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Fractional Order Design

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Fractional Order Design

Fractional Order Design Book
Author : Ahmed G. Radwan,Farooq Ahmad Khanday,Lobna A. Said
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-10-22
ISBN : 0323902049
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Fractional-Order Design: Devices, Circuits, and Systems introduces applications from the design perspective so that the reader can learn about, and get ready to, design these applications. The book also includes the different techniques employed to comprehensively and straightforwardly design fractional-order systems/devices. Furthermore, a lot of mathematics is available in the literature for solving the fractional-order calculus for system application. However, a small portion is employed in the design of fractional-order systems. This book introduces the mathematics that has been employed explicitly for fractional-order systems. Students and scholars who wants to quickly understand the field of fractional-order systems and contribute to its different domains and applications will find this book a welcomed resource. Presents a simple and comprehensive understanding of the field of fractional-order systems Offers practical knowledge on the design of fractional-order systems for different applications Exposes users to the possible new areas of applications of fractional-order systems

Fractional Order Differentiation and Robust Control Design

Fractional Order Differentiation and Robust Control Design Book
Author : Jocelyn Sabatier,Patrick Lanusse,Pierre Melchior,Alain Oustaloup
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-05-06
ISBN : 9401798079
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides an overview of the research done and results obtained during the last ten years in the fields of fractional systems control, fractional PI and PID control, robust and CRONE control, and fractional path planning and path tracking. Coverage features theoretical results, applications and exercises. The book will be useful for post-graduate students who are looking to learn more on fractional systems and control. In addition, it will also appeal to researchers from other fields interested in increasing their knowledge in this area.

Design of CMOS Analog Integrated Fractional Order Circuits

Design of CMOS Analog Integrated Fractional Order Circuits Book
Author : Georgia Tsirimokou,Costas Psychalinos,Ahmed Elwakil
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-04-12
ISBN : 3319556339
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book describes the design and realization of analog fractional-order circuits, which are suitable for on-chip implementation, capable of low-voltage operation and electronic adjustment of their characteristics. The authors provide a brief introduction to fractional-order calculus, followed by design issues for fractional-order circuits of various orders and types. The benefits of this approach are demonstrated with current-mode and voltage-mode filter designs. Electronically tunable emulators of fractional-order capacitors and inductors are presented, where the behavior of the corresponding chips fabricated using the AMS 0.35um CMOS process has been experimentally verified. Applications of fractional-order circuits are demonstrated, including a pre-processing stage suitable for the implementation of the Pan-Tompkins algorithm for detecting the QRS complexes of an electrocardiogram (ECG), a fully tunable implementation of the Cole-Cole model used for the modeling of biological tissues, and a simple, non-impedance based measuring technique for super-capacitors.

Fractional Order Systems

Fractional Order Systems Book
Author : Ahmed G. Radwan,Farooq Ahmad Khanday,Lobna A. Said
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-10-13
ISBN : 0128243341
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Fractional Order Systems: An Overview of Mathematics, Design, and Applications for Engineers introduces applications from a design perspective, helping readers plan and design their own applications. The book includes the different techniques employed to design fractional-order systems/devices comprehensively and straightforwardly. Furthermore, mathematics is available in the literature on how to solve fractional-order calculus for system applications. This book introduces the mathematics that has been employed explicitly for fractional-order systems. It will prove an excellent material for students and scholars who want to quickly understand the field of fractional-order systems and contribute to its different domains and applications. Fractional-order systems are believed to play an essential role in our day-to-day activities. Therefore, several researchers around the globe endeavor to work in the different domains of fractional-order systems. The efforts include developing the mathematics to solve fractional-order calculus/systems and to achieve the feasible designs for various applications of fractional-order systems. Presents a simple and comprehensive understanding of the field of fractional-order systems Offers practical knowledge on the design of fractional-order systems for different applications Exposes users to possible new applications for fractional-order systems

