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From Plant Genomics to Plant Biotechnology

From Plant Genomics to Plant Biotechnology Book
Author : Palmiro Poltronieri,Natalija Burbulis,Corrado Fogher
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2013-08-31
ISBN : 1908818476
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

With the appearance of methods for the sequencing of genomes and less expensive next generation sequencing methods, we face rapid advancements of the -omics technologies and plant biology studies: reverse and forward genetics, functional genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, the movement at distance of effectors and structural biology. From plant genomics to plant biotechnology reviews the recent advancements in the post-genomic era, discussing how different varieties respond to abiotic and biotic stresses, understanding the epigenetic control and epigenetic memory, the roles of non-coding RNAs, applicative uses of RNA silencing and RNA interference in plant physiology and in experimental transgenics and plants modified to specific aims. In the forthcoming years these advancements will support the production of plant varieties better suited to resist biotic and abiotic stresses, for food and non-food applications. This book covers these issues, showing how such technologies are influencing the plant field in sectors such as the selection of plant varieties and plant breeding, selection of optimum agronomic traits, stress-resistant varieties, improvement of plant fitness, improving crop yield, and non-food applications in the knowledge based bio-economy. Discusses a broad range of applications: the examples originate from a variety of sectors (including in field studies, breeding, RNA regulation, pharmaceuticals and biotech) and a variety of scientific areas (such as bioinformatics, -omics sciences, epigenetics, and the agro-industry) Provides a unique perspective on work normally performed 'behind closed doors'. As such, it presents an opportunity for those within the field to learn from each other, and for those on the 'outside' to see how different groups have approached key problems Highlights the criteria used to compare and assess different approaches to solving problems. Shows the thinking process, practical limitations and any other considerations, aiding in the understanding of a deeper approach

Plant Biotechnology and Genetics

Plant Biotechnology and Genetics Book
Author : C. Neal Stewart, Jr.
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2016-03-21
ISBN : 1118820126
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"This book can be used in a junior or senior level course, including masters students in plant biotechnology or plant genetics, as well as in special topics classes for both undergraduate and graduate students"--Provided by publisher.

Applied Plant Genomics and Biotechnology

Applied Plant Genomics and Biotechnology Book
Author : Palmiro Poltronieri,Yiguo Hong
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2015-01-27
ISBN : 0081000715
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Applied plant genomics and biotechnology reviews the recent advancements in the post-genomic era, discussing how different varieties respond to abiotic and biotic stresses, investigating epigenetic modifications and epigenetic memory through analysis of DNA methylation states, applicative uses of RNA silencing and RNA interference in plant physiology and in experimental transgenics, and plants modified to produce high-value pharmaceutical proteins. The book provides an overview of research advances in application of RNA silencing and RNA interference, through Virus-based transient gene expression systems, Virus induced gene complementation (VIGC), Virus induced gene silencing (Sir VIGS, Mr VIGS) Virus-based microRNA silencing (VbMS) and Virus-based RNA mobility assays (VRMA); RNA based vaccines and expression of virus proteins or RNA, and virus-like particles in plants, the potential of virus vaccines and therapeutics, and exploring plants as factories for useful products and pharmaceuticals are topics wholly deepened. The book reviews and discuss Plant Functional Genomic studies discussing the technologies supporting the genetic improvement of plants and the production of plant varieties more resistant to biotic and abiotic stresses. Several important crops are analysed providing a glimpse on the most up-to-date methods and topics of investigation. The book presents a review on current state of GMO, the cisgenesis-derived plants and novel plant products devoid of transgene elements, discuss their regulation and the production of desired traits such as resistance to viruses and disease also in fruit trees and wood trees with long vegetative periods. Several chapters cover aspects of plant physiology related to plant improvement: cytokinin metabolism and hormone signaling pathways are discussed in barley; PARP-domain proteins involved in Stress-Induced Morphogenetic Response, regulation of NAD signaling and ROS dependent synthesis of anthocyanins. Apple allergen isoforms and the various content in different varieties are discussed and approaches to reduce their presence. Euphorbiaceae, castor bean, cassava and Jathropa are discussed at genomic structure, their diseases and viruses, and methods of transformation. Rice genomics and agricultural traits are discussed, and biotechnology for engineering and improve rice varieties. Mango topics are presented with an overview of molecular methods for variety differentiation, and aspects of fruit improvement by traditional and biotechnology methods. Oilseed rape is presented, discussing the genetic diversity, quality traits, genetic maps, genomic selection and comparative genomics for improvement of varieties. Tomato studies are presented, with an overview on the knowledge of the regulatory networks involved in flowering, methods applied to study the tomato genome-wide DNA methylation, its regulation by small RNAs, microRNA-dependent control of transcription factors expression, the development and ripening processes in tomato, genomic studies and fruit modelling to establish fleshy fruit traits of interest; the gene reprogramming during fruit ripening, and the ethylene dependent and independent DNA methylation changes. provides an overview on the ongoing projects and activities in the field of applied biotechnology includes examples of different crops and applications to be exploited reviews and discusses Plant Functional Genomic studies and the future developments in the field explores the new technologies supporting the genetic improvement of plants

