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Gender Bias Artificial Intelligence And Healthcare

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Sex and Gender Bias in Technology and Artificial Intelligence

Sex and Gender Bias in Technology and Artificial Intelligence Book
Author : Davide Cirillo,Silvina Catuara Solarz,Emre Guney
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2022-05-21
ISBN : 0128213930
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Sex and Gender Bias in Technology and Artificial Intelligence: Biomedicine and Healthcare Applications details the integration of sex and gender as critical factors in innovative technologies (artificial intelligence, digital medicine, natural language processing, robotics) for biomedicine and healthcare applications. By systematically reviewing existing scientific literature, a multidisciplinary group of international experts analyze diverse aspects of the complex relationship between sex and gender, health and technology, providing a perspective overview of the pressing need of an ethically-informed science. The reader is guided through the latest implementations and insights in technological areas of accelerated growth, putting forward the neglected and overlooked aspects of sex and gender in biomedical research and healthcare solutions that leverage artificial intelligence, biosensors, and personalized medicine approaches to predict and prevent disease outcomes. The reader comes away with a critical understanding of this fundamental issue for the sake of better future technologies and more effective clinical approaches. First comprehensive title addressing the topic of sex and gender biases and artificial intelligence applications to biomedical research and healthcare Co-published by the Women’s Brain Project, a leading non-profit organization in this area Guides the reader through important topics like the Generation of Clinical Data, Clinical Trials, Big Data Analytics, Digital Biomarkers, Natural Language Processing

Data Feminism

Data Feminism Book
Author : Catherine D'Ignazio,Lauren F. Klein
Publisher : MIT Press
Release : 2020-03-31
ISBN : 0262358530
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A new way of thinking about data science and data ethics that is informed by the ideas of intersectional feminism. Today, data science is a form of power. It has been used to expose injustice, improve health outcomes, and topple governments. But it has also been used to discriminate, police, and surveil. This potential for good, on the one hand, and harm, on the other, makes it essential to ask: Data science by whom? Data science for whom? Data science with whose interests in mind? The narratives around big data and data science are overwhelmingly white, male, and techno-heroic. In Data Feminism, Catherine D'Ignazio and Lauren Klein present a new way of thinking about data science and data ethics—one that is informed by intersectional feminist thought. Illustrating data feminism in action, D'Ignazio and Klein show how challenges to the male/female binary can help challenge other hierarchical (and empirically wrong) classification systems. They explain how, for example, an understanding of emotion can expand our ideas about effective data visualization, and how the concept of invisible labor can expose the significant human efforts required by our automated systems. And they show why the data never, ever “speak for themselves.” Data Feminism offers strategies for data scientists seeking to learn how feminism can help them work toward justice, and for feminists who want to focus their efforts on the growing field of data science. But Data Feminism is about much more than gender. It is about power, about who has it and who doesn't, and about how those differentials of power can be challenged and changed.

Oxford Handbook of Ethics of AI

Oxford Handbook of Ethics of AI Book
Author : Markus D. Dubber,Frank Pasquale,Sunit Das
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2020-06-30
ISBN : 0190067411
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume tackles a quickly-evolving field of inquiry, mapping the existing discourse as part of a general attempt to place current developments in historical context; at the same time, breaking new ground in taking on novel subjects and pursuing fresh approaches. The term "A.I." is used to refer to a broad range of phenomena, from machine learning and data mining to artificial general intelligence. The recent advent of more sophisticated AI systems, which function with partial or full autonomy and are capable of tasks which require learning and 'intelligence', presents difficult ethical questions, and has drawn concerns from many quarters about individual and societal welfare, democratic decision-making, moral agency, and the prevention of harm. This work ranges from explorations of normative constraints on specific applications of machine learning algorithms today-in everyday medical practice, for instance-to reflections on the (potential) status of AI as a form of consciousness with attendant rights and duties and, more generally still, on the conceptual terms and frameworks necessarily to understand tasks requiring intelligence, whether "human" or "A.I."

