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Gene Environment Interactions In Psychiatry

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Gene Environment Interactions in Psychiatry

Gene Environment Interactions in Psychiatry Book
Author : Bart Ellenbroek,Ji Un Youn
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-07-26
ISBN : 012801783X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Gene-Environment Interactions in Psychiatry: Nature, Nurture, Neuroscience begins with the basic aspects of gene–environment studies, such as basic genetics, principles of animals modeling, and the basic processes of how environmental factors affect brain and behavior, with part two describing the most important psychiatric disorders in detail. Each chapter has a similar structure that includes a general description of the disorder that is followed by an analysis of the role of genes and how they are affected by environmental factors. Each chapter ends with a description of the most relevant animal models, again focusing on gene–environment interactions. The book concludes with a critical evaluation of the current research and an outlook for the (possible) future, offering a vignette into the fascinating world of nature, nurture, and neuroscience. Written to provide in-depth basic knowledge on gene–environment interactions for graduate students, postgraduate students, clinicians, and scientists Includes descriptions of the major psychiatric disorders Provides detailed descriptions of animal models and basic genetic information Presents well-illustrated color figures to explain complex features in a simple manner

Gene Environment Interactions

Gene Environment Interactions Book
Author : Moyra Smith
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-01-24
ISBN : 0128196130
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Gene Environment Interactions: Nature and Nurture in the Twenty-first Century offers a rare, synergistic view of ongoing revelations in gene environment interaction studies, drawing together key themes from epigenetics, microbiomics, disease etiology, and toxicology to illuminate pathways for clinical translation and the paradigm shift towards precision medicine. Across eleven chapters, Dr. Smith discusses interactions with the environment, human adaptations to environmental stimuli, pathogen encounters across the centuries, epigenetic modulation of gene expression, transgenerational inheritance, the microbiome's intrinsic effects on human health, and the gene-environment etiology of cardiovascular, metabolic, psychiatric, behavioral and monogenic disorders. Later chapters illuminate how our new understanding of gene environment interactions are driving advances in precision medicine and novel treatments. In addition, the book's author shares strategies to support clinical translation of these scientific findings to improve heath literacy among the general population. Offers a thorough, interdisciplinary discussion on recent revelations from gene environment interaction studies Illuminates environmental factors affecting disease-gene etiology and treatment Supports the clinical translation of gene environment interaction findings into novel therapeutics and precision medicine

Gene Environment Interactions in Developmental Psychopathology

Gene Environment Interactions in Developmental Psychopathology Book
Author : Kenneth A. Dodge,Michael Rutter
Publisher : Guilford Press
Release : 2011-09-01
ISBN : 1609181905
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Bringing together foremost experts, this book reviews groundbreaking gene–environment research and explores implications for clinical practice, prevention, and public policy. Presented is cutting-edge work on the interplay of genetic factors and childhood experiences in the development of mental disorders such as depression, conduct disorder, and schizophrenia. Essential topics include what scientists currently know about "susceptibility genes"; the mechanisms by which maltreatment and other stressors interact with biological susceptibilities across development; and factors that make certain children more resilient than others. Future directions for personalizing treatment and prevention efforts, thus making them more effective, are discussed.

Personalized Psychiatry

Personalized Psychiatry Book
Author : Bernhard Baune
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-10-16
ISBN : 0128131772
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Personalized Psychiatry presents the first book to explore this novel field of biological psychiatry that covers both basic science research and its translational applications. The book conceptualizes personalized psychiatry and provides state-of-the-art knowledge on biological and neuroscience methodologies, all while integrating clinical phenomenology relevant to personalized psychiatry and discussing important principles and potential models. It is essential reading for advanced students and neuroscience and psychiatry researchers who are investigating the prevention and treatment of mental disorders. Combines neurobiology with basic science methodologies in genomics, epigenomics and transcriptomics Demonstrates how the statistical modeling of interacting biological and clinical information could transform the future of psychiatry Addresses fundamental questions and requirements for personalized psychiatry from a basic research and translational perspective

Genes Environment and Psychopathology

Genes  Environment  and Psychopathology Book
Author : Kenneth S. Kendler,Carol A. Prescott
Publisher : Guilford Press
Release : 2007-11-01
ISBN : 1593856458
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This groundbreaking volume synthesizes the results of the Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders, which yielded longitudinal data on more than 9,000 individuals. The authors trace how risk for depression, anxiety, eating disorders, antisocial behavior, alcoholism, and substance abuse emerges from the interplay of a variety of genetic and environmental influences. Major questions addressed include whether risk is disorder-specific, how to distinguish between correlational and causal genetic and evironmental factors, sex differences in risk, and how risk and protective factors interact over time. The book also summarizes the conceptual underpinnings of the study and describes key methodological challenges and innovations.

