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Foaming With Supercritical Fluids

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Foaming with Supercritical Fluids

Foaming with Supercritical Fluids Book
Author : Ernesto Di Maio,Salvatore Iannace,Giuseppe Mensitieri
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-11-06
ISBN : 0444637362
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Foaming with Supercritical Fluids, Volume Nine provides a comprehensive description of the use of supercritical fluids as blowing agents in polymer foaming. To this aim, the fundamental issues on which the proper design and control of this process are rooted are discussed in detail, with specific attention devoted to the theoretical and experimental aspects of sorption thermodynamics of a blowing agent within a polymer, the effect of the absorbed blowing agent on the thermal, interfacial and rheological properties of the expanding matter, and the phase separation of the gaseous phase, and of the related bubble nucleation and growth phenomena. Several foaming technologies based on the use of supercritical blowing agents are then described, addressing the main issues in the light of the underlying chemical-physical phenomena. Offers strong fundamentals on polymer properties important on foaming Outlines the use of supercritical fluids for foaming Covers theoretical points-of-view, including foam formation of the polymer/gas solution to the setting of the final foam Discusses the several processing technologies and applications

Polymer Processing with Supercritical Fluids

Polymer Processing with Supercritical Fluids Book
Author : Vannessa Goodship,Erich Okoth Ogur
Publisher : iSmithers Rapra Publishing
Release : 2005
ISBN : 9781859574942
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

SCFs are currently the subjects of intense research and commercial interest. Applications such as the RESS (rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions) process are part of standard industrial practice. In view of their ever-growing importance in the polymer industry there is a need to fully comprehend how supercritical fluids interrelate with polymeric materials to realise the potential that can be gained from their use. The authors review the basic principles of SCFs and their application within the polymer industry: characteristics and properties, extraction of unwanted residual products, polymerisation solvents, and polymer impregnation. Processing applications such as plasticisation, foaming and blending are also considered. There is discussion of the potential within the polymer recycling industry for use of SCFs as cleaning agents or within supercritical oxidation processes. Around 400 references with abstracts from recent global literature accompany this review, sourced from the Polymer Library, to facilitate further reading. A subject index and a company index are included.

Advanced Nanotechnology and Application of Supercritical Fluids

Advanced Nanotechnology and Application of Supercritical Fluids Book
Author : Inamuddin,Abdullah M. Asiri
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-07-27
ISBN : 303044984X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Globalization and industrialization involve a number of reactions, products, extractions, and separations that require the use of organic solvents. These solvents are responsible for a number of ecological concerns, including atmospheric and land toxicity. Conventional organic solvents are regarded as volatile organic compounds; some are even limited due to their potential for ozone layer depletion. While supercritical liquids exhibit physical properties that could make them ideal substitutes for these volatile compounds, there is particular interest in the use of carbon dioxide as a solvent of crude material. In particular, carbon dioxide has apparent ‘green’ properties, like its noncombustible nature, the fact that it is generally nonpoisonous, and its relative inertness. Thus, the use of supercritical carbon dioxide can provide practical improvements to the sustainability of industrial products and processes. This book provides in-depth literature in the area of industrial green processes, focusing on the separation, purification, and extraction of compounds utilizing supercritical carbon dioxide as a green solvent.

Advanced Supercritical Fluids Technologies

Advanced Supercritical Fluids Technologies Book
Author : Igor Pioro
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2020-05-20
ISBN : 183880708X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Using SuperCritical Fluids (SCFs) in various processes is not new, because Mother Nature has been processing minerals in aqueous solutions at critical and supercritical pressures for billions of years. Somewhere in the 20th century, SCFs started to be used in various industries as working fluids, coolants, chemical agents, etc. Written by an international team of experts and complete with the latest research, development, and design, Advanced Supercritical Fluids Technologies is a unique technical book, completely dedicated to modern and advanced applications of supercritical fluids in various industries.Advanced Supercritical Fluids Technologies provides engineers and specialists in various industries dealing with SCFs as well as researchers, scientists, and students of the corresponding departments with a comprehensive overview of the current status, latest trends and developments of these technologies.Dr Igor Pioro is a professor at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Canada, and the Founding Editor of the ASME Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science.