Responsible AI and Analytics for an Ethical and Inclusive Digitized Society

Responsible AI and Analytics for an Ethical and Inclusive Digitized Society Book
Author : Denis Dennehy,Anastasia Griva,Nancy Pouloudi,Yogesh K. Dwivedi,Ilias Pappas,Matti Mäntymäki
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021-08-25
ISBN : 3030854477
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume constitutes the proceedings of the 20th IFIP WG 6.11 Conference on e-Business, e-Services, and e-Society, I3E 2021, held in Galway, Ireland, in September 2021.* The total of 57 full and 8 short papers presented in these volumes were carefully reviewed and selected from 141 submissions. The papers are organized in the following topical sections: AI for Digital Transformation and Public Good; AI & Analytics Decision Making; AI Philosophy, Ethics & Governance; Privacy & Transparency in a Digitized Society; Digital Enabled Sustainable Organizations and Societies; Digital Technologies and Organizational Capabilities; Digitized Supply Chains; Customer Behavior and E-business; Blockchain; Information Systems Development; Social Media & Analytics; and Teaching & Learning. *The conference was held virtually due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

The Myth of Artificial Intelligence

The Myth of Artificial Intelligence Book
Author : Erik J. Larson
Publisher : Belknap Press
Release : 2021-04-06
ISBN : 0674983513
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Futurists are certain that humanlike AI is on the horizon, but in fact engineers have no idea how to program human reasoning. AI reasons from statistical correlations across data sets, while common sense is based heavily on conjecture. Erik Larson argues that hyping existing methods will only hold us back from developing truly humanlike AI.

The Ethical Algorithm

The Ethical Algorithm Book
Author : Michael Kearns,Aaron Roth
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2019-10-04
ISBN : 0190948213
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Over the course of a generation, algorithms have gone from mathematical abstractions to powerful mediators of daily life. Algorithms have made our lives more efficient, more entertaining, and, sometimes, better informed. At the same time, complex algorithms are increasingly violating the basic rights of individual citizens. Allegedly anonymized datasets routinely leak our most sensitive personal information; statistical models for everything from mortgages to college admissions reflect racial and gender bias. Meanwhile, users manipulate algorithms to "game" search engines, spam filters, online reviewing services, and navigation apps. Understanding and improving the science behind the algorithms that run our lives is rapidly becoming one of the most pressing issues of this century. Traditional fixes, such as laws, regulations and watchdog groups, have proven woefully inadequate. Reporting from the cutting edge of scientific research, The Ethical Algorithm offers a new approach: a set of principled solutions based on the emerging and exciting science of socially aware algorithm design. Michael Kearns and Aaron Roth explain how we can better embed human principles into machine code - without halting the advance of data-driven scientific exploration. Weaving together innovative research with stories of citizens, scientists, and activists on the front lines, The Ethical Algorithm offers a compelling vision for a future, one in which we can better protect humans from the unintended impacts of algorithms while continuing to inspire wondrous advances in technology.

Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare

Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare Book
Author : Adam Bohr,Kaveh Memarzadeh
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-06-21
ISBN : 0128184396
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Healthcare is more than a comprehensive introduction to artificial intelligence as a tool in the generation and analysis of healthcare data. The book is split into two sections where the first section describes the current healthcare challenges and the rise of AI in this arena. The ten following chapters are written by specialists in each area, covering the whole healthcare ecosystem. First, the AI applications in drug design and drug development are presented followed by its applications in the field of cancer diagnostics, treatment and medical imaging. Subsequently, the application of AI in medical devices and surgery are covered as well as remote patient monitoring. Finally, the book dives into the topics of security, privacy, information sharing, health insurances and legal aspects of AI in healthcare. Highlights different data techniques in healthcare data analysis, including machine learning and data mining Illustrates different applications and challenges across the design, implementation and management of intelligent systems and healthcare data networks Includes applications and case studies across all areas of AI in healthcare data

An Intelligence in Our Image

An Intelligence in Our Image Book
Author : Osonde A. Osoba,William Welser IV
Publisher : Rand Corporation
Release : 2017-04-05
ISBN : 0833097636
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Machine learning algorithms and artificial intelligence influence many aspects of life today. This report identifies some of their shortcomings and associated policy risks and examines some approaches for combating these problems.

