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Genome Engineering Via Crispr Cas9 System

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Genome Engineering via CRISPR Cas9 System

Genome Engineering via CRISPR Cas9 System Book
Author : Vijai Singh,Pawan K. Dhar
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-02-18
ISBN : 0128181419
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Genome Engineering via CRISPR-Cas9 Systems presents a compilation of chapters from eminent scientists from across the globe who have established expertise in working with CRISPR-Cas9 systems. Currently, targeted genome engineering is a key technology for basic science, biomedical and industrial applications due to the relative simplicity to which they can be designed, used and applied. However, it is not easy to find relevant information gathered in a single source. The book contains a wide range of applications of CRISPR in research of bacteria, virus, algae, plant and mammalian and also discusses the modeling of drosophila, zebra fish and protozoan, among others. Other topics covered include diagnosis, sensor and therapeutic applications, as well as ethical and regulatory issues. This book is a valuable source not only for beginners in genome engineering, but also researchers, clinicians, stakeholders, policy makers, and practitioners interested in the potential of CRISPR-Cas9 in several fields. Provides basic understanding and a clear picture on how to design, use and implement the CRISPR-Cas9 system in different organisms Explains how to create an animal model for disease research and screening purposes using CRISPR Discusses the application of CRISPR-Cas9 systems in basic sciences, biomedicine, virology, bacteriology, molecular biology, neurology, cancer, industry, and many more

Engineering Efficient and Safe in Situ Genome Regulation Via CRISPR Cas9 for Enabling Gene Therapies

Engineering Efficient and Safe in Situ Genome Regulation Via CRISPR Cas9 for Enabling Gene Therapies Book
Author : Ana Maria Moreno
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2019
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

