical and optical properties, which are important for devices made in dislocated Ge. The second part treats the creation of extended defects during wafer and device processing. Issues are addressed such as defect formation during ion implantation, necessary to create junctions, which are an essential part in every device type. Extended defects are also created during the deposition of thin or thick epitaxial layers on other substrates, which are important for optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications. In brief, the book is intended to provide a fundamental understanding of the extended-defect formation during Ge materials and device processing, providing ways to distinguish harmful from less detrimental defects and should point out ways for defect engineering and control.

Silicon Germanium Materials and Devices A Market and Technology Overview to 2006

Silicon Germanium Materials and Devices   A Market and Technology Overview to 2006 Book
Author : R. Szweda
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2002-11-26
ISBN : 9780080541211
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The first edition of Silicon Germanium Materials & Devices - A Market & Technology Overview to 2006 examines the development of the silicon germanium business over a six-year period 2001 to 2006. It analyses the trends in markets, technologies and industry structure and profiles all the major players. It is specifically aimed at users and manufacturers of substrates, epiwafers, equipment and devices. The analysis includes a competitive assessment of the market of silicon germanium vs. gallium arsenide, indium phosphide vs. other forms of silicon. Silicon Germanium Materials & Devices - A Market & Technology Overview to 2006 is designed to assist with business plans, R&D and manufacturing strategies. It will be an indispensable aid for managers responsible for business development, technology assessment and market research. The report examines the rapid development of silicon germanium from an R&D curiosity to production status. An extensive treatment from materials through processes to devices and applications it encapsulates the entire silicon germanium business of today and assesses future directions. For a PDF version of the report please call Tina Enright on +44 (0) 1865 843008 for price details.

SiGe Based Technologies

SiGe Based Technologies Book
Author : Y. Shiraki,T.P. Pearsall,E. Kasper
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 1993-02-18
ISBN : 0444596895
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The preparation of silicon germanium microstructures, their physical, chemical and electrical characterization, and their device processing and application are reviewed in this book. Special emphasis is given to ultrathin Si/Ge superlattices. Topics covered include: Wafer preparation and epitaxial growth; surface effects driven phenomena, such as clustering, segregation, 'surfactants'; Analysis, both in situ and ex situ; Strain adjustment methods; High quality buffers; Modification of material properties by quantum wells and superlattices; Devices: Novel concepts, processing, modelling, demonstrators. The questions highlighted, particularly those articles comparing related or competing activities, will provide a wealth of knowledge for all those interested in the future avenues of theory and applications in this field.

Advanced Material and Device Applications with Germanium

Advanced Material and Device Applications with Germanium Book
Author : Sanghyun Lee
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2018-10-03
ISBN : 1789840317
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Germanium is an elemental semiconductor, which played an important role in the birth of the semiconductor but soon was replaced with silicon. However, germanium is poised to make a remarkable comeback in the semiconductor industry. With this increasing attention, this book describes the fundamental aspects of germanium and its applications. The contributing authors are experts in their field with great in-depth knowledge. The authors strongly feel that this contribution might be of interest to readers and help to expand the scope of their knowledge.

Strain Engineered MOSFETs

Strain Engineered MOSFETs Book
Author : C.K. Maiti,T.K. Maiti
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2018-10-03
ISBN : 1466503475
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Currently strain engineering is the main technique used to enhance the performance of advanced silicon-based metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). Written from an engineering application standpoint, Strain-Engineered MOSFETs introduces promising strain techniques to fabricate strain-engineered MOSFETs and to methods to assess the applications of these techniques. The book provides the background and physical insight needed to understand new and future developments in the modeling and design of n- and p-MOSFETs at nanoscale. This book focuses on recent developments in strain-engineered MOSFETS implemented in high-mobility substrates such as, Ge, SiGe, strained-Si, ultrathin germanium-on-insulator platforms, combined with high-k insulators and metal-gate. It covers the materials aspects, principles, and design of advanced devices, fabrication, and applications. It also presents a full technology computer aided design (TCAD) methodology for strain-engineering in Si-CMOS technology involving data flow from process simulation to process variability simulation via device simulation and generation of SPICE process compact models for manufacturing for yield optimization. Microelectronics fabrication is facing serious challenges due to the introduction of new materials in manufacturing and fundamental limitations of nanoscale devices that result in increasing unpredictability in the characteristics of the devices. The down scaling of CMOS technologies has brought about the increased variability of key parameters affecting the performance of integrated circuits. This book provides a single text that combines coverage of the strain-engineered MOSFETS and their modeling using TCAD, making it a tool for process technology development and the design of strain-engineered MOSFETs.

China Semiconductor Technology International Conference 2010 CSTIC 2010

China Semiconductor Technology International Conference 2010  CSTIC 2010  Book
Author : Han-Ming Wu
Publisher : The Electrochemical Society
Release : 2010-03
ISBN : 1566778069
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Our mission is to provide a forum for world experts to discuss technologies, address the growing needs associated with silicon technology, and exchange their discoveries and solutions for current issues of high interest. We encourage collaboration, open discussion, and critical reviews at this conference. Furthermore, we hope that this conference will also provide collaborative opportunities for those who are interested in the semiconductor industry in Asia, particularly in China.