Fractional Order Motion Controls

Fractional Order Motion Controls Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2012-11-07
ISBN : 1118387716
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Covering fractional order theory, simulation and experiments,this book explains how fractional order modelling and fractionalorder controller design compares favourably with traditionalvelocity and position control systems. The authors systematicallycompare the two approaches using applied fractional calculus.Stability theory in fractional order controllers design is alsoanalysed. Presents material suitable for a variety of real-worldapplications, including hard disk drives, vehicular controls, robotcontrol and micropositioners in DNA microarray analysis Includes extensive experimental results from both lab benchlevel tests and industrial level, mass-production-readyimplementations Covers detailed derivations and numerical simulations for eachcase Discusses feasible design specifications, ideal for practicingengineers The book also covers key topics including: fractional orderdisturbance cancellation and adaptive learning control studies forexternal disturbances; optimization approaches for nonlinear systemcontrol and design schemes with backlash and friction.Illustrations and experimental validations are included for each ofthe proposed control schemes to enable readers to develop a clearunderstanding of the approaches covered, and move on to apply themin real-world scenarios.

Fractional Order Control Systems

Fractional Order Control Systems Book
Author : Dingyü Xue
Publisher : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Release : 2017-07-10
ISBN : 3110497190
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book explains the essentials of fractional calculus and demonstrates its application in control system modeling, analysis and design. It presents original research to find high-precision solutions to fractional-order differentiations and differential equations. Numerical algorithms and their implementations are proposed to analyze multivariable fractional-order control systems. Through high-quality MATLAB programs, it provides engineers and applied mathematicians with theoretical and numerical tools to design control systems. Contents Introduction to fractional calculus and fractional-order control Mathematical prerequisites Definitions and computation algorithms of fractional-order derivatives and Integrals Solutions of linear fractional-order differential equations Approximation of fractional-order operators Modelling and analysis of multivariable fractional-order transfer function Matrices State space modelling and analysis of linear fractional-order Systems Numerical solutions of nonlinear fractional-order differential Equations Design of fractional-order PID controllers Frequency domain controller design for multivariable fractional-order Systems Inverse Laplace transforms involving fractional and irrational Operations FOTF Toolbox functions and models Benchmark problems for the assessment of fractional-order differential equation algorithms

Fractional Modeling and Controller Design of Robotic Manipulators

Fractional Modeling and Controller Design of Robotic Manipulators Book
Author : Abhaya Pal Singh,Dipankar Deb,Himanshu Agrawal,Valentina E. Balas
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-10-15
ISBN : 3030582477
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book at hand is an appropriate addition to the field of fractional calculus applied to control systems. If an engineer or a researcher wishes to delve into fractional-order systems, then this book has many collections of such systems to work upon, and this book also tells the reader about how one can convert an integer-order system into an appropriate fractional-order one through an efficient and simple algorithm. If the reader further wants to explore the controller design for the fractional-order systems, then for them, this book provides a variety of controller design strategies. The use of fractional-order derivatives and integrals in control theory leads to better results than integer-order approaches and hence provides solid motivation for further development of control theory. Fractional-order models are more useful than the integer-order models when accuracy is of paramount importance. Real-time experimental validation of controller design strategies for the fractional-order plants is available. This book is beneficial to the academic institutes for postgraduate and advanced research-level that need a specific textbook on fractional control and its applications in srobotic manipulators. The book is also a valuable teaching and learning resource for undergraduate and postgraduate students.

Fractional Order Systems

Fractional Order Systems Book
Author : Ahmad Taher Azar,Ahmed G. Radwan,Sundarapandian Vaidyanathan
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2018-08-16
ISBN : 0128163089
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Fractional Order Systems: Optimization, Control, Circuit Realizations and Applications consists of 21 contributed chapters by subject experts. Chapters offer practical solutions and novel methods for recent research problems in the multidisciplinary applications of fractional order systems, such as FPGA, circuits, memristors, control algorithms, photovoltaic systems, robot manipulators, oscillators, etc. This book is ideal for researchers working in the modeling and applications of both continuous-time and discrete-time dynamics and chaotic systems. Researchers from academia and industry who are working in research areas such as control engineering, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, computer science, and information technology will find the book most informative. Discusses multi-disciplinary applications with new fundamentals, modeling, analysis, design, realization and experimental results Includes new circuits and systems based on the new nonlinear elements Covers most of the linear and nonlinear fractional-order theorems that will solve many scientific issues for researchers Closes the gap between theoretical approaches and real-world applications Provides MATLAB® and Simulink code for many of the applications in the book

