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Fouling in Refineries

Fouling in Refineries Book
Author : James G. Speight
Publisher : Gulf Professional Publishing
Release : 2015-05-14
ISBN : 0128011459
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Fouling in Refineries is an important and ongoing problem that directly affects energy efficiency resulting in increased costs, production losses, and even unit shutdown, requiring costly expenditures to clean up equipment and return capacity to positive levels. This text addresses this common challenge for the hydrocarbon processing community within each unit of the refinery. As refineries today face a greater challenge of accepting harder to process heavier crudes and the ongoing flow of the lighter shale oil feedstocks, resulting in bigger challenges to balance product stability within their process equipment, this text seeks to inform all relative refinery personnel on how to monitor fouling, characterize the deposits, and follow all available treatments. With basic modeling and chemistry of fouling and each unit covered, users will learn how to operate at maximum production rates and elongate the efficiency of their refinery’s capacity. Presents an understanding of the breakdown of fouling per refinery unit, including distillation and coking units Provides all the factors, crude types, and refining blends that cause fouling, especially the unconventional feedstocks and high acid crudes used today Helps users develop an analysis-based treatment and control strategy that empowers them to operate refinery equipment at a level that prevents fouling from occurring

Crude Oil Fouling

Crude Oil Fouling Book
Author : Francesco Coletti,Geoffrey Hewitt
Publisher : Gulf Professional Publishing
Release : 2014-11-20
ISBN : 0128013591
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

With production from unconventional rigs continuing to escalate and refineries grappling with the challenges of shale and heavier oil feedstocks, petroleum engineers and refinery managers must ensure that equipment used with today’s crude oil is protected from fouling deposits Crude Oil Fouling addresses this overarching challenge for the petroleum community with clear explanations on what causes fouling, current models and new approaches to evaluate and study the formation of deposits, and how today’s models could be applied from lab experiment to onsite field usability for not just the refinery, but for the rig, platform, or pipeline. Crude Oil Fouling is a must-have reference for every petroleum engineer’s library that gives the basic framework needed to analyze, model, and integrate the best fouling strategies and operations for crude oil systems. Defines the most critical variables and events that cause fouling Explains the consequences of fouling and its impact on operations, safety, and economics Provides the technical models available to better predict and eliminate the potential for fouling in any crude system

Multi scale Modelling of Refinery Pre heat Trains Undergoing Fouling for Improved Energy Efficiency

Multi scale Modelling of Refinery Pre heat Trains Undergoing Fouling for Improved Energy Efficiency Book
Author : Francesco Coletti
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2010
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Fouling in pre-heat trains of refinery crude distillation units causes major energy inefficiencies, resulting in increased costs, greenhouse gas emissions, maintenance efforts and health and safety hazards. Although chemical and physical phenomena underlying fouling deposition are extremely complex and several details remain unknown, the understanding of the fouling process has progressed significantly in the past 40 years. However, this knowledge has so far not been exploited to effectively improve heat exchanger and heat exchanger network design and operation. As a result, old methodologies that neglect the local effects and dynamics of fouling, in favour of lumped, steady-state, heuristic models (e.g. using TEMA fouling factors) are still used. In this thesis a novel mathematical model for pre-heat trains undergoing crude oil fouling was developed, validated with plant data and used to propose mitigation strategies. The model is dynamic, distributed and considers simultaneously several scales of investigation. Key phenomena are captured at the tube level as a function of local conditions. These include the dependence of fouling rate on temperature and velocity, the variation of physical properties, the structural changes of the deposits over time (ageing) and the dynamics of surface roughness. The single tube model was then extended to describe a unit-scale heat exchanger geometry. This has been validated against plant data from four units in two refineries operated by major oil companies. The predicted outlet temperatures over extended periods (i.e. 4-16 months) are accurate within ±1% for the tube-side and ± 2% for the shell-side. Model simulations were then used to assist the retrofit of one particular unit for which it was possible to save ca. 22% of the energy losses (not including pumping power) produced by fouling over ca. a year of operation. Finally, the interconnection of single heat exchangers in a network allowed the simulation of the fouling behaviour of two existing pre-heat trains. To systematically assess the impact of fouling on refinery economics, a set of key performance indicators (KPIs) was proposed. Network-level simulations were used in conjunction with the KPIs to unveil complex interactions and propose network retrofit arrangements that improve energy recovery over time whilst reducing fouling. It is concluded that the model can be used with confidence to predict fouling and assist monitoring, design and retrofit of refinery heat exchangers and heat exchanger networks. The results shown indicate that the approach proposed can lead to substantial benefits.