Plants Genes and Crop Biotechnology

Plants  Genes  and Crop Biotechnology Book
Author : Maarten J. Chrispeels,David E. Sadava
Publisher : Jones & Bartlett Learning
Release : 2003
ISBN : 9780763715861
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book integrates many fields to help students understand the complexity of the basic science that underlies crop and food production.

Plant Biotechnology

Plant Biotechnology Book
Author : P K Gupta
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2010
ISBN : 9788171339365
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The present book plant biotechnology has been written as a textbook both for elementary and advanced courses in plant biotechnology for B.Sc./B.tech and M.Sc./M.tech students. The book consists of 50 chapters, which include the first chapter giving an overview of the subject of plant biotechnology and the remaining chapters conveniently divided in the following seven parts. Part I : DNA technology; Part II: plant cell and tissue culture; Part III: Transgenic plants (including transplastomic plants); Part IV: Plant genomics and quantitative genetics; Part V: Plant biotechnology for agricultural practices; Part VI: Plant biotechnology for environment; Part VII: Plant biotechnology and IPR.

Introduction to Plant Biotechnology

Introduction to Plant Biotechnology Book
Author : H. S. Chawla
Publisher : Science Publishers
Release : 2002
ISBN : 9781578082285
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Plant biotechnology has created unprecedented opportunities for the manipulation of biological systems of plants. To understand biotechnology, it is essential to know the basic aspects of genes and their organization in the genome of plant cells. This text on the subject is aimed at students.

Plant Genome and Biotechnology Development

Plant Genome and Biotechnology Development Book
Author : United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2002
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Plant Genome and Biotechnology Development book written by United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Plant Biotechnology and Agriculture

Plant Biotechnology and Agriculture Book
Author : Arie Altman,Paul M. Hasegawa
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2012
ISBN : 0123814669
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

As the oldest and largest human intervention in nature, the science of agriculture is one of the most intensely studied practices. From manipulation of plant gene structure to the use of plants for bioenergy, biotechnology interventions in plant and agricultural science have been rapidly developing over the past ten years with immense forward leaps on an annual basis. This book begins by laying the foundations for plant biotechnology by outlining the biological aspects including gene structure and expression, and the basic procedures in plant biotechnology of genomics, metabolomics, transcriptomics and proteomics. It then focuses on a discussion of the impacts of biotechnology on plant breeding technologies and germplasm sustainability. The role of biotechnology in the improvement of agricultural traits, production of industrial products and pharmaceuticals as well as biomaterials and biomass provide a historical perspective and a look to the future. Sections addressing intellectual property rights and sociological and food safety issues round out the holistic discussion of this important topic. Includes specific emphasis on the inter-relationships between basic plant biotechnologies and applied agricultural applications, and the way they contribute to each other Provides an updated review of the major plant biotechnology procedures and techniques, their impact on novel agricultural development and crop plant improvement Takes a broad view of the topic with discussions of practices in many countries

Plant Genome Science

Plant Genome Science Book
Author : United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science. Subcommittee on Basic Research
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2000
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Plant Genome Science book written by United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science. Subcommittee on Basic Research, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Plant Biotechnology

Plant Biotechnology Book
Author : Adrian Slater,Nigel W. Scott,Mark R. Fowler
Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
Release : 2003
ISBN : 9780199254682
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The genetic manipulation of crop plants has been the subject of heated debate over the past few years. Plant Biotechnology provides students with a much needed, accessible introduction to this exciting area of scientific research and technology.