The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Public Health

The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Public Health Book
Author : Sridhar Venkatapuram,Alex Broadbent
Publisher : Taylor & Francis
Release : 2022-10-07
ISBN : 1317382099
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In comparison to medicine, the professional field of public health is far less familiar. What is public health, and perhaps as importantly, what should public health be or become? How do causal concepts shape the public health agenda? How do study designs either promote or demote the environmental causal factors or health inequalities? How is risk understood, expressed, and communicated? Who is public health research centered on? How can we develop technologies so the benefits are more fairly distributed? Do people have a right to public health? How should we integrate ethics into public health practice? The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Public Health addresses these questions and more, and is the first collection of its kind. Comprising 26 chapters by an international and interdisciplinary team of contributors, the handbook is divided into four clear parts: Concepts and distinctions Reasons and actions Distribution and inequalities Rights and duties. The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Public Health is a field-defining and sustained reflection on the various ethical, political, methodological, and conceptual aspects of global public health. As such it is an essential reference source for students and scholars working in political philosophy, bioethics, public health ethics, and the philosophy of medicine, as well as for professionals and researchers in related fields such as public health, health economics, and epidemiology.

Algorithmic Regulation

Algorithmic Regulation Book
Author : Karen Yeung,Martin Lodge
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2019-09-05
ISBN : 0192575449
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

As the power and sophistication of of 'big data' and predictive analytics has continued to expand, so too has policy and public concern about the use of algorithms in contemporary life. This is hardly surprising given our increasing reliance on algorithms in daily life, touching policy sectors from healthcare, transport, finance, consumer retail, manufacturing education, and employment through to public service provision and the operation of the criminal justice system. This has prompted concerns about the need and importance of holding algorithmic power to account, yet it is far from clear that existing legal and other oversight mechanisms are up to the task. This collection of essays, edited by two leading regulatory governance scholars, offers a critical exploration of 'algorithmic regulation', understood both as a means for co-ordinating and regulating social action and decision-making, as well as the need for institutional mechanisms through which the power of algorithms and algorithmic systems might themselves be regulated. It offers a unique perspective that is likely to become a significant reference point for the ever-growing debates about the power of algorithms in daily life in the worlds of research, policy and practice. The range of contributors are drawn from a broad range of disciplinary perspectives including law, public administration, applied philosophy, data science and artificial intelligence. Taken together, they highlight the rise of algorithmic power, the potential benefits and risks associated with this power, the way in which Sheila Jasanoff's long-standing claim that 'technology is politics' has been thrown into sharp relief by the speed and scale at which algorithmic systems are proliferating, and the urgent need for wider public debate and engagement of their underlying values and value trade-offs, the way in which they affect individual and collective decision-making and action, and effective and legitimate mechanisms by and through which algorithmic power is held to account.

Internet Health Report 2019

Internet Health Report 2019 Book
Author : Mozilla Foundation
Publisher : transcript Verlag
Release : 2019-08-31
ISBN : 3839449464
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This annual report is a call to action to recognize the things that are having an impact on the internet today, and to embrace the notion that we as humans can change how we make money, govern societies, and interact with one another online. We invite you to participate in setting an agenda for how we can work together to create an internet that truly puts people first. This book is neither a country-level index nor a doomsday clock. Our intention is to show that while the worldwide consequences of getting things wrong with the internet could be huge - for peace and security, for political and individual freedoms, for human equality - the problems are never so great that nothing can be done. More people than you imagine are working to make the internet healthier by applying their skills, creativity, and personal bravery to business, technology, activism, policy and regulation, education, and community development.

AI and education

AI and education Book
Author : Holmes, Wayne,Hui, Zhang,Miao, Fengchun,Ronghuai, Huang,UNESCO
Publisher : UNESCO Publishing
Release : 2021-04-08
ISBN : 9231004476
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Artificial Intelligence (AI) has the potential to address some of the biggest challenges in education today, innovate teaching and learning practices, and ultimately accelerate the progress towards SDG 4. However, these rapid technological developments inevitably bring multiple risks and challenges, which have so far outpaced policy debates and regulatory frameworks. This publication offers guidance for policy-makers on how best to leverage the opportunities and address the risks, presented by the growing connection between AI and education. It starts with the essentials of AI: definitions, techniques and technologies. It continues with a detailed analysis of the emerging trends and implications of AI for teaching and learning, including how we can ensure the ethical, inclusive and equitable use of AI in education, how education can prepare humans to live and work with AI, and how AI can be applied to enhance education. It finally introduces the challenges of harnessing AI to achieve SDG 4 and offers concrete actionable recommendations for policy-makers to plan policies and programmes for local contexts. [Publisher summary, ed]

