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Genetics And The Behavior Of Domestic Animals

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Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals Book
Author : Temple Grandin,Mark J. Deesing
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-04-22
ISBN : 0128059923
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The partnership between humans and domestic animals is natural. The human brain is hard-wired to emotionally respond to animals. Beginning with the domestication of wolves, this chapter covers the process of domestication and reviews the early work of behaviorists and ethologists who refused to accept emotional states in animals. Modern behavior research employs methods developed by behaviorists and ethologists combined with neuroscience and genetics. Emotional systems in the brain drive behavior. Confusion between different emotional systems may explain conflicting findings in the behavior literature. Behavior in an open-field test may be motivated either by fear, separation distress, or novelty seeking. Each emotion is controlled by separate subcorticol systems. A novel open-field arena can frighten a prey species, but it may activate seeking in a predator. Genetics affects the strength of fear, novelty seeking, and separation distress. Behavior is shaped by a complex interaction between genetics and experience.

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals Book
Author : Kathryn Lord,Lorna Coppinger,Raymond Coppinger
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-04-22
ISBN : 0128059974
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The domestic dog has many phenotypic and behavioral forms. In this chapter we describe five different kinds of dogs and how each has been derived. We trace the background village dog adapting to the age of agriculture, with the coincident transformation of human behavior to permanent settlement. Over centuries, this village dog has changed, adapting to its different geographies and to local agricultural activities. In tandem, people began sorting through the village populations for dogs with appropriate behaviors, and these eventually became the founding stock for breeding programs. In recent centuries, samples of these working and hunting breeds have been collected by kennel clubs, and sexually isolated, becoming at best historic representations of the working or hunting breeds. More commonly they are used as pets, or household dogs, sometimes with sport competitions in the show or agility ringl

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals Book
Author : Temple Grandin,Mark J. Deesing
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-04-22
ISBN : 0128060034
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Over-selection for production traits has caused animal welfare problems such as feather pecking in hens, tail biting in pigs, and overly aggressive animals. In dogs, over-selection for appearance traits has caused neurological problems such as deafness. Both feather pecking and tail biting may be displaced foraging behaviors, because these behaviors are reduced by providing foraging materials such as straw. Another problem is hunger in broiler breeder hens and breeding sows. Animals that have been selected for rapid growth are also selected for a huge appetite. If breeder animals eat to satiation, they will become obese and have health problems. High-roughage feeds may improve welfare. Researchers suggest that new genetic breeding tools could be used to select against harmful behaviors and still have a productive animal. Breeders must avoid creating animals that will have poor welfare even when they are housed in the best environment.

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals Book
Author : Temple Grandin,Mark J. Deesing
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-07-14
ISBN : 9780128100165
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Behavior is shaped by both genetics and experience--nature and nurture. This book synthesizes research from behavioral genetics and animal and veterinary science, bridging the gap between these fields. The objective is to show that principles of behavioral genetics have practical applications to agricultural and companion animals. The continuing domestication of animals is a complex process whose myriad impacts on animal behavior are commonly under-appreciated. Genetic factors play a significant role in both species-specific behaviors and behavioral differences exhibited by individuals in the same species. Leading authorities explore the impact of increased intensities of selection on domestic animal behavior. Rodents, cattle, pigs, sheep, horses, herding and guard dogs, and poultry are all included in these discussions of genetics and behavior, making this book useful to veterinarians, livestock producers, laboratory animal researchers and technicians, animal trainers and breeders, and any researcher interested in animal behavior. Includes four new chapters on dog and fox behavior, pig behavior, the effects of domestication and horse behavior Synthesizes research from behavioral genetics, animal science, and veterinary literature Broaches fields of behavior genetics and behavioral research Includes practical applications of principles discovered by behavioral genetics researchers Covers many species ranging from pigs, dogs, foxes, rodents, cattle, horses, and cats

