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Fundamentals Of Creep In Metals And Alloys

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Fundamentals of Creep in Metals and Alloys

Fundamentals of Creep in Metals and Alloys Book
Author : Michael E. Kassner,Maria-Teresa Perez-Prado
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2004-04-06
ISBN : 9780080532141
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

* Numerous line drawings with consistent format and units allow easy comparison of the behavior of a very wide range of materials * Transmission electron micrographs provide a direct insight in the basic microstructure of metals deforming at high temperatures * Extensive literature review of over 1000 references provide an excellent reference document, and a very balanced discussion Understanding the strength of materials at a range of temperatures is critically important to a huge number of researchers and practitioners from a wide range of fields and industry sectors including metallurgists, industrial designers, aerospace R&D personnel, and structural engineers. The most up-to date and comprehensive book in the field, Fundamentals of Creep in Metals and Alloys discusses the fundamentals of time-dependent plasticity or creep plasticity in metals, alloys and metallic compounds. This is the first book of its kind that provides broad coverage of a range of materials not just a sub-group such as metallic compounds, superalloys or crystals. As such it presents the most balanced view of creep for all materials scientists. The theory of all of these phenomena are extensively reviewed and analysed in view of an extensive bibliography that includes the most recent publications in the field. All sections of the book have undergone extensive peer review and therefore the reader can be sure they have access to the most up-to-date research, fully interrogated, from the world’s leading investigators. · Numerous line drawings with consistent format and units allow easy comparison of the behavior of a very wide range of materials · Transmission electron micrographs provide a direct insight in the basic microstructure of metals deforming at high temperatures · Extensive literature review of over 1000 references provide an excellent reference document, and a very balanced discussion

Fundamentals of Creep in Metals and Alloys

Fundamentals of Creep in Metals and Alloys Book
Author : Michael E. Kassner
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2008-11-27
ISBN : 0080914993
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Creep refers to the slow, permanent deformation of materials under external loads, or stresses. It explains the creep strength or resistance to this extension. This book is for experts in the field of strength of metals, alloys and ceramics. It explains creep behavior at the atomic or “dislocation defect level. This book has many illustrations and many references. The figure formats are uniform and consistently labeled for increased readability. This book is the second edition that updates and improves the earlier edition. Numerous line drawings with consistent format and units allow easy comparison of the behavior of a very wide range of materials Transmission electron micrographs provide direct insight into the basic microstructure of metals deforming at high temperatures Extensive literature review of about 1000 references provides an excellent overview of the field

Fundamentals of Creep and Creep rupture in Metals

Fundamentals of Creep and Creep rupture in Metals Book
Author : Frank Garofalo
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1965
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Fundamentals of Creep and Creep rupture in Metals book written by Frank Garofalo, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

High Temperature Strain of Metals and Alloys

High Temperature Strain of Metals and Alloys Book
Author : Valim Levitin
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2006-05-12
ISBN : 3527607145
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Creep and fatigue are the most prevalent causes of rupture in superalloys, which are important materials for industrial usage, e.g. in engines and turbine blades in aerospace or in energy producing industries. As temperature increases, atom mobility becomes appreciable, affecting a number of metal and alloy properties. It is thus vital to find new characterization methods that allow an understanding of the fundamental physics of creep in these materials as well as in pure metals. Here, the author shows how new in situ X-ray investigations and transmission electron microscope studies lead to novel explanations of high-temperature deformation and creep in pure metals, solid solutions and superalloys. This unique approach is the first to find unequivocal and quantitative expressions for the macroscopic deformation rate by means of three groups of parameters: substructural characteristics, physical material constants and external conditions. Creep strength of the studied up-to-date single crystal superalloys is greatly increased over conventional polycrystalline superalloys. From the contents: - Macroscopic characteristics of strain at high temperatures - Experimental equipment and technique of in situ X-ray investigations - Experimental data and structural parameters in deformed metals - Subboundaries as dislocation sources and obstacles - The physical mechanism of creep and the quantitative structural model - Simulation of the parameters evolution - System of differential equations - High-temperature deformation of industrial superalloys - Single crystals of superalloys - Effect of composition, orientation and temperature on properties - Creep of some refractory metals For materials scientists, solid state physicists, solid state chemists, researchers and practitioners from industry sectors including metallurgical, mechanical, chemical and structural engineers.