Handbook of Psychocardiology

Handbook of Psychocardiology Book
Author : Marlies Alvarenga,Don Byrne
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-11-11
ISBN : 9789812872050
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This handbook brings together the full weight of contemporary evidence bearing on what is now commonly termed “psycho-cardiology”. It focuses on the role of psycho-social factors in the genesis and clinical management of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The book constitutes a critically reviewed compendium of current knowledge in the area, coupled with guides to evidence-based best practice in the field of psycho-cardiology. The following categories are covered: Social/demographic risk for CVD, Personality and CVD risk, Stress and CVD risk, Psychopathology (particularly affective disorders) and CVD risk, The psychological management of those with clinical CVD, Psychology in the prevention of CVD. The book integrates the evidence into a compelling argument that clinicians, researchers and those in public health will discount the role of psychological factors in regard to CVD at their own peril. And importantly for clinicians charged with the care of patients with CVD, the book poses the argument that failure to recognize the links between psychological factors and CVD may well be at the considerable peril of those patients under their care.

The Neurobiological Basis of Suicide

The Neurobiological Basis of Suicide Book
Author : Yogesh Dwivedi
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2012-06-25
ISBN : 143983881X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

With recent studies using genetic, epigenetic, and other molecular and neurochemical approaches, a new era has begun in understanding pathophysiology of suicide. Emerging evidence suggests that neurobiological factors are not only critical in providing potential risk factors but also provide a promising approach to develop more effective treatment and prevention strategies. The Neurobiological Basis of Suicide discusses the most recent findings in suicide neurobiology. Psychological, psychosocial, and cultural factors are important in determining the risk factors for suicide; however, they offer weak prediction and can be of little clinical use. Interestingly, cognitive characteristics are different among depressed suicidal and depressed nonsuicidal subjects, and could be involved in the development of suicidal behavior. The characterization of the neurobiological basis of suicide is in delineating the risk factors associated with suicide. The Neurobiological Basis of Suicide focuses on how and why these neurobiological factors are crucial in the pathogenic mechanisms of suicidal behavior and how these findings can be transformed into potential therapeutic applications.

Gene Environment Transactions in Developmental Psychopathology

Gene Environment Transactions in Developmental Psychopathology Book
Author : Patrick H. Tolan,Bennett L. Leventhal
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-04-29
ISBN : 3319492276
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book examines the current research in gene-environment transactions (GEX) and its potential use in developing interventions and applications tailored to individual genetic makeups. Key concepts underlying GEX studies in this area are defined, identifying fundamental challenges in devising informed research questions and conducting valid and useful experiments. Chapters analyze GEX models inspired by the present day genome-based frameworks, particularly in terms of advances in identifying and understanding complex environmental factors, using examples from common psychological conditions, such as antisocial behavior, chronic physical aggression, and chronic internalizing disorder. In addition, the book presents new and potential applications of the framework in the contexts of prevention science and intervention research. Topics featured in this book include: Epigenetics and the biology of gene x environment interactions. Gene by environment interactions and its potential use for intervention strategies in anxiety disorders. The challenges and potential for research on gene-environment interactions within autism spectrum disorder. Using genetically informed prevention trials to test gene x environment hypothese. Challenges for intervention research within the GEX framework. Gene-Environment Transactions in Developmental Psychopathology is a must-have resource for researchers/professors, clinicians, and related professionals as well as graduate students in developmental psychology, psychiatry, human genetics, and related disciplines.

Beyond Our Genes

Beyond Our Genes Book
Author : Raffaele Teperino
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-01-24
ISBN : 3030352137
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The genotype/phenotype dichotomy is being slowly replaced by a more complex relationship whereby the majority of phenotypes arise from interactions between one’s genotype and the environment in which one lives. Interestingly, it seems that not only our lives, but also our ancestors’ lives, determine how we look. This newly recognized form of inheritance is known as (epi)genetic, as it involves an additional layer of information on top of the one encoded by the genes. Its discovery has constituted one of the biggest paradigm shifts in biology in recent years. Understanding epigenetic factors may help explain the pathogenesis of several complex human diseases (such as diabetes, obesity and cancer) and provide alternative paths for disease prevention, management and therapy. This book introduces the reader to the importance of the environment for our own health and the health of our descendants, sheds light on the current knowledge on epigenetic inheritance and opens a window to future developments in the field.