Fouling in Refinery Equipment

Fouling in Refinery Equipment Book
Author : Harald K. Lemke,American Institute of Chemical Engineers
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1999
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Fouling in Refinery Equipment book written by Harald K. Lemke,American Institute of Chemical Engineers, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Field fouling Units for Refinery Experiments

Field fouling Units for Refinery Experiments Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1997
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Two skid mounted field test units were designed and installed at two refineries for fouling data. Each fouling test unit contains test sections with a heat transfer monitor, an onboard computer for acquiring data, controls and instruments, an piping networks for start-up, sampling, and shut-down procedures. Both units are designed according to ASTM specifications for service in refinery or chemical plants. One fouling test unit is designed for two-phase flow of hydrogen and the product stream, the second for single-phase flow of crude oil, which has two heat transfer monitors operating independently. Calculation procedures for the heat transfer coefficient and fouling resistance are presented along with heat transfer data for air and water obtained at Argonne National Laboratory and crude oil obtained at the Shell Wood River refinery. Comparisons are made with the theoretical heat transfer coefficients.

Simulation of Fouling in Tube and Shell Heat Exchangers in Refineries

Simulation of Fouling in Tube and Shell Heat Exchangers in Refineries Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1998
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Simulation of Fouling in Tube and Shell Heat Exchangers in Refineries book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Fouling of Crude Oil Refinery Preheat Exchangers

Fouling of Crude Oil Refinery Preheat Exchangers Book
Author : Imelda Louise Downey
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1993
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Fouling of Crude Oil Refinery Preheat Exchangers book written by Imelda Louise Downey, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Quantifying Petroleum Fouling of Refining Heat Exchangers

Quantifying Petroleum Fouling of Refining Heat Exchangers Book
Author : Gregory Mark Jones
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1999
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Quantifying Petroleum Fouling of Refining Heat Exchangers book written by Gregory Mark Jones, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Corrosion Problems and Solutions in Oil Refining and Petrochemical Industry

Corrosion Problems and Solutions in Oil Refining and Petrochemical Industry Book
Author : Alec Groysman
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-10-24
ISBN : 3319452568
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book addresses corrosion problems and their solutions at facilities in the oil refining and petrochemical industry, including cooling water and boiler feed water units. Further, it describes and analyzes corrosion control actions, corrosion monitoring, and corrosion management. Corrosion problems are a perennial issue in the oil refining and petrochemical industry, as they lead to a deterioration of the functional properties of metallic equipment and harm the environment – both of which need to be protected for the sake of current and future generations. Accordingly, this book examines and analyzes typical and atypical corrosion failure cases and their prevention at refineries and petrochemical facilities, including problems with: pipelines, tanks, furnaces, distillation columns, absorbers, heat exchangers, and pumps. In addition, it describes naphthenic acid corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, hydrogen damages, sulfidic corrosion, microbiologically induced corrosion, erosion-corrosion, and corrosion fatigue occurring at refinery units. At last, fouling, corrosion and cleaning are discussed in this book.

Advanced Analytic and Control Techniques for Thermal Systems with Heat Exchangers