Engineering Physics of High Temperature Materials

Engineering Physics of High Temperature Materials Book
Author : Nirmal K. Sinha,Shoma Sinha
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2022-03-29
ISBN : 1119420482
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

ENGINEERING PHYSICS OF HIGH-TEMPERATURE MATERIALS Discover a comprehensive exploration of high temperature materials written by leading materials scientists In Engineering Physics of High-Temperature Materials: Metals, Ice, Rocks, and Ceramics distinguished researchers and authors Nirmal K. Sinha and Shoma Sinha deliver a rigorous and wide-ranging discussion of the behavior of different materials at high temperatures. The book discusses a variety of physical phenomena, from plate tectonics and polar sea ice to ice-age and intraglacial depression and the postglacial rebound of Earth’s crust, stress relaxation at high temperatures, and microstructure and crack-enhanced Elasto Delayed Elastic Viscous (EDEV) models. At a very high level, Engineering Physics of High-Temperature Materials (EPHTM) takes a multidisciplinary view of the behavior of materials at temperatures close to their melting point. The volume particularly focuses on a powerful model called the Elasto-Delayed-Elastic-Viscous (EDEV) model that can be used to study a variety of inorganic materials ranging from snow and ice, metals, including complex gas-turbine engine materials, as well as natural rocks and earth formations (tectonic processes). It demonstrates how knowledge gained in one field of study can have a strong impact on other fields. Engineering Physics of High-Temperature Materials will be of interest to a broad range of specialists, including earth scientists, volcanologists, cryospheric and interdisciplinary climate scientists, and solid-earth geophysicists. The book demonstrates that apparently dissimilar polycrystalline materials, including metals, alloys, ice, rocks, ceramics, and glassy materials, all behave in a surprisingly similar way at high temperatures. This similarity makes the information contained in the book valuable to all manner of physical scientists. Readers will also benefit from the inclusion of: A thorough introduction to the importance of a unified model of high temperature material behavior, including high temperature deformation and the strength of materials An exploration of the nature of crystalline substances for engineering applications, including basic materials classification, solid state materials, and general physical principles Discussions of forensic physical materialogy and test techniques and test systems Examinations of creep fundamentals, including rheology and rheological terminology, and phenomenological creep failure models Perfect for materials scientists, metallurgists, and glaciologists, Engineering Physics of High-Temperature Materials: Metals, Ice, Rocks, and Ceramics will also earn a place in the libraries of specialists in the nuclear, chemical, and aerospace industries with an interest in the physics and engineering of high-temperature materials.

Aerospace Materials and Material Technologies

Aerospace Materials and Material Technologies Book
Author : N. Eswara Prasad,R.J.H. Wanhill
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-11-07
ISBN : 9811021430
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book serves as a comprehensive resource on various traditional, advanced and futuristic material technologies for aerospace applications encompassing nearly 20 major areas. Each of the chapters addresses scientific principles behind processing and production, production details, equipment and facilities for industrial production, and finally aerospace application areas of these material technologies. The chapters are authored by pioneers of industrial aerospace material technologies. This book has a well-planned layout in 4 parts. The first part deals with primary metal and material processing, including nano manufacturing. The second part deals with materials characterization and testing methodologies and technologies. The third part addresses structural design. Finally, several advanced material technologies are covered in the fourth part. Some key advanced topics such as “Structural Design by ASIP”, “Damage Mechanics-Based Life Prediction and Extension” and “Principles of Structural Health Monitoring” are dealt with at equal length as the traditional aerospace materials technology topics. This book will be useful to students, researchers and professionals working in the domain of aerospace materials.