The Social Determinants of Mental Health

The Social Determinants of Mental Health Book
Author : Michael T. Compton,Ruth S. Shim
Publisher : American Psychiatric Pub
Release : 2015-04-01
ISBN : 1585625175
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Social Determinants of Mental Health aims to fill the gap that exists in the psychiatric, scholarly, and policy-related literature on the social determinants of mental health: those factors stemming from where we learn, play, live, work, and age that impact our overall mental health and well-being. The editors and an impressive roster of chapter authors from diverse scholarly backgrounds provide detailed information on topics such as discrimination and social exclusion; adverse early life experiences; poor education; unemployment, underemployment, and job insecurity; income inequality, poverty, and neighborhood deprivation; food insecurity; poor housing quality and housing instability; adverse features of the built environment; and poor access to mental health care. This thought-provoking book offers many beneficial features for clinicians and public health professionals: Clinical vignettes are included, designed to make the content accessible to readers who are primarily clinicians and also to demonstrate the practical, individual-level applicability of the subject matter for those who typically work at the public health, population, and/or policy level. Policy implications are discussed throughout, designed to make the content accessible to readers who work primarily at the public health or population level and also to demonstrate the policy relevance of the subject matter for those who typically work at the clinical level. All chapters include five to six key points that focus on the most important content, helping to both prepare the reader with a brief overview of the chapter's main points and reinforce the "take-away" messages afterward. In addition to the main body of the book, which focuses on selected individual social determinants of mental health, the volume includes an in-depth overview that summarizes the editors' and their colleagues' conceptualization, as well as a final chapter coauthored by Dr. David Satcher, 16th Surgeon General of the United States, that serves as a "Call to Action," offering specific actions that can be taken by both clinicians and policymakers to address the social determinants of mental health. The editors have succeeded in the difficult task of balancing the individual/clinical/patient perspective and the population/public health/community point of view, while underscoring the need for both groups to work in a unified way to address the inequities in twenty-first century America. The Social Determinants of Mental Health gives readers the tools to understand and act to improve mental health and reduce risk for mental illnesses for individuals and communities. Students preparing for the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) will also benefit from this book, as the MCAT in 2015 will test applicants' knowledge of social determinants of health. The social determinants of mental health are not distinct from the social determinants of physical health, although they deserve special emphasis given the prevalence and burden of poor mental health.

Gene Environment Interactions in Developmental Psychopathology

Gene Environment Interactions in Developmental Psychopathology Book
Author : Kenneth A. Dodge,Michael Rutter
Publisher : Guilford Press
Release : 2011-09-01
ISBN : 1609181905
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Bringing together foremost experts, this book reviews groundbreaking gene–environment research and explores implications for clinical practice, prevention, and public policy. Presented is cutting-edge work on the interplay of genetic factors and childhood experiences in the development of mental disorders such as depression, conduct disorder, and schizophrenia. Essential topics include what scientists currently know about "susceptibility genes"; the mechanisms by which maltreatment and other stressors interact with biological susceptibilities across development; and factors that make certain children more resilient than others. Future directions for personalizing treatment and prevention efforts, thus making them more effective, are discussed.

Nature and Nurture in Mental Disorders

Nature and Nurture in Mental Disorders Book
Author : Joel Paris
Publisher : American Psychiatric Pub
Release : 2020-10-06
ISBN : 1615373683
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Over the last two decades, spurred particularly by the decoding of the genome, neuroscience has advanced to become the primary basis of clinical psychiatry, even as environmental risk factors for mental disorders have been deemphasized. In this thoroughly revised, second edition of Nature and Nurture in Mental Disorders, the author argues that an overreliance on biology at the expense of environment has been detrimental to the field -- that, in fact, the "nature versus nurture" dichotomy is unnecessary. Instead, he posits a biopsychosocial model that acknowledges the role an individual's predisposing genetic factors, interacting with environmental stressors, play in the etiology of many mental disorders. The first several chapters of the book provide an overview of the theories that affect the study of genes, the environment, and their interaction, examining what the empirical evidence has revealed about each of these issues. Subsequent chapters apply the integrated model to a variety of disorders, reviewing the evidence on how genes and environment interact to shape disorders including: Depressive disorders PTSD Neurodevelopmental disorders Eating disorders Personality disorders By rejecting both biological and psychosocial reductionism in favor of an interactive model, Nature and Nurture in Mental Disorders offers practicing clinicians a path toward a more flexible, effective treatment model. And where controversy or debate still exist, an extensive reference list provided at the end of the book, updated for this edition to reflect the most current literature, encourages further study and exploration.