Plant Biotechnology Principles and Applications

Plant Biotechnology  Principles and Applications Book
Author : Malik Zainul Abdin,Usha Kiran,Kamaluddin,Athar Ali
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-03-10
ISBN : 981102961X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The book traces the roots of plant biotechnology from the basic sciences to current applications in the biological and agricultural sciences, industry, and medicine. Providing intriguing opportunities to manipulate plant genetic and metabolic systems, plant biotechnology has now become an exciting area of research. The book vividly describes the processes and methods used to genetically engineer plants for agricultural, environmental and industrial purposes, while also discussing related bioethical and biosafety issues. It also highlights important factors that are often overlooked by methodologies used to develop plants’ tolerance against biotic and abiotic stresses and in the development of special foods, bio-chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. The topics discussed will be of considerable interest to both graduate and postgraduate students. Further, the book offers an ideal reference guide for teachers and researcher alike, bridging the gap between fundamental and advanced approaches.

Applied Plant Biotechnology

Applied Plant Biotechnology Book
Author : V. L. Chopra,Vedpal S. Malik,S. R. Bhat
Publisher : Science Pub Incorporated
Release : 1999
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Reviews several recent developments that relate to improving crop productivity and product diversification. Considers the genetic manipulation of major products such as carbohydrates, fatty acids, sesquiterpenes, and floriculture crops and discusses aspects of the biosafety, environmental release, and commercial exploitation of transgenics. Other topics include developing pest-resistant transgenic plants, producing human therapeutics in plants, using molecular biology techniques in plant breeding to protect intellectual property rights, and biosystematics. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR

Seeds of Opportunity

Seeds of Opportunity Book
Author : United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science. Subcommittee on Basic Research
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2000
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Seeds of Opportunity book written by United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science. Subcommittee on Basic Research, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Molecular Plant Breeding

Molecular Plant Breeding Book
Author : B.D. Singh,N.S. Shekhawat
Publisher : Scientific Publishers
Release : 2017-10-01
ISBN : 9387869776
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The discipline of plant breeding has undergone transformation due to the assimilation of the rapid developments in molecular biology. The existing books on plant breeding deal mainly with the classical approaches, while specialized books on molecular approaches usually lack discussion of the classical methods. The book Molecular Plant Breeding attempts to present the complete picture of plant breeding ranging from the classical to the molecular approaches applied to crop improvement. The book is divided into four sections: Classical Plant Breeding, Transgenic technology, Molecular Markers, and Miscellaneous. The first section deals with the classical plant breeding and is divided into eight chapters. The second section has four chapters and describes transgenic technology. The third section discusses various aspects of molecular markers and is spread over three chapters. The final section has a single chapter dealing with variety release, seed multiplication and intellectual property rights. This book is designed primarily for graduate students, viz., B.Sc. agriculture and B.Sc. science students with botany as one of the subjects, who would get their first exposure to plant breeding. It would also be useful for the post-graduate students, especially in botany, and to teachers of the subject. The book is written in simple and easy to understand language. Illustrations and photographs have been provided wherever they were expected to facilitate comprehension of the subject under discussion.

PLANT BREEDING IN 21ST CENTURY

PLANT BREEDING IN 21ST CENTURY Book
Author : B.D. Singh,N.S. Shekhawat
Publisher : Scientific Publishers
Release : 2019-05-01
ISBN : 9389061288
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The discipline of plant breeding has undergone transformation due to the assimilation of the rapid developments in molecular biology. The existing books on plant breeding deal mainly with the classical approaches, while specialized books on molecular approaches usually lack discussion of the classical methods. The book Plant Breeding for 21st Century attempts to present the complete picture of plant breeding ranging from the classical to the molecular approaches applied to crop improvement. The book is divided into four sections: Classical Plant Breeding, Transgenic technology, Molecular Markers, and Miscellaneous. The first section deals with the classical plant breeding and is divided into eight chapters. The second section has four chapters and describes transgenic technology. The third section discusses various aspects of molecular markers and is spread over three chapters. The final section has a single chapter dealing with variety release, seed multiplication and intellectual property rights. This book is designed primarily for graduate students, viz., B.Sc. agriculture and B.Sc. science students with botany as one of the subjects, who would get their first exposure to plant breeding. It would also be useful for the post-graduate students, especially in botany, and to teachers of the subject. The book is written in simple and easy to understand language. Illustrations and photographs have been provided wherever they were expected to facilitate comprehension of the subject under discussion.