Failure Mechanisms in Alloys

Failure Mechanisms in Alloys Book
Author : George A. Pantazopoulos
Publisher : MDPI
Release : 2020-03-19
ISBN : 303928276X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The era of lean production and excellence in manufacturing, advancing with sustainable development, demands the rational utilization of raw materials and energy resources, adopting cleaner and environmentally-friendly industrial processes. In view of the new industrial revolution, through digital transformation, the exploitation of smart and sophisticated materials systems, the need of minimizing scrap and increasing efficiency, reliability and lifetime and, on the other hand, the pursuit of fuel economy and limitation of carbon footprint, are necessary conditions for the imminent growth in a highly competitive economy. Failure analysis is an interdisciplinary scientific topic, reflecting the opinions and interpretations coming from a systematic evidence-gathering procedure, embracing various important sectors, imparting knowledge, and substantiating improvement practices. The deep understanding of material/component role (e.g., rotating shaft, extrusion die, gas pipeline) and properties will be of central importance for fitness for purpose in certain industrial processes and applications. Finally, it is hoped and strongly believed that the accumulation of additional knowledge in the field of failure mechanisms and the adoption of the principles, philosophy, and deep understanding of failure analysis process approach will strongly promote the learning concept, as a continuously evolving process leading to personal and social progress and prosperity.

Metal Plasticity and Fatigue at High Temperature

Metal Plasticity and Fatigue at High Temperature Book
Author : Denis Benasciutti,Luciano Moro,Jelena Srnec Novak
Publisher : MDPI
Release : 2020-05-20
ISBN : 3039287702
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In several industrial fields (such as automotive, steelmaking, aerospace, and fire protection systems) metals need to withstand a combination of cyclic loadings and high temperatures. In this condition, they usually exhibit an amount—more or less pronounced—of plastic deformation, often accompanied by creep or stress-relaxation phenomena. Plastic deformation under the action of cyclic loadings may cause fatigue cracks to appear, eventually leading to failures after a few cycles. In estimating the material strength under such loading conditions, the high-temperature material behavior needs to be considered against cyclic loading and creep, the experimental strength to isothermal/non-isothermal cyclic loadings and, not least of all, the choice and experimental calibration of numerical material models and the selection of the most comprehensive design approach. This book is a series of recent scientific contributions addressing several topics in the field of experimental characterization and physical-based modeling of material behavior and design methods against high-temperature loadings, with emphasis on the correlation between microstructure and strength. Several material types are considered, from stainless steel, aluminum alloys, Ni-based superalloys, spheroidal graphite iron, and copper alloys. The quality of scientific contributions in this book can assist scholars and scientists with their research in the field of metal plasticity, creep, and low-cycle fatigue.

Creep Deformation Fundamentals and Applications

Creep Deformation  Fundamentals and Applications Book
Author : Rajiv S. Mishra,James C. Earthman,Sai V. Raj
Publisher : Tms
Release : 2002
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

These proceedings focus on the application of fundamental creep research to the design and development of high temperature materials for engineering applications. The book deals with all aspects of creep deformation and high temperature materials development, specifically the influence of microstructures on various aspects of creep and the application of this information in the design of highly creep resistant materials. Emphasis will be placed on advanced ceramic and metal matrix composites and advanced intermetallics. This volume brings together researchers working on fundamental issues relating to the development and characterization of high temperature materials and design engineers involved in high temperature applications.

Fundamentals of Radiation Materials Science

Fundamentals of Radiation Materials Science Book
Author : Gary S. Was
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-07-16
ISBN : 3540494715
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book is an eye-opening treatise on the fundamentals of the effects of radiation on metals and alloys. When energetic particles strike a solid, numerous processes occur that can change the physical and mechanical properties of the material. Metals and alloys represent an important class of materials that are subject to intense radiation fields. Radiation causes metals and alloys to swell, distort, blister, harden, soften and deform. This textbook and reference covers the basics of particle-atom interaction for a range of particle types, the amount and spatial extent of the resulting radiation damage, the physical effects of irradiation and the changes in mechanical behavior of irradiated metals and alloys.