Comprehensive Guide to Post Traumatic Stress Disorders

Comprehensive Guide to Post Traumatic Stress Disorders Book
Author : Colin R. Martin,Victor R. Preedy,Vinood B. Patel
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-06-13
ISBN : 9783319083582
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This is an all-embracing reference that offers analyses and discussions of contemporary issues in the field of PTSD. The book brings together scientific material from leading experts in the field relating to a wide range of important current topics across disciplines. These include the early identification of PTSD and subsequent treatment, to social and behavioral studies, to biochemical, molecular and genetic research. With more than 125 chapters organized in 12 major sections, this is the most complete single resource on PTSD.

Genes and Behavior

Genes and Behavior Book
Author : Sir Michael Rutter
Publisher : Wiley-Blackwell
Release : 2006-02-14
ISBN : 9781405110624
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In this major new book, eminent scientist Professor Sir Michael Rutter gets behind the hype of the behavioral genetics debate to provide a balanced and authoritative overview of the genetic revolution and its implications for understanding human behavior. Written by one of the world's leading figures in child psychology and psychiatry, Professor Sir Michael Rutter Provides non-technical explanation of genetics to diffuse the sensational debates surrounding the topic Sets out in layman's terms what genes do, how much is nature and how much is nurture Argues that nature and nurture are not truly separate and gives examples of how the two interact Looks at the implications of genetic findings for policy and practice The book will inform public debate about the implications of the Human Genome Project and, more broadly, the field of genetic science

Principles of Psychiatric Genetics

Principles of Psychiatric Genetics Book
Author : John I. Nurnberger, Jr,Wade Berrettini
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2012-09-13
ISBN : 1139560379
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Disorders of behavior represent some of the most common and disabling diseases affecting humankind; however, despite their worldwide distribution, genetic influences on these illnesses are often overlooked by families and mental health professionals. Psychiatric genetics is a rapidly advancing field, elucidating the varied roles of specific genes and their interactions in brain development and dysregulation. Principles of Psychiatric Genetics includes 22 disorder-based chapters covering, amongst other conditions, schizophrenia, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, Alzheimer's disease, learning and developmental disorders, eating disorders and personality disorders. Supporting chapters focus on issues of genetic epidemiology, molecular and statistical methods, pharmacogenetics, epigenetics, gene expression studies, online genetic databases and ethical issues. Written by an international team of contributors, and fully updated with the latest results from genome-wide association studies, this comprehensive text is an indispensable reference for psychiatrists, neurologists, psychologists and anyone involved in psychiatric genetic studies.

Bipolar Disorder Vulnerability

Bipolar Disorder Vulnerability Book
Author : Jair Soares,Consuelo Walss-Bass,Paolo Brambilla
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2018-06-09
ISBN : 0128125608
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Bipolar Disorder Vulnerability: Perspectives from Pediatric and High-Risk Populations synthesizes our current understanding of high-risk and pediatric populations to aid readers in identifying markers of vulnerability for the development of bipolar disorder, with an ultimate goal of the development of drug targets and other therapies for early diagnosis and treatment. The book provides readers with an understanding of biological and environmental factors influencing disease manifestation that will aid them in defining discrete clinical stages and, importantly, establish an empirical basis for the application of novel therapeutics in a phase of illness during which specific treatments could more effectively alter disease course. Whereas most of the literature available on the pathophysiological mechanisms of bipolar disorder focuses on chronically ill adult individuals, this represents the only book that specifically examines pediatric and high-risk populations. An estimated 30 to 60 percent of adult bipolar disorder patients have their disease onset during childhood, with early-onset cases representing a particularly severe and genetically loaded form of the illness. Highlights diverse translational methodologies, including functional and structural neuroimaging, neuropsychological testing and integrated genomics Examines molecular trajectories in youth with bipolar disorder and unaffected youth at high risk for developing bipolar disorder Explores the interaction between genomic and environmental influences that shape behavior