History of Plant Breeding

History of Plant Breeding Book
Author : Rolf H. J. Schlegel
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2017-12-15
ISBN : 1351588958
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

While there has been great progress in the development of plant breeding over the last decade, the selection of suitable plants for human consumption began over 13,000 years ago. Since the Neolithic era, the cultivation of plants has progressed in Asia Minor, Asia, Europe, and ancient America, each specific to the locally wild plants as well as the ecological and social conditions. A handy reference for knowing our past, understanding the present, and creating the future, this book provides a comprehensive treatment of the development of crop improvement methods over the centuries. It features an extensive historical treatment of development, including influential individuals in the field, plant cultivation in various regions, techniques used in the Old World, and cropping in ancient America. The advances of scientific plant breeding in the twentieth century is extensively explored, including efficient selection methods, hybrid breeding, induced polyploidy, mutation research, biotechnology, and genetic manipulation. Finally, this book presents information on approaches to the sustainability of breeding and to cope with climatic changes as well as the growing world population.

Principles of Plant Genetics and Breeding

Principles of Plant Genetics and Breeding Book
Author : George Acquaah
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2012-08-16
ISBN : 1118313690
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

To respond to the increasing need to feed the world's population as well as an ever greater demand for a balanced and healthy diet there is a continuing need to produce improved new cultivars or varieties of plants, particularly crop plants. The strategies used to produce these are increasingly based on our knowledge of relevant science, particularly genetics, but involves a multidisciplinary understanding that optimizes the approaches taken. Principles of Plant Genetics and Breeding, 2nd Edition introduces both classical and molecular tools for plant breeding. Topics such as biotechnology in plant breeding, intellectual property, risks, emerging concepts (decentralized breeding, organic breeding), and more are addressed in the new, updated edition of this text. Industry highlight boxes are included throughout the text to contextualize the information given through the professional experiences of plant breeders. The final chapters provide a useful reference on breeding the largest and most common crops. Up-to-date edition of this bestselling book incorporating the most recent technologies in the field Combines both theory and practice in modern plant breeding Updated industry highlights help to illustrate the concepts outlined in the text Self assessment questions at the end of each chapter aid student learning Accompanying website with artwork from the book available to instructors

Plants Genes and Agriculture

Plants  Genes  and Agriculture Book
Author : Maarten Chrispeels
Publisher : Sinauer
Release : 2017-12-15
ISBN : 9781605356846
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

What needs to happen if we are going to feed almost 10 billion people by the year 2050 in a sustainable way? Written for first- and second-year university students, this interdisciplinary textbook addresses this challenging question, presenting biological, economic, and sociocultural issues at an introductory level. Presenting and integrating information from many disciplines, this book invites readers to consider the complexity of feeding humanity and increasing food production sustainably. Topics covered include: the development, physiology, and nutrition of plants human nutrition and food safety photosynthesis and energy transformations genetics, molecular biology, and genomics, including the techniques of genetic transformation (gene silencing, gene editing with CRISPR) used in modern crop breeding crop domestication and plant breeding soil ecosystems The applications of modern biotechnology to agriculture extend far beyond GMOs, and include crop improvements that rely on knowledge of the plant’s genomes and its analysis by bioinformatics. Challenging and controversial topics such as the safety of pesticides and GMOs, the increasing demand foranimal products and the stresses this puts on agricultural output, organic farming and foods, and patenting new crop varieties are dealt with in a balanced way, inviting teachers and students to consider all the implications of these serious questions.