Mechanics of Advanced Materials

Mechanics of Advanced Materials Book
Author : Vadim V. Silberschmidt,Valery P. Matveenko
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-04-09
ISBN : 3319171186
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The book presents interesting examples of recent developments in this area. Among the studied materials are bulk metallic glasses, metamaterials, special composites, piezoelectric smart structures, nonwovens, etc. The last decades have seen a large extension of types of materials employed in various applications. In many cases these materials demonstrate mechanical properties and performance that vary significantly from those of their traditional counterparts. Such uniqueness is sought – or even specially manufactured – to meet increased requirements on modern components and structures related to their specific use. As a result, mechanical behaviors of these materials under different loading and environmental conditions are outside the boundaries of traditional mechanics of materials, presupposing development of new characterization techniques, theoretical descriptions and numerical tools. The book presents interesting examples of recent developments in this area. Among the studied materials are bulk metallic glasses, metamaterials, special composites, piezoelectric smart structures, nonwovens, etc.

Structural Integrity Assessment

Structural Integrity Assessment Book
Author : Raghu V. Prakash,R. Suresh Kumar,Atikukke Nagesha,Gomathy Sasikala,Arun Kumar Bhaduri
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-07-31
ISBN : 9811387672
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume contains selected papers from the Second Quadrennial International Conference on Structural Integrity (ICONS-2018). The papers cover important topics related to structural integrity of critical installations, such as power plants, aircrafts, spacecrafts, defense and civilian components. The focus is on assuring safety of operations with high levels of reliability and structural integrity. This volume will be of interest to plant operators working with safety critical equipment, engineering solution providers, software professionals working on engineering analysis, as well as academics working in the area.

Creep

Creep Book
Author : Tomasz Tański,Marek Sroka,Adam Zieliński
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2018-01-10
ISBN : 9535137247
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book contains 12 chapters with original and innovative research studies in the issues related to the broadly defined creep effect, which concerns not only the area of construction materials but also natural phenomena. The emphasis on the discussion of a new trend of experimental creep testing, which binds the classic creep methods to seek the correlation of parameters obtained in tests, deserves particular attention. This book aims to provide the readers, including, but not limited to, students and doctoral students and also the research personnel and engineers involved in the operation of equipment and structural components as well as specialists in high-temperature creep-resisting materials, with a comprehensive review of new trends in the field of creep-exposed materials and their research methodology. The chapters of this book were developed by respected and well-known researchers from different countries.

Fundamentals of Radiation Materials Science

Fundamentals of Radiation Materials Science Book
Author : GARY S. WAS
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-07-08
ISBN : 1493934384
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The revised second edition of this established text offers readers a significantly expanded introduction to the effects of radiation on metals and alloys. It describes the various processes that occur when energetic particles strike a solid, inducing changes to the physical and mechanical properties of the material. Specifically it covers particle interaction with the metals and alloys used in nuclear reactor cores and hence subject to intense radiation fields. It describes the basics of particle-atom interaction for a range of particle types, the amount and spatial extent of the resulting radiation damage, the physical effects of irradiation and the changes in mechanical behavior of irradiated metals and alloys. Updated throughout, some major enhancements for the new edition include improved treatment of low- and intermediate-energy elastic collisions and stopping power, expanded sections on molecular dynamics and kinetic Monte Carlo methodologies describing collision cascade evolution, new treatment of the multi-frequency model of diffusion, numerous examples of RIS in austenitic and ferritic-martensitic alloys, expanded treatment of in-cascade defect clustering, cluster evolution, and cluster mobility, new discussion of void behavior near grain boundaries, a new section on ion beam assisted deposition, and reorganization of hardening, creep and fracture of irradiated materials (Chaps 12-14) to provide a smoother and more integrated transition between the topics. The book also contains two new chapters. Chapter 15 focuses on the fundamentals of corrosion and stress corrosion cracking, covering forms of corrosion, corrosion thermodynamics, corrosion kinetics, polarization theory, passivity, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking. Chapter 16 extends this treatment and considers the effects of irradiation on corrosion and environmentally assisted corrosion, including the effects of irradiation on water chemistry and the mechanisms of irradiation-induced stress corrosion cracking. The book maintains the previous style, concepts are developed systematically and quantitatively, supported by worked examples, references for further reading and end-of-chapter problem sets. Aimed primarily at students of materials sciences and nuclear engineering, the book will also provide a valuable resource for academic and industrial research professionals. Reviews of the first edition: "...nomenclature, problems and separate bibliography at the end of each chapter allow to the reader to reach a straightforward understanding of the subject, part by part. ... this book is very pleasant to read, well documented and can be seen as a very good introduction to the effects of irradiation on matter, or as a good references compilation for experimented readers." - Pauly Nicolas, Physicalia Magazine, Vol. 30 (1), 2008 “The text provides enough fundamental material to explain the science and theory behind radiation effects in solids, but is also written at a high enough level to be useful for professional scientists. Its organization suits a graduate level materials or nuclear science course... the text was written by a noted expert and active researcher in the field of radiation effects in metals, the selection and organization of the material is excellent... may well become a necessary reference for graduate students and researchers in radiation materials science.” - L.M. Dougherty, 07/11/2008, JOM, the Member Journal of The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society.