While the genetic and pathogenic basis of human diseases continues to grow, translation is currently bottlenecked by lack of tools and technologies to administer and evaluate corresponding gene-based therapeutics. Consequently, development of safe and efficient in vivo gene transfer platforms, coupled with emerging genome and epigenome engineering tools, will transform our ability to target a range of human diseases. In this regard, the holy grail of in vivo genome engineering is the ability to achieve the trifecta of: 1) efficient and safe delivery; 2) temporally regulatable and tunable payload delivery; and 3) immune stealth to minimize dosage & enable re-administration of nucleic acid or protein therapeutics. Towards this, the objective of this dissertation was to develop a platform to enable efficacious in vivo genome and epigenome engineering with a focus on enabling in situ therapeutic efficacy. The studies in this dissertation are independent bodies of work that explore the optimization and engineering of CRISPR-Cas9 systems to bring these one step closer to their eventual translation into the clinic. Towards these, I first developed a robust and generalizable platform for in situ genome editing and regulation via AAV CRISPR-Cas9. Towards this, I utilized split-Cas9 systems to develop a modular adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector platform for CRISPR-Cas9 delivery to enable the full spectrum of targeted in situ gene regulation functionalities, demonstrating robust transcriptional repression (up to 80%) and activation (up to 6-fold) of target genes in cell culture and mice. We also applied our platform for targeted in vivo gene-repression-mediated gene therapy for retinitis pigmentosa. Specifically, we engineered targeted repression of Nrl, a master regulator of rod photoreceptor determination, and demonstrated Nrl knockdown mediates in situ reprogramming of rod cells into cone-like cells that are resistant to retinitis pigmentosa-specific mutations, with concomitant prevention of secondary cone loss. Furthermore, we benchmarked our results from Nrl knockdown with those from in vivo Nrl knockout via gene editing. Taken together, our AAV-CRISPR-Cas9 platform for in vivo epigenome engineering enables a robust approach to target disease in a genomically scarless and potentially reversible manner. Additionally, this is the first time that the utility of AAV-KRAB-dCas9 mediated in situ gene repression in the context of gene therapy was demonstrated (Moreno et al., WIREs Systems Biology and Medicine, 2017; Moreno et al., Molecular Therapy, 2018). Next, I focused on addressing, arguably the most important hurdle for CRISPR-Cas based gene therapies, which is the interaction of these non-host derived systems with the adaptive immune system which can lead to neutralization by circulating antibodies and clearance of treated cells by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. To address this issue, I proposed a new approach: sequential use of orthologous proteins that are orthogonal in immune space. This would, in principle, allow for repeated treatments by thus chosen orthologs without reduced efficacy due to lack of immune cross-reactivity among the proteins. To explore and validate this concept we chose 284 DNA targeting and 84 RNA targeting CRISPR effectors (including Cas9, Cpf1/Cas12a, and Cas13a, b, and c), and 167 Adeno-associated virus (AAV) capsid protein orthologs and developed a pipeline to compare total sequence similarity as well as predicted binding to class I and class II Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) proteins. Our MHC binding predictions revealed wide diversity among the set of DNA-targeting Cas orthologs, with 79% of pairs predicted not to elicit cross-reacting immune responses, while no global immune orthogonality among AAV serotypes was observed. We validated the computationally predicted immune orthogonality among three important Cas9 orthologs, from S. pyogenes, S. aureus, and C. jejuni observing cross-reacting antibodies against AAV but not Cas9 orthologs in sera from immunized mice. Finally, to demonstrate the efficacy of multiple dosing with immune orthogonal orthologs, we delivered AAV-Cas9 targeting PCSK9 into BALB/c mice previously immunized against the AAV vector and/or the Cas9 payload, demonstrating that editing efficiency is compromised by immune recognition of either the AAV or Cas9, but, importantly, this effect is abrogated when using immune orthogonal orthologs. Moving forward, we anticipate this framework can be applied to prescribe sequential transient regimens of immune orthogonal protein therapeutics to circumvent pre-existing or induced immunity, and eventually, to rationally engineer immune orthogonality among protein orthologs. (Moreno, Palmer et al., Nature Biomedical Engineering, in press, 2019). Lastly, I then proceeded to integrate the advances accomplished in the previous chapters to enable pain management via in situ genome repression. In the US and worldwide, pain is a leading cause of disability, which leads to a diminished quality of life. Patients have come to routinely expect pharmacological management, with the prevalent aggressive approach for managing pain states being based on opiates. While the utility of opiates has made them a mainstay of pain management, there are at least four key reasons supporting the need for new and alternative pain therapeutics: limited efficacy, abuse potential, tolerance after continued exposure, and an enhancement of post-wound pain states. Despite decades of research, broad-acting, longer-lived, non-addictive, and effective drugs for chronic pain remain elusive. Notably, genetic studies have correlated a hereditary loss-of-function mutation in a human Na+ channel isoform--NaV1.7--with a rare genetic disorder, Congenital Insensitivity to Pain (CIP), which leads to insensitivity to pain without other neurodevelopmental alterations. While an excellent target, the creation of blockers for this site has not led yet to an efficient and safe drug, due to their lack of specificity, leading to unwanted side-effects. Taking advantage of this druggable target in the human genome, the aim of this work was to develop a novel therapeutic regiment via in situ NaV1.7 repression to regulate the development and maintenance of impending chronic pain states. In this regard, I demonstrated robust in vitro repression using two epigenome engineering tools (KRAB-CRISPR-Cas9 and KRAB-Zinc-Fingers) with ~71% and ~88% repression respectively. To enable pain management, I injected mice intrathecally using the constructs with the highest in vitro efficacy and demonstrated robust NaV1.7 repression with a significant improvement in pain response in a carrageenan inflammatory pain model. I demonstrated a 133% improvement in paw withdrawal latency as compared to a negative control (mCherry) and 62% improvement over the positive control (Gabapentin, 100 mg/kg). Taken together, the use of these in

Tomato Class II Glutaredoxin Mutants Generated Via Multiplex CRISPR Cas9 Genome Editing Technology are Susceptible to Multiple Abiotic Stresses