Agricultural Biotechnology

Agricultural Biotechnology Book
Author : H. D. Kumar
Publisher : Daya Books
Release : 2005
ISBN : 9788170354123
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This Book Looks At The Application Of A Variety Of Biotechnologies To Agricultural Development. It Addresses Recent Concerns About The Sterile-Seed Terminator Technology And About The Biosafety Of Genetically Modified Foods/Crops, And Assesses The Potential Of Apomixis As A Possible Countervailing Strategy To The Adverse Effects Of The Terminator, For Some Crops. The Book Introduces The Concepts Of Participatory Plant Breeding And Diversified Site-Or Field Potential To Meet The Needs Of Small-Scale Farmers In Developing Countries Whose Traditional Wisdom And Indigenous Knowledge Can Be Put To Good Use Through Inputs From Modern Biotechnology For The Benefit Fo Humanity. The Text Provides A Valuable Source Of Recent Information Not Only To Researchers Of Agriculture And Biotechnology But Also Meets The Course Requirements Of Students In Agronomy, Genetics And Plant Breeding, Crop Physiology And Related Disciplines In Agriculture, Biotechnology, Food Processing, Nutrition And Home Science. Contents Chapter 1: General Introduction; Definition And Perspective Of Biotechnology, New Technologies, Scope, Potential & Achievements, Introduction To Agriculture, Effects Of Biotechnology On Agrobiodiversity, Biotechnology For Agriculture, Genetic Manipulation In Plant Breeding, Crop Plants, Dangers Of Genetic Uniformity, Preservation And Exchange Of Genetic Resources, Use Of Transgenic Plants In Industry, Agriculture And Medicine, Safeguarding Domestic Animal Diversity Through Animal Husbandry, Advances In Animal Breeding Technology, Animal Byproducts, Transgenic Livestock, Transgenic Sheep And Wool Growth, Genetically-Modified Food, Biotechnology And Sustainable Development, References; Chapter 2: Techniques; Introduction, Plant Tissue Culture And Its Impact On Agriculture, Gene Transfer To Plants, Direct Gene Transfer, Germplasm Storage, Transgenic Plants For Non-Transgenic Crops, Tilling-A Non-Transgenic Approach To Wheat Improvement, Applications Of Bioluminescence And Chemiluminescene, Proprietary Technologies, Genetic Use Restriction Technologies (Gurts), Apomixis, Plant Biotechnology Tools For Developing World, References; Chapter 3: Biodiversity And Agriculture; Introduction, Crop Diversity, The Struggle For Genetic Resources, Double-Green Revolution, Hormones And Green Revolution, Global Climate Change And Biodiversity, Complementarity As Biodiversity Indicator, Genetic Diversity And Gene Control In Rice, Genetic Improvement In Rice, Golden Rice, Reference; Chapter 4: Crop Genetic Resource And Plant Breeding; Introduction, The Genecological Approach, Two Agricultures, Farmer S Rights, Convention On Biological Diversity, Trips, Environmental Rights, Resistance Breeding, Participatory Plant Breeding, Seed Regulation And Local Seed Systems, References; Chapter 5: Biological Nitrogen Fixation; Introduction, Forage Legumes, Alley Cropping, Green Manures And Rice, Crop Residues, Biofertilizers, Plant-Microbe Signalling, Nodulation, And Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation, The Oxygen Paradox, Nodulation Of Cereals, References; Chapter 6: Transgenics Crops And Biosafety; Introduction, Genetically Modified Crops, Improvement Of Grain Quality, Carbon Storage In Seeds, Transgenic Corn, Transgenic Oilseed Rape, Transgenic Linum, Field Testing And Commercialization Of Transgenic Plants, Balancing Risks And Benefits Of Gm Crops, Restrictions On The Right Of Farmers To Save Seed, Crop Genomics, Cereal Improvement Through Genomics, Tramsgemics, Transgenic Plants For Tropical Regions, Biosafety, Biosafety And National Priorities, Contained Use And Release Of Modified Organisms, Forest Tree Biotechnology, Transgenic Trees, References; Chapter 7: Food And Nutrition; Introduction, Biotechnology And Food Security, Global Food Security, Food Politics, Diversity And Food Security, In Situ Conservation, Sustainable Food Security, Eradication Of World Hunger, Food Safety, Future Food Supply Prospects, Global Food Prospects To 2025, Organic Food, Butter, Milk And Dairy Farming, New Biotechnologies For Food Production And Processing, Biotechnology For Alleviating Malnutrition, Community Gene Banks And Sustainable Food Security, Epidemiology Of Malnutrition, Engineering Solutions To Malnutrition, Agricultural Diversification And Human Nutrition, Soybean In Argentina, References; Chapter 8: Management; Introduction, Global Agricultural Sustainability, Mega Agriculture And Sustainable Production, Organic Agriculture, Leisa, The Interactive Bottom-Up Approach, Cereal Production, The Leipzig Commitment, Farmer-Centered Agenda, Precision Agriculture, Production Of Recombinant Proteins In Transgenic Barley Grains, Enhancement Of Natural Plant Defenses, Improving Plant Resistance To Bacterial Diseases Through Genetic Engineering, Livestock Management, Disease Resistance In Farm Animals, Management Of Energy, Nitrogen And Carbon For Food Security, Patenting Of Agricultural Biotechnologies, References.