Advanced Analytic and Control Techniques for Thermal Systems with Heat Exchangers Book
Author : Libor Pekar
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-07-10
ISBN : 0128194235
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Advanced Analytic Control Techniques for Thermal Systems with Heat Exchangers presents the latest research on sophisticated analytic and control techniques specific for Heat Exchangers (HXs) and heat Exchanger Networks (HXNs), such as Stability Analysis, Efficiency of HXs, Fouling Effect, Delay Phenomenon, Robust Control, Algebraic Control, Geometric Control, Optimal Control, Fuzzy Control and Artificial Intelligence techniques. Editor Libor Pekař and his team of global expert contributors combine their knowledge and experience of investigated and applied systems and processes in this thorough review of the most advanced networks, analyzing their dynamics, efficiency, transient features, physical properties, performance, feasibility, flexibility and controllability. The structural and dynamic analyses and control approaches of HXNs, as well as energy efficient manipulation techniques are discussed, in addition to the design of the control systems through the full life cycle. This equips the reader with an understanding of the relevant theory in a variety of settings and scenarios and the confidence to apply that knowledge to solve problems in an academic or professional setting. Graduate students and early-mid career professionals require a robust understanding of how to suitably design thermal systems with HXs and HXNs to achieve required performance levels, which this book offers in one consolidated reference. All examples and solved problems included have been tried and tested, and these combined with the research driven theory provides professionals, researchers and students with the most recent techniques to maximize the energy efficiency and sustainability of existing and new thermal power systems. Analyses several advanced techniques, the theoretical background of these techniques and includes models, examples and results throughout Focusses on advanced analytic and control techniques which have been investigated or applied to thermal systems with HXs and HXNs. Includes practical applications and advanced ideas from leading experts in the field, as well as case studies and tested problems and solutions.

Computational Fluid Dynamics

Computational Fluid Dynamics Book
Author : Adela Ionescu
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2018-02-14
ISBN : 9535137905
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book is the result of a careful selection of contributors in the field of CFD. It is divided into three sections according to the purpose and approaches used in the development of the contributions. The first section describes the "high-performance computing" (HPC) tools and their impact on CFD modeling. The second section is dedicated to "CFD models for local and large-scale industrial phenomena." Two types of approaches are basically contained here: one concerns the adaptation from global to local scale, - e.g., the applications of CFD to study the climate changes and the adaptations to local scale. The second approach, very challenging, is the multiscale analysis. The third section is devoted to "CFD in numerical modeling approach for experimental cases." Its chapters emphasize on the numerical approach of the mathematical models associated to few experimental (industrial) cases. Here, the impact and the importance of the mathematical modeling in CFD are focused on. It is expected that the collection of these chapters will enrich the state of the art in the CFD domain and its applications in a lot of fields. This collection proves that CFD is a highly interdisciplinary research area, which lies at the interface of physics, engineering, applied mathematics, and computer science.

Fouling of Organics in Australian Crude Oil Refining

Fouling of Organics in Australian Crude Oil Refining Book
Author : Zaid Saib Saleh
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2005
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Fouling of Organics in Australian Crude Oil Refining book written by Zaid Saib Saleh, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

10th International Symposium on Process Systems Engineering

10th International Symposium on Process Systems Engineering Book
Author : Rita Maria de Brito Alves,Cláudio Augusto Oller do Nascimento,Evaristo Chalbaud Biscaia (Jr)
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0444534350
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The 10th International Symposium on Process Systems Engineering, PSE'09, will be held in Salvador-Bahia, Brazil on August 16-20, 2009. The special focus of PSE 2009 is Sustainability, Energy and Engineering. PSE 2009 is the tenth in the triennial series of international symposia on process systems engineering initiated in 1982. The meeting is brings together the worldwide PSE community of researchers and practitioners who are involved in the creation and application of computing-based methodologies for planning, design, operation, control and maintenance of chemical and petrochemical process industries. PSE'09 will look at how the PSE methods and tools can support sustainable resource systems and emerging technologies in the areas of green engineering: environmentally conscious design of industrial processes. PSE methods and tools support: - sustainable resource systems - emerging technologies in the areas of green engineering - environmentally conscious design of industrial processes

Assessment of Refinery Reaction Fouling

Assessment of Refinery Reaction Fouling Book
Author : Andrew Peter Durrant
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1996
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Assessment of Refinery Reaction Fouling book written by Andrew Peter Durrant, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Corrosion fouling on Heat Transfer Surfaces