Tomato Class II Glutaredoxin Mutants Generated Via Multiplex CRISPR Cas9 Genome Editing Technology are Susceptible to Multiple Abiotic Stresses Book
Author : Tayebeh Kakeshpour
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2020
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Gene silencing technologies such as clustered regulatory short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 and RNA interference (RNAi) created a revolution in genome engineering. They are highly site-specific, simple, fast, and cost-effective. Since their discovery, gene silencing technologies have extensively been implemented in various organisms including humans, animals, plants, and microbes. They have been used for both basic science studies such as gene functional analysis and applied science such as medicine and crop improvement. In this work, we used multiplex CRISPR/Cas9 system to knock out all four members of the class II glutaredoxin (GRX) gene family including S14, S15, S16 and S17 in tomato and RNAi technology to express mouse complement 3 (C3) and complement factor 7 (CF7) small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in lettuce. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are induced under abiotic and biotic stresses and also as byproducts of aerobic metabolism, and their overproduction causes oxidative damage to macromolecules such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids. GRXs are small ubiquitous proteins that are known to be involved in cellular redox homeostasis by reducing disulfate bonds and scavenging ROS. To investigate the functions of each member of class II GRX gene family in tomato's response to abiotic stresses, single and multiple knockout lines for class II GRXs were obtained using multiplex CRISPR/Cas9 system. Mutant lines and wild-type plants were subjected to heat, drought, chilling, cadmium (Cd) toxicity, and short photoperiod stresses. Phenotyping data showed that members of the class II GRX gene family are critical for tomato's growth, development, and survival under several abiotic stresses. Our findings propose novel functions for members of class II SlGRXs. RNAi technology can be utilized to target disease-related proteins. However, the application of siRNAs is challenging predominantly due to the difficult delivery and instability of siRNA into the host system. Recent findings of bioactivity and bioavailability of plants' miRNAs through animals' digestive systems led to the newly introduced field of dietary siRNAs. Animal's siRNA can be expressed in plant tissues and delivered as dietary siRNA. Here, an expression vector made based on a rice miRNA backbone, Osa-MIR528, was utilized to construct two plant expression vectors containing siRNAs silencing mouse C3 and CF7 proteins. Both C3 and CF7 proteins are involved in blood clotting which could lead to cardiovascular dysfunction. Expression of both primary and mature C3 and CF7 siRNAs in lettuce was validated by semi quantitative real-time PCR and end-point PCR, respectively, and was confirmed via Sanger sequencing. Established amiRNA system in lettuce through this work will have further applications. As an edible leafy plant with high biomass, lettuce can be used as a valuable host to produce various diseases targeting siRNAs.

Reprogramming the Genome CRISPR Cas based Human Disease Therapy

Reprogramming the Genome  CRISPR Cas based Human Disease Therapy Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-06-12
ISBN : 0323853242
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Reprogramming the Genome: CRISPR-Cas-based Human Disease Therapy, presents the collation of chapters written by eminent scientists worldwide. CRISPR-Cas9 is a key technology for targeted genome editing and regulation in a number of organisms including mammalian cells. It is a rapid, simple, and cost-effective solution. CRISPR-Cas system has recently gained much scientific and public attention. This volume covers CRISPR-Cas9 based mammalian genome editing, creating disease models, cancer therapy, neurological, heredity, blood disorders, defective gene correction, stem cells therapy, epigenetic modifications, patents, ethics, biosafety and regulatory issues challenges and opportunities. This book is a key source of information on mammalian genome editing available in a single volume. This book will be useful for beginners in mammalian genome editing and also students, researchers, scientists, policymakers, clinicians and stakeholders interested in genome editing in several areas. Offers basic understanding and a clear picture of mammalian genome editing through CRISPR-Cas systems Discusses how to create mammalian disease models, stem cell modification, epigenetic modifications, correction of defective gene in blood disorders, heredity, neurological disorders and many more Discusses the application of CRISPR-Cas9 systems in basic sciences, biomedicine, molecular biology, translational sciences, neurobiology, neurology, cancer, stem cells, and many more