Elements of Biotechnology

Elements of Biotechnology Book
Author : P. K. Gupta
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2010
ISBN : 9788171339372
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

PART I BIOTECHNOLOGY: GENERAL FEATURES 1. Biotechnology: History, Definition and Scope 2. Recombinant DNA and Genetic Engineering 1. Cloning and Expression Vectors 3. Recombinant DNA and Genetic Engineering 2. Chimeric DNA, Probes and Genomic/cDNA Libraries 4. PCR and Microarrays 5. Isolation and Synthesis of Genes (Including Synthesis of a Bacterial Genome) 6. Molecular Markers and DNA Sequencing (Including Whole Genome Sequencing) PARTII ANIMAL BIOTECHNOLOGY 7. Animal Cell and Tissue Culture 1. Laboratory Facilities, Culture Media and Procedures 8. Animal Cell and Tissue Culture 2. Primary Culture, Cell Lines & Cloning 9. Animal Cell and Tissue Culture 3. Tissue and Organ Culture: Primary Explantation Techniques 10. In Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer In Humans and Livestock 11. Transfection Methods and Transgenic Animals 12. Immunotechnology 1. Immune System, Antibodies, T-Cell Receptors, TLRs, Inflammasomes, Interferons and Vaccines 13. Immunotechnology 2. Hybridoma and Monoclonal Antibodies (Mabs) 14. Animal Genomics: 1. Molecular Maps 15. Animal Genomics: 1. Whole Genome Sequences and their Annotation 16. Biotechnology in Medicine PART III PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY 17. Plant Cell and Tissue Culture 1. Culture Media and Cell Culture 18. Plant Cell and Tissue Culture 2. Tissue Culture, Micropropagation, Somaclonal Variation and Wide Hybridization 19. Plant Cell and Tissue Culture 3. Production and Uses of Haploids 20. Plant Cell and Tissue Culture 4. Protoplast Culture, Regeneration and Somatic Hybridization 21. Gene Transfer Methods in Plants 22. Transgenic Plants (Including Cisgenic Plants) 23. Chloroplast Engineering and Transplastomic Plants 24. Plant Genomics 1. Molecular Maps: Development and Uses 25. Plant Genomics 2. Whole Genome Sequences and Functional Genomics PART IV INDUSTRIAL AND MICROBIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY 26. Enzyme Biotechnology 27. Protein Engineering and Drug Designing (Including Immunotoxins) 28. Metabolic Engineering and Metabolomics (For Overproduction of Metabolites) 29. Microbial Biotechnology 1. Isolation, Culture and Genetic Manipulation of Microbes 30. Microbial Biotechnology 2. Microbes for Production of Chemicals 31. Microbial Biotechnology 3. Microbes for Cleaner Technologies and Pollution Control 32. Microbial Biotechnology 4. Microbes For Agriculture 33. Microbial Biotechnology 5. Microbial Genomics for Industry PART V BIOTECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT 34. Pollution Control 35. Bioremediation (Including Phytoremediation) 36. Bioenergy and Biofuels 37. Restoration of Degraded Lands: Biotechnological Approaches 38. Biodiversity and Its Conservations PART VI BIOTECHNOLOGY AND INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY 39. Biotechnology and Intellectual Property 1. Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) and Intellectual Property Protection (IPP) 40. Biotechnology and Intellectual Property 2. Patenting of Biological Material: Obligations and Implications Reference Index