Algorithms of Oppression

Algorithms of Oppression Book
Author : Safiya Umoja Noble
Publisher : NYU Press
Release : 2018-02-20
ISBN : 1479837245
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A revealing look at how negative biases against women of color are embedded in search engine results and algorithms Run a Google search for “black girls”—what will you find? “Big Booty” and other sexually explicit terms are likely to come up as top search terms. But, if you type in “white girls,” the results are radically different. The suggested porn sites and un-moderated discussions about “why black women are so sassy” or “why black women are so angry” presents a disturbing portrait of black womanhood in modern society. In Algorithms of Oppression, Safiya Umoja Noble challenges the idea that search engines like Google offer an equal playing field for all forms of ideas, identities, and activities. Data discrimination is a real social problem; Noble argues that the combination of private interests in promoting certain sites, along with the monopoly status of a relatively small number of Internet search engines, leads to a biased set of search algorithms that privilege whiteness and discriminate against people of color, specifically women of color. Through an analysis of textual and media searches as well as extensive research on paid online advertising, Noble exposes a culture of racism and sexism in the way discoverability is created online. As search engines and their related companies grow in importance—operating as a source for email, a major vehicle for primary and secondary school learning, and beyond—understanding and reversing these disquieting trends and discriminatory practices is of utmost importance. An original, surprising and, at times, disturbing account of bias on the internet, Algorithms of Oppression contributes to our understanding of how racism is created, maintained, and disseminated in the 21st century.

Why Do So Many Incompetent Men Become Leaders

Why Do So Many Incompetent Men Become Leaders  Book
Author : Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic
Publisher : Harvard Business Press
Release : 2019-02-19
ISBN : 1633696332
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Look around your office. Turn on the TV. Incompetent leadership is everywhere, and there's no denying that most of these leaders are men. In this timely and provocative book, Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic asks two powerful questions: Why is it so easy for incompetent men to become leaders? And why is it so hard for competent people--especially competent women--to advance? Marshaling decades of rigorous research, Chamorro-Premuzic points out that although men make up a majority of leaders, they underperform when compared with female leaders. In fact, most organizations equate leadership potential with a handful of destructive personality traits, like overconfidence and narcissism. In other words, these traits may help someone get selected for a leadership role, but they backfire once the person has the job. When competent women--and men who don't fit the stereotype--are unfairly overlooked, we all suffer the consequences. The result is a deeply flawed system that rewards arrogance rather than humility, and loudness rather than wisdom. There is a better way. With clarity and verve, Chamorro-Premuzic shows us what it really takes to lead and how new systems and processes can help us put the right people in charge.

The Routledge Handbook of Feminist Bioethics

The Routledge Handbook of Feminist Bioethics Book
Author : Wendy A. Rogers,Jackie Leach Scully,Stacy M. Carter,Vikki A. Entwistle,Catherine Mills
Publisher : Taylor & Francis
Release : 2022-07-28
ISBN : 1000609162
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Routledge Handbook of Feminist Bioethics is an outstanding resource for anyone with an interest in feminist bioethics, with chapters covering topics from justice and power to the climate crisis. Comprising forty-two chapters by emerging and established scholars, the volume is divided into six parts: I Foundations of feminist bioethics II Identity and identifications III Science, technology and research IV Health and social care V Reproduction and making families VI Widening the scope of feminist bioethics The volume is essential reading for anyone with an interest in bioethics or feminist philosophy, and will prove an invaluable resource for scholars, teachers and advanced students

Invisible Women

Invisible Women Book
Author : Caroline Criado Perez
Publisher : Abrams
Release : 2019-03-12
ISBN : 1683353145
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Data is fundamental to the modern world. From economic development, to healthcare, to education and public policy, we rely on numbers to allocate resources and make crucial decisions. But because so much data fails to take into account gender, because it treats men as the default and women as atypical, bias and discrimination are baked into our systems. And women pay tremendous costs for this bias, in time, money, and often with their lives. Celebrated feminist advocate Caroline Criado Perez investigates shocking root cause of gender inequality and research in Invisible Women†‹, diving into women’s lives at home, the workplace, the public square, the doctor’s office, and more. Built on hundreds of studies in the US, the UK, and around the world, and written with energy, wit, and sparkling intelligence, this is a groundbreaking, unforgettable exposé that will change the way you look at the world.