Silicon Technologies

Silicon Technologies Book
Author : Annie Baudrant
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2013-05-10
ISBN : 1118601149
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The main purpose of this book is to remind new engineers in siliconfoundry, the fundamental physical and chemical rules in major Frontend treatments: oxidation, epitaxy, ion implantation and impuritiesdiffusion.

Defects in Semiconductors

Defects in Semiconductors Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2015-06-08
ISBN : 0128019409
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume, number 91 in the Semiconductor and Semimetals series, focuses on defects in semiconductors. Defects in semiconductors help to explain several phenomena, from diffusion to getter, and to draw theories on materials' behavior in response to electrical or mechanical fields. The volume includes chapters focusing specifically on electron and proton irradiation of silicon, point defects in zinc oxide and gallium nitride, ion implantation defects and shallow junctions in silicon and germanium, and much more. It will help support students and scientists in their experimental and theoretical paths. Expert contributors Reviews of the most important recent literature Clear illustrations A broad view, including examination of defects in different semiconductors

Handbook of Silicon Based MEMS Materials and Technologies

Handbook of Silicon Based MEMS Materials and Technologies Book
Author : Markku Tilli,Mervi Paulasto-Krockel,Teruaki Motooka,Veikko Lindroos
Publisher : William Andrew
Release : 2015-09-02
ISBN : 0323312233
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Handbook of Silicon Based MEMS Materials and Technologies, Second Edition, is a comprehensive guide to MEMS materials, technologies, and manufacturing that examines the state-of-the-art with a particular emphasis on silicon as the most important starting material used in MEMS. The book explains the fundamentals, properties (mechanical, electrostatic, optical, etc.), materials selection, preparation, manufacturing, processing, system integration, measurement, and materials characterization techniques, sensors, and multi-scale modeling methods of MEMS structures, silicon crystals, and wafers, also covering micromachining technologies in MEMS and encapsulation of MEMS components. Furthermore, it provides vital packaging technologies and process knowledge for silicon direct bonding, anodic bonding, glass frit bonding, and related techniques, shows how to protect devices from the environment, and provides tactics to decrease package size for a dramatic reduction in costs. Provides vital packaging technologies and process knowledge for silicon direct bonding, anodic bonding, glass frit bonding, and related techniques Shows how to protect devices from the environment and decrease package size for a dramatic reduction in packaging costs Discusses properties, preparation, and growth of silicon crystals and wafers Explains the many properties (mechanical, electrostatic, optical, etc.), manufacturing, processing, measuring (including focused beam techniques), and multiscale modeling methods of MEMS structures Geared towards practical applications rather than theory

Silicon Germanium Strained Layers and Heterostructures

Silicon Germanium Strained Layers and Heterostructures Book
Author : M. Willander,Suresh C. Jain
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2003-10-02
ISBN : 008054102X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The study of Silicone Germanium strained layers has broad implications for material scientists and engineers, in particular those working on the design and modelling of semi-conductor devices. Since the publication of the original volume in 1994, there has been a steady flow of new ideas, new understanding, new Silicon-Germanium (SiGe) structures and new devices with enhanced performance. Written for both students and senior researchers, the 2nd edition of Silicon-Germanium Strained Layers and Heterostructures provides an essential up-date of this important topic, describing in particular the recent developments in technology and modelling. * Fully-revised and updated 2nd edition incorporating important recent breakthroughs and a complete literature review * The extensive bibliography of over 400 papers provides a comprehensive and coherent overview of the subject * Appropriate for students and senior researchers

Current Trends in Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors

Current Trends in Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2021-09-21
ISBN : 9814501069
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Current Trends in Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Physical Chemistry of Semiconductor Materials and Processes

Physical Chemistry of Semiconductor Materials and Processes Book
Author : Sergio Pizzini
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2015-10-26
ISBN : 1118514572
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The development of semiconductor devices began a little more than a century ago, with the discovery of the electrical conductivity of ionic solids. Today, solid state technologies form the background of the society in which we live. The aim of this book is threefold: to present the background physical chemistry on which the technology of solid state devices is based; secondly, to describe specific issues such as the role of defects on the properties of solids, and the crucial influence of surface properties; and ultimately, to look at the physics and chemistry of growth processes, both at the bulk and thin–film level, together with some issues relating to the properties of nano–devices. Divided into five chapters, it covers: Thermodynamics of solids, including phases and their properties and structural order Point defects in semiconductors Extended defects in semiconductors and their interactions with point defects and impurities Growth of semiconductor materials Physical chemistry of semiconductor materials processing With applications across all solid state technologies,the book is useful for advanced students and researchers in materials science, physics, chemistry, electrical and electronic engineering. It is also useful for those in the semiconductor industry.