Genetic Effects on Environmental Vulnerability to Disease

Genetic Effects on Environmental Vulnerability to Disease Book
Author : Sir Michael J. Rutter
Publisher : Wiley
Release : 2008-10-20
ISBN : 9780470777800
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Much research has attempted to show direct linear relations between genes and disorder. However, scientists have been discouraged by inconsistent findings based on this simple gene-phenotype approach. The alternative approach is to incorporate information about the environment. A gene-environment interaction approach assumes that environmental pathogens cause disorder, whereas genes influence susceptibility to environmental pathogens. This book brings together contributions from experts from multiple disciplines who discuss: How epidemiological cohort studies can better integrate physiological (mechanistic) measures; How best to characterise subjects’ vulnerability versus resilience by moving beyond single genetic polymorphisms; How gene hunters can benefit from recruiting samples selected for known exposures; How environmental pathogens can be used as tools for gene hunting; How to deal with potential spurious (statistical) interactions, and How genes can help explain fundamental demographic properties of disorders (e.g. sex distribution, age effects).

The Handbook of Neuropsychiatric Biomarkers Endophenotypes and Genes

The Handbook of Neuropsychiatric Biomarkers  Endophenotypes and Genes Book
Author : Michael S. Ritsner
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2009-04-24
ISBN : 9048122988
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, mood disorders, Alzheimer’s disease, epilepsy, alcoholism, substance abuse and others are one of the most debilitating illnesses worldwide characterizing by the complexity of the causes, and lacking the laboratory tests that may promote diagnostic and prognostic procedures. Recent advances in neuroscience, genomic, genetic, proteomic and metabolomic knowledge and technologies have opened the way to searching biomarkers and endophenotypes, which may offer powerful and exciting opportunity to understand the etiology and the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of neuropsychiatric disorders. The challenge now is to translate these advances into meaningful diagnostic and therapeutic advances. This book offers a broad synthesis of the current knowledge about diverse topics of the biomarker and endophenotype strategies in neuropsychiatry. The book is organized into four interconnected volumes: “Neuropsychological Endophenotypes and Biomarkers” (with overview of methodological issues of the biomarker and endophenotype approaches in neuropsychiatry and some technological advances), “Neuroanatomical and Neuroimaging Endophenotypes and Biomarkers”, “Metabolic and Peripheral Biomarkers” and “Molecular Genetic and Genomic Markers”. The contributors are internationally and nationally recognized researchers and experts from 16 countries. This four-volume handbook is intended for a broad spectrum of readers including neuroscientists, psychiatrists, neurologists, endocrinologists, pharmacologists, clinical psychologists, general practitioners, geriatricians, health care providers in the field of neurology and mental health interested in trends that have crystallized in the last decade, and trends that can be expected to further evolve in the coming years. It is hoped that this book will also be a useful resource for the teaching of psychiatry, neurology, psychology and mental health.

Behavioral Genetics in the Postgenomic Era

Behavioral Genetics in the Postgenomic Era Book
Author : Robert Plomin
Publisher : Amer Psychological Assn
Release : 2003
ISBN : 9781557989260
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Human Genome Project-which has provided a working draft of the sequence of DNA in the human genome - is a remarkable scientific achievement. In this postgenomic world, it appears that all genes and all DNA variation will eventually be known. For behavioral researchers, this is especially exciting because behavioral dimensions and disorders are the most complex traits of all. To understand these traits, we need to understand the roles of many genes and many environmental influences.

Behavioral Inhibition

Behavioral Inhibition Book
Author : Koraly Pérez-Edgar,Nathan A. Fox
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-09-22
ISBN : 3319980777
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book examines three decades of research on behavioral inhibition (BI), addressing its underlying biological, psychological, and social markers of development and functioning. It offers a theory-to-practice overview of behavioral inhibition and explores its cognitive component as well as its relationship to shyness, anxiety, and social withdrawal. The volume traces the emergence of BI during infancy through its occurrences across childhood. In addition, the book details the biological basis of BI and explores ways in which it is amenable to environmental modeling. Its chapters explore the neural systems underlying developmental milestones, address lingering questions (e.g., limitations of studying BI in laboratory settings and debatable benefits of self-regulatory processes), and provide recommendations for future research. Key areas of coverage include: Animal models of behavioral inhibition. Social functioning and peer relationships in BI. Attention mechanisms in behavioral inhibition. BI and associative learning of fear. Behavioral inhibition and prevention of internalizing distress in early childhood. The relations between BI, cognitive control, and anxiety. Behavioral Inhibition is a must-have resource for researchers, clinicians, scientist-practitioners, and graduate students across such fields as developmental psychology, psychiatry, social work, cognitive and affective developmental neuroscience, child and school psychology, educational psychology, and pediatrics.