Image Processing and Capsule Networks

Image Processing and Capsule Networks Book
Author : Joy Iong-Zong Chen,João Manuel R. S. Tavares,Subarna Shakya,Abdullah M. Iliyasu
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-07-23
ISBN : 3030518590
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book emphasizes the emerging building block of image processing domain, which is known as capsule networks for performing deep image recognition and processing for next-generation imaging science. Recent years have witnessed the continuous development of technologies and methodologies related to image processing, analysis and 3D modeling which have been implemented in the field of computer and image vision. The significant development of these technologies has led to an efficient solution called capsule networks [CapsNet] to solve the intricate challenges in recognizing complex image poses, visual tasks, and object deformation. Moreover, the breakneck growth of computation complexities and computing efficiency has initiated the significant developments of the effective and sophisticated capsule network algorithms and artificial intelligence [AI] tools into existence. The main contribution of this book is to explain and summarize the significant state-of-the-art research advances in the areas of capsule network [CapsNet] algorithms and architectures with real-time implications in the areas of image detection, remote sensing, biomedical image analysis, computer communications, machine vision, Internet of things, and data analytics techniques.

Proceedings of the International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Computer Vision AICV2021

Proceedings of the International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Computer Vision  AICV2021  Book
Author : Aboul Ella Hassanien,Abdelkrim Haqiq,Peter J. Tonellato,Ladjel Bellatreche,Sam Goundar,Ahmad Taher Azar,Essaid Sabir,Driss Bouzidi
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021-05-28
ISBN : 3030763463
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents the 2nd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Computer Visions (AICV 2021) proceeding, which took place in Settat, Morocco, from June 28- to 30, 2021. AICV 2021 is organized by the Scientific Research Group in Egypt (SRGE) and the Computer, Networks, Mobility and Modeling Laboratory (IR2M), Hassan 1st University, Faculty of Sciences Techniques, Settat, Morocco. This international conference highlighted essential research and developments in the fields of artificial intelligence and computer visions. The book is divided into sections, covering the following topics: Deep Learning and Applications; Smart Grid, Internet of Things, and Mobil Applications; Machine Learning and Metaheuristics Optimization; Business Intelligence and Applications; Machine Vision, Robotics, and Speech Recognition; Advanced Machine Learning Technologies; Big Data, Digital Transformation, AI and Network Analysis; Cybersecurity; Feature Selection, Classification, and Applications.

Fundamentals of Clinical Data Science

Fundamentals of Clinical Data Science Book
Author : Pieter Kubben,Michel Dumontier,Andre Dekker
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-12-21
ISBN : 3319997130
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This open access book comprehensively covers the fundamentals of clinical data science, focusing on data collection, modelling and clinical applications. Topics covered in the first section on data collection include: data sources, data at scale (big data), data stewardship (FAIR data) and related privacy concerns. Aspects of predictive modelling using techniques such as classification, regression or clustering, and prediction model validation will be covered in the second section. The third section covers aspects of (mobile) clinical decision support systems, operational excellence and value-based healthcare. Fundamentals of Clinical Data Science is an essential resource for healthcare professionals and IT consultants intending to develop and refine their skills in personalized medicine, using solutions based on large datasets from electronic health records or telemonitoring programmes. The book’s promise is “no math, no code”and will explain the topics in a style that is optimized for a healthcare audience.

Artificial Intelligence Theory Models and Applications

Artificial Intelligence Theory  Models  and Applications Book
Author : P Kaliraj,T. Devi
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2021-10-21
ISBN : 1000460606
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book examines the fundamentals and technologies of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and describes their tools, challenges, and issues. It also explains relevant theory as well as industrial applications in various domains, such as healthcare, economics, education, product development, agriculture, human resource management, environmental management, and marketing. The book is a boon to students, software developers, teachers, members of boards of studies, and researchers who need a reference resource on artificial intelligence and its applications and is primarily intended for use in courses offered by higher education institutions that strive to equip their graduates with Industry 4.0 skills. FEATURES: Gender disparity in the enterprises involved in the development of AI-based software development as well as solutions to eradicate such gender bias in the AI world A general framework for AI in environmental management, smart farming, e-waste management, and smart energy optimization The potential and application of AI in medical imaging as well as the challenges of AI in precision medicine AI’s role in the diagnosis of various diseases, such as cancer and diabetes The role of machine learning models in product development and statistically monitoring product quality Machine learning to make robust and effective economic policy decisions Machine learning and data mining approaches to provide better video indexing mechanisms resulting in better searchable results ABOUT THE EDITORS: Prof. Dr. P. Kaliraj is Vice Chancellor at Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, India. Prof. Dr. T. Devi is Professor and Head of the Department of Computer Applications, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, India.