Fractional Order Control Systems

Fractional Order Control Systems Book
Author : Dingyü Xue
Publisher : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Release : 2017-07-10
ISBN : 3110497972
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book explains the essentials of fractional calculus and demonstrates its application in control system modeling, analysis and design. It presents original research to find high-precision solutions to fractional-order differentiations and differential equations. Numerical algorithms and their implementations are proposed to analyze multivariable fractional-order control systems. Through high-quality MATLAB programs, it provides engineers and applied mathematicians with theoretical and numerical tools to design control systems. Contents Introduction to fractional calculus and fractional-order control Mathematical prerequisites Definitions and computation algorithms of fractional-order derivatives and Integrals Solutions of linear fractional-order differential equations Approximation of fractional-order operators Modelling and analysis of multivariable fractional-order transfer function Matrices State space modelling and analysis of linear fractional-order Systems Numerical solutions of nonlinear fractional-order differential Equations Design of fractional-order PID controllers Frequency domain controller design for multivariable fractional-order Systems Inverse Laplace transforms involving fractional and irrational Operations FOTF Toolbox functions and models Benchmark problems for the assessment of fractional-order differential equation algorithms

Image Based and Fractional Order Control for Mechatronic Systems

Image Based and Fractional Order Control for Mechatronic Systems Book
Author : Cosmin Copot,Clara Mihaela Ionescu,Cristina I. Muresan
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-04-10
ISBN : 303042006X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book unites two fast-developing forms of control—vision-based control and fractional-order control—and applies them in mechatronic systems. Image-Based and Fractional-Order Control for Mechatronic Systems is presented in two parts covering the theory and applications of the subject matter. The theoretical material presents the concepts of visual servoing and image-based feature extraction for feedback loops and fractional-order control. It discusses a range of systems from the classic monocular camera to new RGB-D sensors. The applications part of the book first discusses practical issues with the implementation of fractional-order control, comparing them with more traditional integer-order PID systems. The authors then introduce real-life examples such as a manipulator robot and a Stewart platform and results generated from such systems. MATLAB® functions and source codes are included wherever relevant to help readers develop simulations based on the theoretical ideas and practical examples in the text. Suggestions for the use of other pertinent open-source software are also indicated with the places where such may be obtained. With its combination of theoretical ideas and practical examples, Image-Based and Fractional-Order Control for Mechatronic Systems will be of interest to academic researchers looking to develop the fields of vision-based and fractional-order control and to engineers who are looking for developments that will help them provide closer control of their plants than can be achieved with integer-order PID. Advances in Industrial Control reports and encourages the transfer of technology in control engineering. The rapid development of control technology has an impact on all areas of the control discipline. The series offers an opportunity for researchers to present an extended exposition of new work in all aspects of industrial control.

Fractional order Systems and Controls

Fractional order Systems and Controls Book
Author : Concepción A. Monje,YangQuan Chen,Blas M. Vinagre,Dingyu Xue,Vicente Feliu-Batlle
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2010-09-28
ISBN : 1849963355
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Fractional-order Systems and Controls details the use of fractional calculus in the description and modeling of systems, and in a range of control design and practical applications. It is largely self-contained, covering the fundamentals of fractional calculus together with some analytical and numerical techniques and providing MATLAB® codes for the simulation of fractional-order control (FOC) systems. Many different FOC schemes are presented for control and dynamic systems problems. Practical material relating to a wide variety of applications is also provided. All the control schemes and applications are presented in the monograph with either system simulation results or real experimental results, or both. Fractional-order Systems and Controls provides readers with a basic understanding of FOC concepts and methods, so they can extend their use of FOC in other industrial system applications, thereby expanding their range of disciplines by exploiting this versatile new set of control techniques.

Fractional Order Systems Control Theory and Applications

Fractional Order Systems  Control Theory and Applications Book
Author : Omar Naifar
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021
ISBN : 3030714462
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book aims to bring together the latest innovative knowledge, analysis, and synthesis of fractional control problems of nonlinear systems as well as some related applications. Fractional order systems (FOS) are dynamical systems that can be modelled by a fractional differential equation carried with a non-integer derivative. In the last few decades, the growth of science and engineering systems has considerably stimulated the employment of fractional calculus in many subjects of control theory, for example, in stability, stabilization, controllability, observability, observer design, and fault estimation. The application of control theory in FOS is an important issue in many engineering applications. So, to accurately describe these systems, the fractional order differential equations have been introduced.