Genome editing technologies and their impact

Genome editing technologies and their impact Book
Author : Institut d'Estudis Catalans
Publisher : Institut d'Estudis Catalans
Release : 2020-11-26
ISBN : 8499655645
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Genome editing technologies and their impact book written by Institut d'Estudis Catalans, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Engineering Agrobacterium Tumefaciens to Facilitate and Improve Knock in Efficiency in Plants Via Cas9 Editing Strategies

Engineering Agrobacterium Tumefaciens to Facilitate and Improve Knock in Efficiency in Plants Via Cas9 Editing Strategies Book
Author : Adam John Kirby
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2020
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The development of efficient tools for plant genome engineering is key to dramatically expedite basic research approaches and, at the same time, facilitate translational and biotechnological strategies in agriculture to improve crops and meet future food demand. For decades, technologies enabling precise Gene Targeting (GT) and efficient DNA knock-in or sequence replacement via Homology-Directed Repair (HDR) in plants has remained challenging, and although some recent reports suggest that progress is being made, no efficient and reproducible protocols have yet been established. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated insertion entails the mobilization of the T-DNA into the host plant genome. However, this process occurs randomly and the system is very inefficient for targeted knock-ins. For this project, we capitalize on the extensive knowledge of Agrobacterium tumefaciens biology and combine it with CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing technologies to develop a novel strategy for high efficiency targeted knock-in. To do so, we decided to engineer Agrobacterium tumefaciens to help us reduce the distance between the T-DNA (harboring the cassette for knock-in) and the Cas9 cut site that marks the location where specifically the targeted insertion will occur. The set of tools we are presenting here will serve not to only accelerate basic research but also assist in engineering crop genomes in order to meet our future food demand in an efficient and sustainable manner.

Reprogramming the Genome Applications of CRISPR Cas in non mammalian systems part B

Reprogramming the Genome  Applications of CRISPR Cas in non mammalian systems part B Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-04-29
ISBN : 032385298X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Reprogramming the Genome: Applications of CRISPR-Cas in Non-mammalian Systems Part B, represents the collation of chapters written by eminent scientists worldwide. CRISPR-Cas9 system is an RNA-mediated immune system of bacteria and archaea that protects from bacteriophage infections. It is one of the revolutionized technologies to uplift biology to the next stages. It is a simple, rapid, precise, and cost-effective tool for genome editing and regulation of a wide range of organisms. It has gained scientific and public attention worldwide. This volume mainly covers insect cell line, protozoans, zebrafish, drosophila, CRISPRi, patents as well as technology transfer, and many more. This book is a key source of information available in a single volume. This book will be useful for not only beginners in genome engineering, but also students, researchers, scientists, policymakers, and stakeholders interested in harnessing the potential of reprogramming of the genomes in several areas. Offers basic understanding and a clear picture of genome editing CRISPR-Cas systems in different organisms Explains how to create an animal model for disease diagnosis/research and reprogram CRISPR for insect cell line, protozoans, zebrafish, drosophila, and many more Discusses the advances, patents, applications, challenges and opportunities in CRISPR-Cas9 systems in basic sciences, biomedicine, molecular biology and many more

Reprogramming the Genome Applications of CRISPR Cas in non mammalian systems part A

Reprogramming the Genome  Applications of CRISPR Cas in non mammalian systems part A Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-03-28
ISBN : 0323853226
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Reprogramming the Genome: Applications of CRISPR-Cas in Non-mammalian Systems, Part A presents a collation of chapters written by global, eminent scientists. CRISPR-Cas9 system is an RNA-mediated immune system of bacteria and archaea that protects from bacteriophage infections. It is one of the revolutionized technologies to uplift biology to the next stages. Chapters in this release include An Introduction and applications of CRISPR-Cas Systems, History, evolution and classification of CRISPR-Cas associated systems, CRISPR based bacterial genome editing and removal of pathogens, CRISPR based genome editing and removal of human viruses, CRISPR based development of RNA editing and diagnostic platform, and much more. Additional sections cover Genome engineering in insects for control of vector borne diseases, Development of insect cell line using CRISPR technology, CRISPRing protozoan parasites to better understand the biology of diseases, CRISPR based genome editing of Caenorhabditis elegans, and a variety of other important topics. Offers a basic understanding and clear picture of genome editing CRISPR-Cas systems in different organisms Explains how to create an animal model for disease diagnosis/research and reprogram CRISPR for removal of virus, bacteria, fungi, protozoan, and many more Discusses the advances, patents, applications, challenges and opportunities in CRISPR-Cas9 systems in basic sciences, biomedicine, virology, bacteriology, molecular biology, and many more