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals Book
Author : Jean Michel Faure,Andrew D. Mills
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-04-22
ISBN : 0128059990
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In these classic experiments, quail chicks were selectively bred for the behavioral traits of fear and social reinstatement. Over a period of 20 generations, four separate genetic lines were created. They were high and low fear and high and low social re-instatement. The duration of tonic immobility was used as a measure of fear and social reinstatement was measured with a treadmill test. In this test, the time that a bird will walk on a treadmill to stay close to its flockmates is measured. Since the publication of this chapter in 1998, many scientists have carried out with these genetic lines. Duration of tonic immobility does not all measure all types of fear. Fear maybe multidimensional because selection for tonic immobility has little effect on behavioral reactions to novelty. More recent research has also discovered linked traits such as low social reinstatement birds have stronger ultradiam rhythms.

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals Book
Author : Anna V. Kukekova,Lyudmila N. Trut,Gregory M. Acland
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-04-22
ISBN : 0128060018
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Dog domestication involved long-term genetic selection for behavior. The genetics-centered view of domestication is supported by experimental selection of farm-foxes (Vulpes vulpes) that began in the 1950s. Selection of foxes, separately, for tame and for aggressive behavior, has yielded two strains with markedly different, genetically determined behavioral phenotypes. Tame-strain foxes communicate with humans in a positive manner and are eager to establish human contact. Foxes from aggressive strains are aggressive to humans and difficult to handle. Although selected solely for behavior, changes in physiology, morphology, and appearance with significant parallels to characteristics of the domestic dog, were observed in tame-strain. Ongoing research is focused on identification of molecular genetic mechanisms associated with selection of foxes for behavior. Identification of behavioral loci in the fox genome in the region which is homologous to the region in the dog genome that differentiates dogs from wolves lead to the hypothesis that domesticated behavior in dogs and foxes may have similar genetic bases.

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals Book
Author : Mark J. Deesing,Temple Grandin
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-04-22
ISBN : 0128059982
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Since the late 1990s there has been a substantial increase in horse behavior genetics research. This chapter reviews recent work in molecular genetics, pre-and postnatal effects on behavior, the relationship between hair whorls and temperament, and lateralization in the nervous system. These factors are critical to understanding individual differences. Advancements in molecular genetics have identified genes associated with novelty seeking and gaited horse traits. Foal “imprint” training procedures are reviewed, and a gentle method for training foals is presented. Finding appropriate methods for reducing fearfulness in horses has important practical implications. High hair whorls are associated with reactivity, but differences are less apparent in calm breeds. Behavioral asymmetry is a fundamental feature of animal brains. Left-eye systems control avoidance behavior and right-eye systems control approach behaviors. An understanding of the cognitive and perceptual abilities is necessary to ensure horses receive proper training, handling, management, and care.

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals Book
Author : Per Jensen,Dominic Wright
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-04-22
ISBN : 0128059931
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In this chapter, we begin by defining domestication as a genetic process, whereby animals change phenotypically and genetically as a response to living under human supervision. This has caused a convergent set of phenotypic modifications across numerous different species, through a combination of relaxed natural selection, increased human selection, and correlated responses. The genetic mechanisms underlying these processes are discussed in addition to genetic drift and inbreeding. The driving types of mutations are dealt with, as is the way in which genes are organized in the genome to give rise to a specific genetic architecture facilitating selection responses. The different methods used to discover genes and mutations are divided into either top-down approaches, where one starts with the phenotype and uses mapping methods to find the causative genes, or bottom-up, where the genetic polymorphism is the starting point and the phenotype the desired response variable. A number of examples of single genes and mutations that have been coupled to behavioral variation are given, among them genes showing pleiotropic effects on pigmentation, and genes involved in regulation of the effects of neuropeptides. Finally, the relatively novel area of behavioral epigenetics is examined, in particular with its possible relation to domestication effects.