Corrosion fouling on Heat Transfer Surfaces Book
Author : Tyler James Stephenson
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This thesis presents a thorough examination of the corrosion and fouling behaviour of crude oil at refining conditions on industrially applicable heat transfer surfaces. The depletion of light sweet crude oil reserves means that the processing of ever heavier and more sour crude oils is inevitable. These less-ideal crude oils present a particularly challenging set of problems for a refinery. They often have a high asphaltene and sulfur content, which creates a very aggressive feedstock in terms of fouling and corrosion. Thermal processing is known to exacerbate the situation, however the inorganically driven fouling behaviour from corrosion of heat exchanger materials at high temperature is not well understood. An atmospheric bottoms fraction of crude oil (340 °C+) with an asphaltene content of 8.47 wt% and a sulfur content of 3.43 wt% was used in this thesis to evaluate its effects on high temperature corrosion and fouling of pure iron and 316 stainless steel. A surface temperature of 540 °C was chosen for this study, to approximate the conditions of a delayed coker heat exchanger. The experiments were carried out using a stirred, batch-style fouling reactor that enabled the preferential resistive heating of a metallic wire, which was submerged in the test oil. The change in the fouling resistance (fouling factor) of the wire was measured with time. The behaviour of the fouling factor was found to be asymptotic with time, as the buildup of coke on the surface of the wire attenuated the surface corrosion reactions. This in turn reduced the amount of inorganic foulant being ejected into the foulant layer. The foulant was examined using SEM-EDX, XRD, TEM, FIB, and AES. It was determined to be a mixture of organic carbonaceous coke, interspersed with an inorganic phase, which was found to be predominantly the pyrrhotite phase (Fe(1-x)S) of iron sulfide. Initially it was observed that the buildup of a thin iron sulfide layer occurred almost instantaneously, and preceded the formation of any surface coke. This led to the hypothesis that the iron sulfide is actually catalytic toward the formation of coke, alluding to the fact that it is a strong catalyst of dehydrogenation and condensation reactions. The attenuation of the fouling factor with time was attributed to the reduction in the amount of iron sulfide being ejected into the foulant layer and erupting at the foulant-oil interface. Thiophene was also added to the oil bath to evaluate its effects on fouling. It was thought that the addition of a thermally stable, surface-active solvent would both solubilize the asphaltenes and reduce the interaction of corrosive species with the surface of the metal by blocking adsorption sites. The compound was added to the oil bath at concentrations of 0.5, 1.3, and 5.7 vol%. Fouling behaviour was evaluated for 250, 1000, and 1400 minutes of exposure at temperature. Thiophene was found to be very effective at reducing both the fouling factor, and the amount of surface corrosion on 316 stainless steel at all exposure levels and times. Chapter 4, a review of MoS2 for lithium ion batteries, represents a seminal contribution to that field. At the time of its publication, there was a large debate in open literature regarding the lithiation mechanism and lithiation products of MoS2 during charge/discharge cycling. A thorough study of open literature, combined with a small number of my own experiments (shown in Appendix B), revealed evidence which helped to elucidate the lithiation mechanism. This work has begun to change what was the minority view at the time, into the majority view. MoS2 converts to lithium sulfide and molybdenum metal, and functions as a lithium sulfur battery after the first discharge cycle. Initially it was thought that the MoS2 functions as an intercalation electrode over its full voltage range of 0-3V vs Li/Li+. However, the MoS2 actually decomposes after lithiation, and never re-forms in subsequent cycles. The paper presented as Chapter 4 was instrumental in bringing about that paradigm shift, and remains extremely well-received by the scientific community.

Guide to the Practical Use of Chemicals in Refineries and Pipelines

Guide to the Practical Use of Chemicals in Refineries and Pipelines Book
Author : Johannes Karl Fink
Publisher : Gulf Professional Publishing
Release : 2016-05-09
ISBN : 0128094230
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Guide to Practical Use of Chemicals in Refineries and Pipelines delivers a well-rounded collection of content, references, and patents to show all the practical chemical choices available for refinery and pipeline usage, along with their purposes, benefits, and general characteristics. Covering the full spectrum of downstream operations, this reference solves the many problems that engineers and managers currently face, including corrosion, leakage in pipelines, and pretreatment of heavy oil feedstocks, something that is of growing interest with today's unconventional activity. Additional coverage on special refinery additives and justification on why they react the way they do with other chemicals and feedstocks is included, along with a reference list of acronyms and an index of chemicals that will give engineers and managers the opportunity to recognize new chemical solutions that can be used in the downstream industry. Presents tactics practitioners can use to effectively locate and utilize the right chemical application specific to their refinery or pipeline operation Includes information on how to safely perform operations with coverage on environmental issues and safety, including waste stream treatment and sulfur removal Helps readers understand the composition and applications of chemicals used in oil and gas refineries and pipelines, along with where they should be applied, and how their structure interacts when mixed at the refinery

Experimental and Numerical Investigation on Fouling Parameters in a Small Scale Rotating Unit