Abiotic Stress Signaling in Plants Functional Genomic Intervention

Abiotic Stress Signaling in Plants  Functional Genomic Intervention Book
Author : Girdhar K. Pandey,Manoj Prasad,Amita Pandey,Maik Boehmer
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2016-08-08
ISBN : 288919891X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Abiotic stresses such as high temperature, low-temperature, drought and salinity limit crop productivity worldwide. Understanding plant responses to these stresses is essential for rational engineering of crop plants. In Arabidopsis, the signal transduction pathways for abiotic stresses, light, several phytohormones and pathogenesis have been elucidated. A significant portion of plant genomes (Arabidopsis and rice were mostly studied) encodes for proteins involves in signaling such as receptor, sensors, kinases, phosphatases, transcription factors and transporters/channels. Despite decades of physiological and molecular effort, knowledge pertaining to how plants sense and transduce low and high temperature, low-water availability (drought), water-submergence, microgravity and salinity signals is still a major question for plant biologist. One major constraint hampering our understanding of these signal transduction processes in plants has been the lack or slow pace of application of molecular genomic and genetics knowledge in the form of gene function. In the post-genomic era, one of the major challenges is investigation and understanding of multiple genes and gene families regulating a particular physiological and developmental aspect of plant life cycle. One of the important physiological processes is regulation of stress response, which leads to adaptation or adjustment in response to adverse stimuli. With the holistic understanding of the signaling pathways involving not only one gene family but multiple genes or gene families, plant biologist can lay a foundation for designing and generating future crops, which can withstand the higher degree of environmental stresses (especially abiotic stresses, which are the major cause of crop loss throughout the world) without losing crop yield and productivity. Therefore, in this e-Book, we intend to incorporate the contribution from leading plant biologists to elucidate several aspects of stress signaling by functional genomics approaches.

Characterization and Optimization of the CRISPR Cas System for Applications in Genome Engineering

Characterization and Optimization of the CRISPR Cas System for Applications in Genome Engineering Book
Author : ChieYu Lin
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The ability to precisely manipulate the genome in a targeted manner is fundamental to driving both basic science research and development of medical therapeutics. Until recently, this has been primarily achieved through coupling of a nuclease domain with customizable protein modules that recognize DNA in a sequence-specific manner such as zinc finger or transcription activator-like effector domains. Though these approaches have allowed unprecedented precision in manipulating the genome, in practice they have been limited by the reproducibility, predictability, and specificity of targeted cleavage, all of which are partially attributable to the nature of protein-mediated DNA sequence recognition. It has been recently shown that the microbial CRISPR-Cas system can be adapted for eukaryotic genome editing. Cas9, an RNA-guided DNA endonuclease, is directed by a 20-nt guide sequence via Watson-Crick base-pairing to its genomic target. Cas9 subsequently induces a double-stranded DNA break that results in targeted gene disruption through non-homologous end-joining repair or gene replacement via homologous recombination. Finally, the RNA guide and protein nuclease dual component system allows simultaneous delivery of multiple guide RNAs (sgRNA) to achieve multiplex genome editing with ease and efficiency.