Fractional order Systems and PID Controllers

Fractional order Systems and PID Controllers Book
Author : Kishore Bingi,Rosdiazli Ibrahim,Mohd Noh Karsiti,Sabo Miya Hassan,Vivekananda Rajah Harindran
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2019-10-31
ISBN : 3030339343
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents a detailed study on fractional-order, set-point, weighted PID control strategies and the development of curve-fitting-based approximation techniques for fractional-order parameters. Furthermore, in all the cases, it includes the Scilab-based commands and functions for easy implementation and better understanding, and to appeal to a wide range of readers working with the software. The presented Scilab-based toolbox is the first toolbox for fractional-order systems developed in open-source software. The toolboxes allow time and frequency domains as well as stability analysis of the fractional-order systems and controllers. The book also provides real-time examples of the control of process plants using the developed fractional-order based PID control strategies and the approximation techniques. The book is of interest to readers in the areas of fractional-order controllers, approximation techniques, process modeling, control, and optimization, both in industry and academia. In industry, the book is particularly valuable in the areas of research and development (R&D) as well as areas where PID controllers suffice – and it should be noted that around 80% of low-level controllers in industry are PID based. The book is also useful where conventional PIDs are constrained, such as in industries where long-term delay and non-linearity are present. Here it can be used for the design of controllers for real-time processes. The book is also a valuable teaching and learning resource for undergraduate and postgraduate students.

Fractional order Modeling and Control of Dynamic Systems

Fractional order Modeling and Control of Dynamic Systems Book
Author : Aleksei Tepljakov
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-02-08
ISBN : 3319529501
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book reports on an outstanding research devoted to modeling and control of dynamic systems using fractional-order calculus. It describes the development of model-based control design methods for systems described by fractional dynamic models. More than 300 years had passed since Newton and Leibniz developed a set of mathematical tools we now know as calculus. Ever since then the idea of non-integer derivatives and integrals, universally referred to as fractional calculus, has been of interest to many researchers. However, due to various issues, the usage of fractional-order models in real-life applications was limited. Advances in modern computer science made it possible to apply efficient numerical methods to the computation of fractional derivatives and integrals. This book describes novel methods developed by the author for fractional modeling and control, together with their successful application in real-world process control scenarios.

Mathematical Techniques of Fractional Order Systems

Mathematical Techniques of Fractional Order Systems Book
Author : Ahmad Taher Azar,Ahmed G. Radwan,Sundarapandian Vaidyanathan
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2018-06-11
ISBN : 012813593X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Mathematical Techniques of Fractional Order Systems illustrates advances in linear and nonlinear fractional-order systems relating to many interdisciplinary applications, including biomedical, control, circuits, electromagnetics and security. The book covers the mathematical background and literature survey of fractional-order calculus and generalized fractional-order circuit theorems from different perspectives in design, analysis and realizations, nonlinear fractional-order circuits and systems, the fractional-order memristive circuits and systems in design, analysis, emulators, simulation and experimental results. It is primarily meant for researchers from academia and industry, and for those working in areas such as control engineering, electrical engineering, computer science and information technology. This book is ideal for researchers working in the area of both continuous-time and discrete-time dynamics and chaotic systems. Discusses multidisciplinary applications with new fundamentals, modeling, analysis, design, realization and experimental results Includes circuits and systems based on new nonlinear elements Covers most of the linear and nonlinear fractional-order theorems that will solve many scientific issues for researchers Closes the gap between theoretical approaches and real-world applications Provides MATLAB® and Simulink code for many applications in the book

Solution and Characteristic Analysis of Fractional Order Chaotic Systems

Solution and Characteristic Analysis of Fractional Order Chaotic Systems Book
Author : Kehui Sun
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2023-01-29
ISBN : 9811932735
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book highlights the solution algorithms and characteristic analysis methods of fractional-order chaotic systems. Fractal dimensions exist broadly in the study of nature and the development of science and technology. Fractional calculus has become a hot research area in nonlinear science. Fractional-order chaotic systems are an important part of fractional calculus. The book discusses the numerical solution algorithms and characteristic analysis of fractional-order chaotic systems and introduces the techniques to implement the systems with circuits. To facilitate a quick grasp, the authors present examples from their years of work in the appendix. Intended for graduate students and researchers interested in chaotic systems, the book helps one to build a theoretical and experimental foundation for the application of fractional-order chaotic systems.