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals Book
Author : Lotta Rydhmer,Laurianne Canario
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-04-22
ISBN : 0128060026
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Research in behavioral genetics is important for pig welfare. Consequences of the ongoing selection for high production on pigs’ behavior need to be studied, as well as possibilities to select directly for changed behavior. The Farm Animal Welfare Council’s definition of welfare is based on five freedoms related to hunger and thirst, discomfort, pain, injury or disease, fear and distress and normal behavior. All these freedoms are associated with pig behavior. Maternal behavior related to piglet survival and aggressive behavior of pigs kept in groups are especially important for welfare. Pig breeding programs could be further developed by including behavioral traits relevant for welfare.

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals Book
Author : Temple Grandin,Mark J. Deesing
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-04-22
ISBN : 0128059958
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Different tests have been developed for evaluating the temperament of cattle, pigs, and sheep and some studies appear to have conflicting results. This may be due to confusion between the basic emotional systems of fear and separation distress (panic). Methods used for temperament tests can alter results such as how tightly an animal is restrained in a squeeze chute during temperament evaluation. Animals with a more reactive (fearful) temperament will exhibit greater agitated behavioral reactions when suddenly confronted with novel objects. Animals can be habituated to new things but learning is very specific. Habituation to one type of strange object may not transfer to other types of objects. Animals with smaller-diameter leg bones and slender bodies may be more reactive (fearful). Facial hair whorl position is related to a vigilant temperament and it may be more evident in populations with more diverse genetic backgrounds.

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals Book
Author : Alain Boissy,Hans W. Erhard
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-04-22
ISBN : 012805994X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This chapter provides an overview of the current behavioral and cognitive aspects of emotions in animals and explore the impacts of emotional experiences on the animal's adaptation to its current challenging circumstances. There is evidence that animal welfare results from the animal's perception of its environment and its background. The chapter is structured in four complementary sections. The first one addresses the nature of emotions that the animals can feel which is validated from commonalties in physiological and behavioral responses to dangers across and within species. The second section presents advanced features of the relationships between cognition and emotions originally studied in humans, which are now developed in animals to better access their affective states. The third section is devoted to the relevance of the personality concept, as resulting from both genetics and developmental experience, for assessing animal individuality in emotional behaviors and stress. The last section explores some approaches that can alleviate fear and induce positive affective states, with the potential to mitigate detrimental stress-induced effects on the welfare and health status by eliciting positive emotions in animals.

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals Book
Author : William M. Muir,Heng Wei Cheng
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-04-22
ISBN : 012806000X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Many behaviors in poultry can be modified by genetic selection. Selection of laying hens for maximum egg production had the unfortunate side effect of increased rates of beak inflicted damage on other birds. Selective breeding has eliminated broodiness and has either increased or decreased other behaviors, such as hysteria, fearfulness, appetite in broilers, social dominance, ability and damage to other birds. Genetic selection can be used to reduce behaviors that cause welfare problems. However, it must be approached with caution to avoid unintended consequences that would be detrimental to welfare. A calm, docile bird that appears behaviorally calm, may take longer for its heart rate to return to normal after it is frightened. The use of group selection instead of single-bird selection can be effectively used to reduce undesirable behaviors such as feather pecking and to maintain high egg production. An entire group of birds is selected instead of selecting individuals.

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals Book
Author : Peter J. Chenoweth,Antonio J. Landaeta-Hernández,Cornelia Flöercke
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-04-22
ISBN : 0128059966
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This chapter describes the reproductive and maternal behaviors of different livestock species (cattle, horses, pigs, goats, and water buffalo) with an emphasis on those traits which are genetically conserved. All of the species discussed are polygynous and promiscuous, and females undergo estrous cycles in which males are mainly attracted by movement and posture cues. Major differences in both reproductive and maternal behaviors are observed between “prey” and “predator” type species. Genetic variation also occurs within species, with breed and line differences being observed in all of the behaviors discussed, allowing selection for optimal reproductive and maternal behaviors. However, modern livestock systems, which emphasize production traits, can diminish reproductive and maternal traits and increase detrimental behaviors, such as piglet crushing and savaging in sows. With modern selection tools, greater emphasis on positive reproductive and maternal traits is achievable within the context of profitable production.