Materials Ageing and Degradation in Light Water Reactors

Materials Ageing and Degradation in Light Water Reactors Book
Author : K L Murty
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2013-02-18
ISBN : 0857097458
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Light water reactors (LWRs) are the predominant class of nuclear power reactors in operation today; however, ageing and degradation can influence both their performance and lifetime. Knowledge of these factors is therefore critical to safe, continuous operation. Materials ageing and degradation in light water reactors provides a comprehensive guide to prevalent deterioration mechanisms, and the approaches used to handle their effects. Part one introduces fundamental ageing issues and degradation mechanisms. Beginning with an overview of ageing and degradation issues in LWRs, the book goes on to discuss corrosion in pressurized water reactors and creep deformation of materials in LWRs. Part two then considers materials’ ageing and degradation in specific LWR components. Applications of zirconium alloys in LWRs are discussed, along with the ageing of electric cables. Materials management strategies for LWRs are then the focus of part three. Materials management strategies for pressurized water reactors and VVER reactors are considered before the book concludes with a discussion of materials-related problems faced by LWR operators and corresponding research needs. With its distinguished editor and international team of expert contributors, Materials ageing and degradation in light water reactors is an authoritative review for anyone requiring an understanding of the performance and durability of this type of nuclear power plant, including plant operators and managers, nuclear metallurgists, governmental and regulatory safety bodies, and researchers, scientists and academics working in this area. Introduces the fundamental ageing issues and degradation mechanisms associated with this class of nuclear power reactors Considers materials ageing and degradation in specific light water reactor components, including properties, performance and inspection Chapters also focus on material management strategies

Durability of Springs

Durability of Springs Book
Author : Vladimir Kobelev
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-08-07
ISBN : 3319584782
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book offers an advanced treatise of the mechanics of springs with focus on the springs for automotive industry. It demonstrates new and original results for the optimization of helical springs as well the design of disk springs and thin-walled springs and presents the new results for creep and relaxation of springs made of steel under high static loads. The fatigue of springs and weak link concept for cyclically loaded springs are enlightened. The closed form solutions of advanced problems allow the deeper understanding of spring mechanics and optimization of energy harvesters.

Superalloys 2012

Superalloys 2012 Book
Author : Eric S. Huron,Roger C. Reed,Mark C. Hardy,Michael J. Mills,Rick E. Montero,Pedro Dolabella Portella,Jack Telesman
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2012-10-02
ISBN : 1118516400
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A superalloy, or high-performance alloy, is an alloy that exhibits excellent mechanical strength at high temperatures. Superalloy development has been driven primarily by the aerospace and power industries. This compilation of papers from the Twelfth International Symposium on Superalloys, held from September 9-13, 2012, offers the most recent technical information on this class of materials.