Optimization of Integer Fractional Order Chaotic Systems by Metaheuristics and their Electronic Realization

Optimization of Integer Fractional Order Chaotic Systems by Metaheuristics and their Electronic Realization Book
Author : Esteban Tlelo-Cuautle,Luis Gerardo de la Fraga,Omar Guillén Guillén-Fernández,Alejandro Silva-Juárez
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2021-05-10
ISBN : 100034665X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Mathematicians have devised different chaotic systems that are modeled by integer or fractional-order differential equations, and whose mathematical models can generate chaos or hyperchaos. The numerical methods to simulate those integer and fractional-order chaotic systems are quite different and their exactness is responsible in the evaluation of characteristics like Lyapunov exponents, Kaplan-Yorke dimension, and entropy. One challenge is estimating the step-size to run a numerical method. It can be done analyzing the eigenvalues of self-excited attractors, while for hidden attractors it is difficult to evaluate the equilibrium points that are required to formulate the Jacobian matrices. Time simulation of fractional-order chaotic oscillators also requires estimating a memory length to achieve exact results, and it is associated to memories in hardware design. In this manner, simulating chaotic/hyperchaotic oscillators of integer/fractional-order and with self-excited/hidden attractors is quite important to evaluate their Lyapunov exponents, Kaplan-Yorke dimension and entropy. Further, to improve the dynamics of the oscillators, their main characteristics can be optimized applying metaheuristics, which basically consists of varying the values of the coefficients of a mathematical model. The optimized models can then be implemented using commercially available amplifiers, field-programmable analog arrays (FPAA), field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA), microcontrollers, graphic processing units, and even using nanometer technology of integrated circuits. The book describes the application of different numerical methods to simulate integer/fractional-order chaotic systems. These methods are used within optimization loops to maximize positive Lyapunov exponents, Kaplan-Yorke dimension, and entropy. Single and multi-objective optimization approaches applying metaheuristics are described, as well as their tuning techniques to generate feasible solutions that are suitable for electronic implementation. The book details several applications of chaotic oscillators such as in random bit/number generators, cryptography, secure communications, robotics, and Internet of Things.

Fractional Order Modeling of Dynamic Systems with Applications in Optimization Signal Processing and Control

Fractional Order Modeling of Dynamic Systems with Applications in Optimization  Signal Processing  and Control Book
Author : Ahmed G. Radwan,Farooq Ahmad Khanday,Lobna A. Said
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-10-29
ISBN : 0323902030
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Fractional-order Modelling of Dynamic Systems with Applications in Optimization, Signal Processing and Control introduces applications from a design perspective, helping readers plan and design their own applications. The book includes the different techniques employed to design fractional-order systems/devices comprehensively and straightforwardly. Furthermore, mathematics is available in the literature on how to solve fractional-order calculus for system applications. This book introduces the mathematics that has been employed explicitly for fractional-order systems. It will prove an excellent material for students and scholars who want to quickly understand the field of fractional-order systems and contribute to its different domains and applications. Fractional-order systems are believed to play an essential role in our day-to-day activities. Therefore, several researchers around the globe endeavor to work in the different domains of fractional-order systems. The efforts include developing the mathematics to solve fractional-order calculus/systems and to achieve the feasible designs for various applications of fractional-order systems. Presents a simple and comprehensive understanding of the field of fractional-order systems Offers practical knowledge on the design of fractional-order systems for different applications Exposes users to possible new applications for fractional-order systems

Robust Adaptive Control for Fractional Order Systems with Disturbance and Saturation