The Behavior of Domestic Animals

The Behavior of Domestic Animals Book
Author : Benjamin L. Hart
Publisher : W H Freeman & Company
Release : 1985
ISBN : 9780716715955
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Social organization, communication, and aggressive behavior; Sexual behavior of females and males; Maternal behavior and mother-young interaction; Feeding and eliminative behavior; Genetic influences on behavior; Early experience and behavior; Animal learning; Hormonal influences on behavior; Contributions of behavioral science to issues in animal welfare.

Domestic Animals b Genetics and Behavior

Domestic Animals  b Genetics and Behavior Book
Author : Carmichael J.A Wallace
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1998
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Domestic Animals b Genetics and Behavior book written by Carmichael J.A Wallace, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Genetics and the Social Behaviour of the Dog

Genetics and the Social Behaviour of the Dog Book
Author : John Paul Scott,John L. Fuller
Publisher : University of Chicago Press
Release : 1974
ISBN : 9780226743387
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Based on 20 years of research at the Jakson Laboratory, this is a comprehensive reference work on the behaviour of dogs.

The Ethology of Domestic Animals An Introductory Text

The Ethology of Domestic Animals  An Introductory Text Book
Author : Jensen, P.
Publisher : CABI
Release : 2002
ISBN : 1780640595
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download The Ethology of Domestic Animals An Introductory Text book written by Jensen, P., available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

The Ethology of Domestic Animals

The Ethology of Domestic Animals Book
Author : Per Jensen
Publisher : CABI
Release : 2017-09-27
ISBN : 1786391651
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Completely updated, revised and redesigned in colour throughout, this classic bestselling text continues to provide a concise introduction to the important fundamentals of animal behaviour from genetics, physiology, motivation, learning and cognition, through to social and reproductive behaviour, abnormal behaviour and human-animal interactions. This text remains a highly respected, essential resource for both students and lecturers in animal and veterinary science, animal welfare, zoology and psychology.

Principles and Applications of Domestic Animal Behavior

Principles and Applications of Domestic Animal Behavior Book
Author : Edward O. Price
Publisher : CABI
Release : 2008
ISBN : 1845933982
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In order to understand and manage animals in their natural or captive environments we must first understand why animals do what they do and recognize limitations in their ability to adapt to different environments. Drawing on the author's considerable experience in both teaching and research, this introductory-level textbook describes the basic principles underlying animal behavior and how those concepts can be used in managing the care of domestic and captive wild animals, covering four key themes: development of behavior, biological rhythms, social behavior and behavioral aspects of animal management. Extensively illustrated with many practical examples and over 150 photos and figures, the book will be essential reading for animal science and veterinary students.

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals Book
Author : Temple Grandin,Mark J. Deesing
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2013-04-22
ISBN : 0124055087
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Behavior is shaped by both genetics and experience--nature and nurture. This book synthesizes research from behavioral genetics and animal and veterinary science, bridging the gap between these fields. The objective is to show that principles of behavioral genetics have practical applications to agricultural and companion animals. The continuing domestication of animals is a complex process whose myriad impacts on animal behavior are commonly under-appreciated. Genetic factors play a significant role in both species-specific behaviors and behavioral differences exhibited by individuals in the same species. Leading authorities explore the impact of increased intensities of selection on domestic animal behavior. Rodents, cattle, pigs, sheep, horses, herding and guard dogs, and poultry are all included in these discussions of genetics and behavior, making this book useful to veterinarians, livestock producers, laboratory animal researchers and technicians, animal trainers and breeders, and any researcher interested in animal behavior. Includes four new chapters on dog and fox behavior, pig behavior, the effects of domestication and horse behavior Synthesizes research from behavioral genetics, animal science, and veterinary literature Broaches fields of behavior genetics and behavioral research Includes practical applications of principles discovered by behavioral genetics researchers Covers many species ranging from pigs, dogs, foxes, rodents, cattle, horses, and cats