Biopolymer Based Formulations

Biopolymer Based Formulations Book
Author : Kunal Pal,Indranil Banerjee,Preetam Sarkar,Doman Kim,Win-Peng Deng,Navneet Kumar Dubey,Kaustav Majumder
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2020-01-18
ISBN : 0128168986
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biopolymer-Based Formulations: Biomedical and Food Applications presents the latest advances in the synthesis and characterization of advanced biopolymeric formulations and their state-of-the-art applications across biomedicine and food science. Sections cover the fundamentals, applications, future trends, environmental, ethical and medical considerations, and biopolymeric architectures that are organized in nano, micro and macro scales. The final section of the book focuses on novel applications and recent developments. This book is an essential resource for researchers, scientists and advanced students in biopolymer science, polymer science, polymer chemistry, polymer composites, plastics engineering, biomaterials, materials science, biomedical engineering, and more. It will also be of interest to R&D professionals, scientists and engineers across the plastics, food, biomedical and pharmaceutical industries. Provides in-depth coverage of methods for the characterization of the physical properties of biopolymeric architectures Supports a range of novel applications, including scaffolds, implant coatings, drug delivery, and nutraceutical encapsulation systems Includes the use of experimental data and mathematical modeling, thus enabling the reader to analyze and compare the properties of different polymeric gels

Plant Genome Editing Policies and Governance

Plant Genome Editing     Policies and Governance Book
Author : Thorben Sprink,Ralf Alexander Wilhelm,Armin Spök,Jürgen Robienski,Stephan Schleissing,Joachim Hermann Schiemann
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2020-04-22
ISBN : 2889636704
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Plant Genome Editing Policies and Governance book written by Thorben Sprink,Ralf Alexander Wilhelm,Armin Spök,Jürgen Robienski,Stephan Schleissing,Joachim Hermann Schiemann, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Fungi Bio prospects in Sustainable Agriculture Environment and Nano technology

Fungi Bio prospects in Sustainable Agriculture  Environment and Nano technology Book
Author : Vijay Kumar Sharma,Maulin P. Shah,Shobhika Parmar,Ajay Kumar
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-03-10
ISBN : 0128217359
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Fungi Bio-prospects in Sustainable Agriculture: Fungal metabolites and Nano-technology is a three-volume series that has been designed to explore the huge potential of the many diverse applications of fungi to human life. The series unveils the latest developments and scientific advances in the study of the biodiversity of fungi, extremophilic fungi, and fungal secondary metabolites and enzymes, while also presenting cutting-edge molecular tools used to study fungi. Readers will learn all about the recent progress and future potential applications of fungi in agriculture, environmental remediation, industry, food safety, medicine, and nanotechnology. Volume 3 provides a comprehensive account of fungal metabolites, including bioactive and host origin compounds, along with other biomolecules, and mycotoxins. This book includes the applications, limitations, and prospects of working with fungal secondary metabolites. The authors explore fungi in the myco-mediated synthesis of nanoparticles along with their biotechnological, industrial, and agricultural uses. This book also discusses advancements in medical mycology for the diagnosis and treatment of fungal infections. Furthermore, this book provides up-to-date and in-depth knowledge about the adoption of advanced CRISPR-Cas9 technology in fungi for gene editing Covers the secondary metabolites of fungi including bioactive compounds, mycotoxins and other biomolecules Provides insight into the fungal mediated biosynthesis of nanoparticles and its various applications in diverse fields Describes advances in diagnosis and treatment of human fungal infections Presents the latest information on applications of the CRISPR-Cas9 system in fungi

Oil Crop Genomics

Oil Crop Genomics Book
Author : Huseyin Tombuloglu
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021-12-03
ISBN : 3030704203
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Oil Crop Genomics book written by Huseyin Tombuloglu, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Molecular Aspects of Plant Beneficial Microbes in Agriculture