Advanced Silicon Semiconducting Silicon Alloy Based Materials Devices

Advanced Silicon   Semiconducting Silicon Alloy Based Materials   Devices Book
Author : Jo Nijs
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2021-05-30
ISBN : 1000445062
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

One of the first books to cover advanced silicon-based technologies, Advanced Silicon and Semiconducting Silicon Alloy-Based Materials and Devices presents important directions for research into silicon, its alloy-based semiconducting devices, and its development in commercial applications. The first section deals with single/mono crystalline silicon, focusing on the effects of heavy doping; the structure and electronic properties of defects and their impact on devices; the MBE of silicon, silicon alloys, and metals; CVD techniques for silicon and silicon germanium; the material properties of silicon germanium strained layers; silicon germanium heterojunction bipolar applications; FETs, IR detectors, and resonant tunneling devices in silicon, silicon germanium, and d-doped silicon; and the fascinating properties of crystalline silicon carbide and its applications. The second section explores polycrystalline silicon. It examines large grain polysilicon substrates for solar cells; the properties, analysis, and modeling of polysilicon TFTs; the technology of polysilicon TFTs in LCD displays; and the use of polycrystalline silicon and its alloys in VLSI applications. With contributors from leading academic and industrial research centers, this book provides wide coverage of fabrication techniques, material properties, and device applications.

Prospects of Germanium based MOSFETs and Tunnel Transistors for Low Power Digital Logic

Prospects of Germanium based MOSFETs and Tunnel Transistors for Low Power Digital Logic Book
Author : Winston Chern
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2017
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Moore's law has driven technological improvements for decades by halving the areal footprint of the transistor every two years and increasing the performance of making integrated circuits while reducing their cost. The ability to reduce the footprint of the device was enabled by advances in processing technology, novel materials and device design. As ever-smaller footprints are desired, power density limitations and performance degradation require more innovations on all fronts. Recently introduced improvements to integrated circuits are high-K and metal gate for MOSFETs (45-nm node onward), the FinFET (22-nm node onward) and air gaps between copper interconnects (14-nm node) illustrating that at every new technology node there needs to be a materials or process-related improvement to reduce power and maintain performance. Other approaches are also being explored or taken to further improve the MOSFET performance in future technology nodes, namely use of channel materials with higher carrier mobility such as SiGe and Ge for p-MOSFETs, III-V compound semiconductors for n-MOSFETs and steep subthreshold swing devices such as tunnel field effect transistors (TFETs). This work evaluates both approaches utilizing germanium (Ge) and strained-Ge as a material to understand the benefits and drawbacks to both approaches. Hypothetically, high carrier mobility and velocity channel materials can lower the overall power consumption because lower power supply voltage is required to obtain the same amount of current. Germanium and strained-Ge are candidates for the channel material of p-MOSFETs. MOSFETs made using Ge and strained-Ge as the channel material are evaluated based upon the ITRS roadmap requirements using experimental results in this work and data from literature. The approach for using TFETs was evaluated in this work also using germanium as a channel material. TFETs can have a steep subthreshold swing (SS), better than the minimum of 60 mV/decade at room temperature for a MOSFET, which also reduces the total power and supply voltage required for operation. The reduced SS is hypothetically achieved through the band-to-band tunneling which allows for the filtering of the Fermi-tail distribution of carriers. Experimentally, TFETs have not generally shown the steeper than Fermi-tail SS promised by the theory and this work uses both results from fabricated strained-Si/strained-Ge TFETs as well as modeling to explain why this has been the case. The challenges for both technologies are outlined in this thesis and suggestions are made on approaches to tackling their respective intrinsic problems from the point of view of Ge-based devices.

High Permittivity Gate Dielectric Materials

High Permittivity Gate Dielectric Materials Book
Author : Samares Kar
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-06-25
ISBN : 3642365353
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"The book comprehensively covers all the current and the emerging areas of the physics and the technology of high permittivity gate dielectric materials, including, topics such as MOSFET basics and characteristics, hafnium-based gate dielectric materials, Hf-based gate dielectric processing, metal gate electrodes, flat-band and threshold voltage tuning, channel mobility, high-k gate stack degradation and reliability, lanthanide-based high-k gate stack materials, ternary hafnia and lanthania based high-k gate stack films, crystalline high-k oxides, high mobility substrates, and parameter extraction. Each chapter begins with the basics necessary for understanding the topic, followed by a comprehensive review of the literature, and ultimately graduating to the current status of the technology and our scientific understanding and the future prospects." .

Defects and Impurities in Silicon Materials

Defects and Impurities in Silicon Materials Book
Author : Yutaka Yoshida,Guido Langouche
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-03-30
ISBN : 4431558004
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book emphasizes the importance of the fascinating atomistic insights into the defects and the impurities as well as the dynamic behaviors in silicon materials, which have become more directly accessible over the past 20 years. Such progress has been made possible by newly developed experimental methods, first principle theories, and computer simulation techniques. The book is aimed at young researchers, scientists, and technicians in related industries. The main purposes are to provide readers with 1) the basic physics behind defects in silicon materials, 2) the atomistic modeling as well as the characterization techniques related to defects and impurities in silicon materials, and 3) an overview of the wide range of the research fields involved.