Polymer Nanocomposite Foams

Polymer Nanocomposite Foams Book
Author : Vikas Mittal
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2013-10-18
ISBN : 146655813X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Advancements in polymer nanocomposite foams have led to their application in a variety of fields, such as automotive, packaging, and insulation. Employing nanocomposites in foam formation enhances their property profiles, enabling a broader range of uses, from conventional to advanced applications. Since many factors affect the generation of nanost

Supercritical Fluid Nanotechnology

Supercritical Fluid Nanotechnology Book
Author : Concepcion Domingo Pascual,Pascale Subra-Paternault
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2015-10-22
ISBN : 981461341X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The environmental and climate program demands technological solutions in the chemical industry that incorporate prevention of pollution. Major advances are needed to reduce the use of organic solvents, such as methanol, toluene, xylene, methyl ethyl ketone, and dichloromethane, which account for 27 percent of total toxics release inventory chemical

Supercritical Fluid Foaming

Supercritical Fluid Foaming Book
Author : Matthew S. Purcell
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Supercritical Fluid Foaming book written by Matthew S. Purcell, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Introduction to Supercritical Fluids

Introduction to Supercritical Fluids Book
Author : Richard Smith Jr.,Hiroshi Inomata,Cor Peters
Publisher : Newnes
Release : 2013-12-08
ISBN : 0080931308
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This text provides an introduction to supercritical fluids with easy-to-use Excel spreadsheets suitable for both specialized-discipline (chemistry or chemical engineering student) and mixed-discipline (engineering/economic student) classes. Each chapter contains worked examples, tip boxes and end-of-the-chapter problems and projects. Part I covers web-based chemical information resources, applications and simplified theory presented in a way that allows students of all disciplines to delve into the properties of supercritical fluids and to design energy, extraction and materials formation systems for real-world processes that use supercritical water or supercritical carbon dioxide. Part II takes a practical approach and addresses the thermodynamic framework, equations of state, fluid phase equilibria, heat and mass transfer, chemical equilibria and reaction kinetics of supercritical fluids. Spreadsheets are arranged as Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) functions and macros that are completely (source code) accessible for students who have interest in developing their own programs. Programming is not required to solve problems or to complete projects in the text. Property worksheets/spreadsheets that are easy to use in learning environments Worked examples with Excel VBA Worksheet functions allow users to design their own processes Fluid phase equilibria and chemical equilibria worksheets allow users to change conditions, study new solutes, co-solvents, chemical systems or reactions

Supercritical Fluids

Supercritical Fluids Book
Author : E. Kiran,Johanna M.H. Levelt Sengers
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-11-11
ISBN : 9401582955
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Supercritical fluids which are neither gas nor liquid, but can be compressed gradually from low to high density, are gaining increasing importance as tunable solvents and reaction media in the chemical process industry. By adjusting the pressure, or more strictly the density, the properties of these fluids are customized and manipulated for the particular process at hand, be it a physical transformation, such as separation or solvation, or a chemical transformation, such as a reaction or reactive extraction. Supercritical fluids, however, differ from both gases and liquids in many respects. In order to properly understand and describe their properties, it is necessary to know the implications of their nearness to criticality, to be aware of the complex types of phase separation (including solid phases) that occur when the components of the fluid mixture are very different from each other, and to develop theories that can cope with the large differences in molecular size and shape of the supercritical solvent and the solutes that are present.

Polymeric Foams

Polymeric Foams Book
Author : Shau-Tarng Lee
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2016-11-03
ISBN : 1498738893
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Polymeric foams are sturdy yet lightweight materials with applications across a variety of industries, from packaging to aerospace. As demand for these materials increase, so does innovation in the development of new processes and products. This book captures the most dynamic advances in processes, technologies, and products related to the polymeric foam market. It describes the latest business trends including new microcellular commercialization, sustainable foam products, and nanofoams. It also discusses novel processes, new and environmentally friendly blowing agents, and the development and usage of various types of foams, including bead and polycarbonate, polypropylene, polyetherimide microcellular, and nanocellular. The book also covers flame-retardant foams, rigid foam composites, and foam sandwich composites and details applications in structural engineering, electronics, and insulation. Authored by leading experts in the field, this book minimizes the gap between research and application in this important and growing area.