Mechanical Properties and Working of Metals and Alloys

Mechanical Properties and Working of Metals and Alloys Book
Author : Amit Bhaduri
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-05-12
ISBN : 9811072094
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book is intended to serve as core text or handy reference on two key areas of metallic materials: (i) mechanical behavior and properties evaluated by mechanical testing; and (ii) different types of metal working or forming operations to produce useful shapes. The book consists of 16 chapters which are divided into two parts. The first part contains nine chapters which describe tension (including elastic stress – strain relation, relevant theory of plasticity, and strengthening methods), compression, hardness, bending, torsion – pure shear, impact loading, creep and stress rupture, fatigue, and fracture. The second part is composed of seven chapters and covers fundamentals of mechanical working, forging, rolling, extrusion, drawing of flat strip, round bar, and tube, deep drawing, and high-energy rate forming. The book comprises an exhaustive description of mechanical properties evaluated by testing of metals and metal working in sufficient depth and with reasonably wide coverage. The book is written in an easy-to-understand manner and includes many solved problems. More than 150 numerical problems and many multiple choice questions as exercise along with their answers have also been provided. The mathematical analyses are well elaborated without skipping any intermediate steps. Slab method of analysis or free-body equilibrium approach is used for the analytical treatment of mechanical working processes. For hot working processes, different frictional conditions (sliding, sticking and mixed sticking–sliding) have been considered to estimate the deformation loads. In addition to the slab method of analysis, this book also contains slip-line field theory, its application to the static system, and the steady state motion, Further, this book includes upper-bound theorem, and upper-bound solutions for indentation, compression, extrusion and strip drawing. The book can be used to teach graduate and undergraduate courses offered to students of mechanical, aerospace, production, manufacturing and metallurgical engineering disciplines. The book can also be used for metallurgists and practicing engineers in industry and development courses in the metallurgy and metallic manufacturing industries.

Fundamentals of Magnesium Alloy Metallurgy

Fundamentals of Magnesium Alloy Metallurgy Book
Author : Mihriban O Pekguleryuz,Karl Kainer,A. Arslan Kaya
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2013-03-11
ISBN : 0857097296
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Magnesium and magnesium alloys offer a wealth of valuable properties, making them of great interest for use across a wide range of fields. This has led to extensive research focused on understanding the properties of magnesium and how these can be controlled during processing. Fundamentals of magnesium alloy metallurgy presents an authoritative overview of all aspects of magnesium alloy metallurgy, including physical metallurgy, deformation, corrosion and applications. Beginning with an introduction to the primary production of magnesium, the book goes on to discuss physical metallurgy of magnesium and thermodynamic properties of magnesium alloys. Further chapters focus on understanding precipitation processes of magnesium alloys, alloying behaviour of magnesium, and alloy design. The formation, corrosion and surface finishing of magnesium and its alloys are reviewed, before Fundamentals of magnesium alloy metallurgy concludes by exploring applications across a range of fields. Aerospace, automotive and other structural applications of magnesium are considered, followed by magnesium-based metal matrix composites and the use of magnesium in medical applications. With its distinguished editors and international team of expert contributors, Fundamentals of magnesium alloy metallurgy is a comprehensive tool for all those involved in the production and application of magnesium and its alloys, including manufacturers, welders, heat-treatment and coating companies, engineers, metallurgists, researchers, designers and scientists working with these important materials. Overviews all aspects of magnesium alloy metallurgy Discusses physical metallurgy of magnesium and thermodynamic properties of magnesium alloys Reviews the formation, corrosion and surface finishing of magnesium and its alloys

Design for Creep

Design for Creep Book
Author : R.K. Penny,D.L. Marriott
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 9401105618
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Our rationale for the second edition remains the same as for the first edition, which appeared over twenty years ago. This is to offer simplified, useful and easily understood methods for dealing with the creep of components operating under conditions met in practice. When the first edition was written, we could not claim that the methods which were introduced were well-tried. They were somewhat conjectural, although firmly based, but not sufficiently well devel oped. Since that time, the Reference Stress Methods (RSM) introduced in the book have received much scrutiny and development. The best recognition we could have of the original methods is the fact that they are now firmly embedded in codes of practice. Hopefully, we have now gone a long way towards achieving our original objectives. There are major additions to this second edition which should help to justify our claims. These include further clarification regarding Reference Stress Methods in Chapter 4. There are also new topics which depend on RSM in varying degrees: • Creep fracture is covered in Chapter 7, where methods for assessing creep crack initiation and crack growth are fully described. This chapter starts with a review of the basic concepts of fracture mechanics and follows with useful, approximate methods, compatible with the needs of design for creep and the availability of standard data. • Creep/fatigue interactions and environmental effects appear in Chapter 8.