Molecular Aspects of Plant Beneficial Microbes in Agriculture Book
Author : Vivek Sharma,Richa Salwan,Laith Tawfeeq
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-03-10
ISBN : 0128184701
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Molecular Aspects of Plant Beneficial Microbes in Agriculture explores their diverse interactions, including the pathogenic and symbiotic relationship which leads to either a decrease or increase in crop productivity. Focusing on these environmentally-friendly approaches, the book explores their potential in changing climatic conditions. It presents the exploration and regulation of beneficial microbes in offering sustainable and alternative solutions to the use of chemicals in agriculture. The beneficial microbes presented here are capable of contributing to nutrient balance, growth regulators, suppressing pathogens, orchestrating immune response and improving crop performance. The book also offers insights into the advancements in DNA technology and bioinformatic approaches which have provided in-depth knowledge about the molecular arsenal involved in mineral uptake, nitrogen fixation, growth promotion and biocontrol attributes. Covers the molecular attributes of biocontrol, PGPR and mycorrhizal associations involved in the three-way interaction between beneficial microbes-host-pathogen Explores the role of technological interventions in exploring molecular mechanisms Provides detailed and comprehensive insights about recent trends in the use of microbial genetic engineering for agricultural application

Genome Engineering for Crop Improvement

Genome Engineering for Crop Improvement Book
Author : Santosh Upadhyay
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2021-04-12
ISBN : 1119672368
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In recent years, significant advancements have been made in the management of nutritional deficiency using genome engineering—enriching the nutritional properties of agricultural and horticultural crop plants such as wheat, rice, potatoes, grapes, and bananas. To meet the demands of the rapidly growing world population, researchers are developing a range of new genome engineering tools and strategies, from increasing the nutraceuticals in cereals and fruits, to decreasing the anti-nutrients in crop plants to improve the bioavailability of minerals and vitamins. Genome Engineering for Crop Improvement provides an up-to-date view of the use of genome editing for crop bio-fortification, improved bioavailability of minerals and nutrients, and enhanced hypo-allergenicity and hypo-immunogenicity. This volume examines a diversity of important topics including mineral and nutrient localization, metabolic engineering of carotenoids and flavonoids, genome engineering of zero calorie potatoes and allergen-free grains, engineering for stress resistance in crop plants, and more. Helping readers deepen their knowledge of the application of genome engineering in crop improvement, this book: Presents genetic engineering methods for developing edible oil crops, mineral translocation in grains, increased flavonoids in tomatoes, and cereals with enriched iron bioavailability Describes current genome engineering methods and the distribution of nutritional and mineral composition in important crop plants Offers perspectives on emerging technologies and the future of genome engineering in agriculture Genome Engineering for Crop Improvement is an essential resource for academics, scientists, researchers, agriculturalists, and students of plant molecular biology, system biology, plant biotechnology, and functional genomics.

Gene Editing in Plants

Gene Editing in Plants Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2017-08-31
ISBN : 0128117443
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Gene Editing in Plants, Volume 149 aims to provide the reader with an up-to-date survey of cutting-edge research with gene editing tools and an overview of the implications of this research on the nutritional quality of fruits, vegetables and grains. New chapters in the updated volume include topics relating to Genome Engineering and Agriculture: Opportunities and Challenges, the Use of CRISPR/Cas9 for Crop Improvement in Maize and Soybean, the Use of Zinc-Finger Nucleases for Crop Improvement, Gene Editing in Polyploid Crops: Wheat, Camelina, Canola, Potato, Cotton, Peanut, Sugar Cane, and Citrus, and Gene Editing With TALEN and CRISPR/Cas in Rice. This ongoing serial contain contributions from leading scientists and researchers in the field of gene editing in plants who describe the results of their own research in this rapidly expanding area of science. Shows the importance of revolutionary gene editing technology on plant biology research and its application to agricultural production Provides insight into what may lie ahead in this rapidly expanding area of plant research and development Contains contributions from major leaders in the field of plant gene editing

Validating a Novel CRISPR Cas9 System for Simultaneous Gene Modification and Transcriptional Regulation