Robust Adaptive Control for Fractional Order Systems with Disturbance and Saturation Book
Author : Mou Chen,Shuyi Shao,Peng Shi
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2017-12-26
ISBN : 1119393272
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A treatise on investigating tracking control and synchronization control of fractional-order nonlinear systems with system uncertainties, external disturbance, and input saturation Robust Adaptive Control for Fractional-Order Systems, with Disturbance and Saturation provides the reader with a good understanding on how to achieve tracking control and synchronization control of fractional-order nonlinear systems with system uncertainties, external disturbance, and input saturation. Although some texts have touched upon control of fractional-order systems, the issues of input saturation and disturbances have rarely been considered together. This book offers chapter coverage of fractional calculus and fractional-order systems; fractional-order PID controller and fractional-order disturbance observer; design of fractional-order controllers for nonlinear chaotic systems and some applications; sliding mode control for fractional-order nonlinear systems based on disturbance observer; disturbance observer based neural control for an uncertain fractional-order rotational mechanical system; adaptive neural tracking control for uncertain fractional-order chaotic systems subject to input saturation and disturbance; stabilization control of continuous-time fractional positive systems based on disturbance observer; sliding mode synchronization control for fractional-order chaotic systems with disturbance; and more. Based on the approximation ability of the neural network (NN), the adaptive neural control schemes are reported for uncertain fractional-order nonlinear systems Covers the disturbance estimation techniques that have been developed to alleviate the restriction faced by traditional feedforward control and reject the effect of external disturbances for uncertain fractional-order nonlinear systems By combining the NN with the disturbance observer, the disturbance observer based adaptive neural control schemes have been studied for uncertain fractional-order nonlinear systems with unknown disturbances Considers, together, the issue of input saturation and the disturbance for the control of fractional-order nonlinear systems in the present of system uncertainty, external disturbance, and input saturation Robust Adaptive Control for Fractional-Order Systems, with Disturbance and Saturation can be used as a reference for the academic research on fractional-order nonlinear systems or used in Ph.D. study of control theory and engineering.

Functional Fractional Calculus

Functional Fractional Calculus Book
Author : Shantanu Das
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-06-01
ISBN : 3642205453
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

When a new extraordinary and outstanding theory is stated, it has to face criticism and skeptism, because it is beyond the usual concept. The fractional calculus though not new, was not discussed or developed for a long time, particularly for lack of its application to real life problems. It is extraordinary because it does not deal with ‘ordinary’ differential calculus. It is outstanding because it can now be applied to situations where existing theories fail to give satisfactory results. In this book not only mathematical abstractions are discussed in a lucid manner, with physical mathematical and geometrical explanations, but also several practical applications are given particularly for system identification, description and then efficient controls. The normal physical laws like, transport theory, electrodynamics, equation of motions, elasticity, viscosity, and several others of are based on ‘ordinary’ calculus. In this book these physical laws are generalized in fractional calculus contexts; taking, heterogeneity effect in transport background, the space having traps or islands, irregular distribution of charges, non-ideal spring with mass connected to a pointless-mass ball, material behaving with viscous as well as elastic properties, system relaxation with and without memory, physics of random delay in computer network; and several others; mapping the reality of nature closely. The concept of fractional and complex order differentiation and integration are elaborated mathematically, physically and geometrically with examples. The practical utility of local fractional differentiation for enhancing the character of singularity at phase transition or characterizing the irregularity measure of response function is deliberated. Practical results of viscoelastic experiments, fractional order controls experiments, design of fractional controller and practical circuit synthesis for fractional order elements are elaborated in this book. The book also maps theory of classical integer order differential equations to fractional calculus contexts, and deals in details with conflicting and demanding initialization issues, required in classical techniques. The book presents a modern approach to solve the ‘solvable’ system of fractional and other differential equations, linear, non-linear; without perturbation or transformations, but by applying physical principle of action-and-opposite-reaction, giving ‘approximately exact’ series solutions. Historically, Sir Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wihelm Leibniz independently discovered calculus in the middle of the 17th century. In recognition to this remarkable discovery, J.von Neumann remarked, “...the calculus was the first achievement of modern mathematics and it is difficult to overestimate its importance. I think it defines more equivocally than anything else the inception of modern mathematical analysis which is logical development, still constitute the greatest technical advance in exact thinking.” This XXI century has thus started to ‘think-exactly’ for advancement in science & technology by growing application of fractional calculus, and this century has started speaking the language which nature understands the best.