Experimental and Numerical Investigation on Fouling Parameters in a Small Scale Rotating Unit Book
Author : Matthew Ryan Lane
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2013
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Fouling, a problem since the first heat exchanger was created, has been the focus of various studies since the 1970s. In particular, crude oil fouling is a costly and problematic type of heat exchanger fouling that occurs in the preheat train to the atmospheric distillation column in petroleum refineries. Previous experiments have been designed to determine the causes of fouling using less than one gallon of crude oil and accumulating test results within a day. These experiments will be the basis of the Rotating Fouling Unit (RFU) at Heat Transfer Research Inc. (HTRI). The RFU focuses on better controlling the shear stress and heat transfer distribution along the surface of the heated test section by analyzing Taylor-Couette flow experiments and using them as a basis to better predict the flow across the heated surface of the test section in the RFU. Additionally, the equations for Taylor-Couette flow are used to verify the 2D flow simulations of the RFU to ensure the accuracy of the results. The design of the RFU incorporates data acquisition with a variety of measurements that will facilitate automatic and accurate data collection, so the results can be easily compared to previous fouling experiments. The RFU will act as a supplement to the High Temperature Fouling Unit (HTFU) at HTRI, and provide data comparable to that of the HTFU in order to better understand crude oil fouling. Computer simulations can accurately predict the shear stress and heat transfer coefficient along the surface of the test probe and help verify the improvements made to the original batch stirred cell designs. The electronic version of this dissertation is accessible from http://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/150955

10th International Symposium on Process Systems Engineering PSE2009

10th International Symposium on Process Systems Engineering   PSE2009 Book
Author : Rita Maria de Brito Alves,Claudio Augusto Oller do Nascimento,Evaristo Chalbaud Biscaia
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2009-08-05
ISBN : 9780444534736
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book contains the proceedings of the 10e of a series of international symposia on process systems engineering (PSE) initiated in 1982. The special focus of PSE09 is how PSE methods can support sustainable resource systems and emerging technologies in the areas of green engineering. * Contains fully searchable CD of all printed contributions * Focus on sustainable green engineering * 9 Plenary papers, 21 Keynote lectures by leading experts in the field

Surface Production Operations Volume 5 Pressure Vessels Heat Exchangers and Aboveground Storage Tanks

Surface Production Operations  Volume 5  Pressure Vessels  Heat Exchangers  and Aboveground Storage Tanks Book
Author : Maurice Stewart
Publisher : Gulf Professional Publishing
Release : 2021-07-22
ISBN : 012803744X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Covering both upstream and downstream oil and gas facilities, Surface Production Operations: Volume 5: Pressure Vessels, Heat Exchangers, and Aboveground Storage Tanks delivers a must-have reference guide to maximize efficiency, increase performance, prevent failures, and reduce costs. Every engineer and equipment manager in oil and gas must have complete knowledge of the systems and equipment involved for each project and facility, especially the checklist to keep up with maintenance and inspection--a topic just as critical as design and performance. Taking the guesswork out of searching through a variety of generalized standards and codes, Surface Production Operations: Volume 5: Pressure Vessels, Heat Exchangers, and Aboveground Storage Tanks furnishes all the critical regulatory information needed for oil and gas specific projects, saving time and money on maintaining the lifecycle of mechanical integrity of the oil and gas facility. Including troubleshooting techniques, calculations with examples, and several significant illustrations, this critical volume within the Surface Production Operations series is crucial on every oil and gas engineer’s bookshelf to solve day-to-day problems with common sense solutions. Provides practical checklists and case studies for selection, installation, and maintenance on pressure vessels, heat transfer equipment, and storage tanks for all types of oil and gas facilities Explains restoration techniques with detailed inspection and testing procedures, ensuring the equipment is revitalized to maximum life extension Supplies comprehensive coverage on oil and gas specific American and European standards, codes and recommended practices, saving the engineer time searching for various publications

A Practical Approach to Fouling Mitigation in Refinery Units

A Practical Approach to Fouling Mitigation in Refinery Units Book
Author : Claude A. Baudelet,American Institute of Chemical Engineers
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1999
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download A Practical Approach to Fouling Mitigation in Refinery Units book written by Claude A. Baudelet,American Institute of Chemical Engineers, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.