Validating a Novel CRISPR Cas9 System for Simultaneous Gene Modification and Transcriptional Regulation Book
Author : Jennifer E. Chapman
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A novel clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated (CRISPR/Cas) tool for simultaneous gene editing and regulation was designed and tested. This study used the CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) endonuclease in complex with a 14-nucleotide (nt) guide RNA (gRNA) to repress a gene of interest using the Krüppel associated box (KRAB) domain, while also performing a separate gene modification using a 20-nt gRNA targeted to a reporter vector. DNA Ligase IV (LIGIV) was chosen as the target for gene repression, given its role in nonhomologous end joining, a common DNA repair process that competes with the more precise homology-directed repair (HDR). To test for gene editing, a 20-nt gRNA was designed to target a disrupted enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene present in a reporter vector. After the gRNA introduced a double-stranded break, cells attempted to repair the cut site via HDR using a DNA template within the reporter vector. In the event of successful gene editing, the EGFP sequence was restored to a functional state and green fluorescence was detectable by flow cytometry. To achieve gene repression, a 14-nt gRNA was designed to target LIGIV. The gRNA included a com protein recruitment domain, which recruited a Com-KRAB fusion protein to facilitate gene repression via chromatin modification of LIGIV. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify repression. This study expanded upon earlier advancements, offering a novel and versatile approach to genetic modification and transcriptional regulation using CRISPR/Cas9. The overall results show that both gene editing and repression were occurring, thereby providing support for a novel CRISPR/Cas system capable of simultaneous gene modification and regulation. Such a system may enhance the genome engineering capabilities of researchers, benefit disease research, and improve the precision with which gene editing is performed.

CRISPR and RNAi Systems

CRISPR and RNAi Systems Book
Author : Kamel A. Abd-Elsalam,Ki-Taek Lim
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-02-27
ISBN : 0128219114
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Plants are vulnerable to pathogens including fungi, bacteria, and viruses, which cause critical problems and deficits. Crop protection by plant breeding delivers a promising solution with no obvious effect on human health or the local ecosystem. Crop improvement has been the most powerful approach for producing unique crop cultivars since domestication occurred, making possible the main innovations in feeding the globe and community development. Genome editing is one of the genetic devices that can be implemented, and disease resistance is frequently cited as the most encouraging application of CRISPR/Cas9 technology in agriculture. Nanobiotechnology has harnessed the power of genome editing to develop agricultural crops. Nanosized DNA or RNA nanotechnology approaches could contribute to raising the stability and performance of CRISPR guide RNAs. This book brings together the latest research in these areas. CRISPR and RNAi Systems: Nanobiotechnology Approaches to Plant Breeding and Protection presents a complete understanding of the RNAi and CRISPR/Cas9 techniques for controlling mycotoxins, fighting plant nematodes, and detecting plant pathogens. CRISPR/Cas genome editing enables efficient targeted modification in most crops, thus promising to accelerate crop improvement. CRISPR/Cas9 can be used for management of plant insects, and various plant pathogens. The book is an important reference source for both plant scientists and environmental scientists who want to understand how nano biotechnologically based approaches are being used to create more efficient plant protection and plant breeding systems. Shows how nanotechnology is being used as the basis for new solutions for more efficient plant breeding and plant protection Outlines the major techniques and applications of both CRISPR and RNAi technologies Assesses the major challenges of escalating these technologies on a mass scale

Assisted Phytoremediation

Assisted Phytoremediation Book
Author : Vimal Chandra Pandey
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-09-21
ISBN : 0128230835
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Assisted Phytoremediaion covers a wide range of uses of plants for remediation of environmental pollutants. It includes coverage of such techniques as root engineering, transgenic plants, increasing the biomass, use of genetic engineering and genome editing technology for rapid phytoremediation of pollutants. In order to improve the efficiency of plant remediation, genetic engineering plays a vital role in the overexpression of genes or gene clusters, which are responsible for degradation and uptake of pollutants. The book presents state-of-the-art techniques of assisted phytoremediation to better manage soil and water pollution in large amounts. This book is a valuable resource for researchers, students, and engineers in environmental science and bioengineering, with case studies and state-of-the-art research from eminent global scientists. This book serves as an excellent basis from which scientific knowledge can grow and widen in the field of environmental remediation. Provides a clear picture of how to design, tune, and implement assisted phytoremediation techniques Offers a comprehensive analysis of current perspective and state-of-the-art applications of assisted phytoremediation Introduces the potential of genetic engineering as a rapid, cost-effective technology for environmental remediation using plants