Handbook of Foaming and Blowing Agents

Handbook of Foaming and Blowing Agents Book
Author : George Wypych
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2022-03-12
ISBN : 1774670011
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Handbook of Foaming and Blowing Agents, Second Edition includes the most current information on foaming technology, guiding users on the proper selection of formulation, which is highly dependent on the mechanisms of action of blowing agents and foaming agents, as well as dispersion and solubility. The book includes properties of 23 groups of blowing agents and the typical range of technical performance for each group, including general properties, physical-chemical properties, health and safety, environmental impact, and applications in different products and polymers. All information is illustrated by chemical reactions and diagrams. Chapters in the book look at foaming mechanisms with the use of solid blowing agents, which are decomposed to the gaseous products by application of heat, production of gaseous products by chemical reaction, and foaming by gases and evaporating liquids. Introduces the fundamental mechanisms of action of blowing agents and foaming Includes best practice guidance to help engineers and technicians improve the efficiency of their existing foaming processes Enables practitioners to select blowing agents and foaming methods more effectively, thus reducing the risk of poor specification Introduces useful analytical techniques for foaming Discusses the environmental impact of foaming processes

Polymeric Foams

Polymeric Foams Book
Author : S.-T. Lee
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2022-05-19
ISBN : 1000588726
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Polymeric Foams: Innovations in Technologies and Environmentally Friendly Materials offers the latest in technology and environmental innovations within the field of polymeric foams. It outlines how application-focused research in polymeric foam can continue to improve living quality and enhance social responsibility. This book: Addresses technological innovations including those in bead foams, foam injection molding, foams in tissue engineering, foams in insulation, and silicon rubber foam Discusses environmentally friendly innovations in PET foam, degradable and renewable foam, and physical blowing agents Describes principles as well as applications from internationally recognized foam experts This work is aimed at researchers and industry professionals across chemical, mechanical, materials, polymer engineering, and anyone else developing and applying these advanced polymeric materials.

Radiation Processing of Polymer Materials and Its Industrial Applications

Radiation Processing of Polymer Materials and Its Industrial Applications Book
Author : Keizo Makuuchi,Song Cheng
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2012-02-07
ISBN : 0470587695
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This text examines the effect of radiation on polymers and the versatility of its industrial applications. By helping readers understand and solve problems associated with radiation processing of polymers, it serves as an important reference and fills a gap in the literature. Radiation processing can significantly improve important properties of polymers, however, there are still misconceptions about processing polymers by using ionizing radiation. This book explains the radiation processing of polymeric materials used in many industrial products including cars, airplanes, computers, and TVs. It even addresses emerging "green" issues like biomaterials and hydrogels.

Recent Developments in Polymer Macro Micro and Nano Blends

Recent Developments in Polymer Macro  Micro and Nano Blends Book
Author : P. M. Visakh,Gordana Markovic,Daniel Pasquini
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2016-08-24
ISBN : 0081004273
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Recent Developments in Polymer Macro, Micro and Nano Blends: Preparation and Characterisation discusses the various types of techniques that are currently used for the characterization of polymer-based macro, micro, and nano blends. It summarizes recent technical research accomplishments, emphasizing a broad range of characterization methods. In addition, the book discusses preparation methods and applications for various types of polymer-based macro, micro, and nano blends. Chapters include thermoplastic-based polymer & nano blends, applications of rubber based and thermoplastic blends, micro/nanostructures polymer blends containing block copolymers, advances in polymer-inorganic hybrids as membrane materials, synthesis of polymer/inorganic hybrids through heterophase polymerizations, nanoporous polymer foams from nanostructured polymer blends, and natural polymeric biodegradable nano blends for protein delivery. Describes the techniques pertaining to a kind (or small number) of blends, showing specific examples of their applications Covers micro, macro, and nano polymer blends Contains contributions from leading experts in the field

Foam Extrusion

Foam Extrusion Book
Author : S.-T. Lee,Chul B. Park
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2014-04-07
ISBN : 1439898596
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Combining the science of foam with the engineering of extrusion processes, Foam Extrusion: Principles and Practice delivers a detailed discussion of the theory, design, processing, and application of degradable foam extraction. In one comprehensive volume, the editors present the collective expertise of leading academic, research, and industry specialists while laying the scientific foundation in such a manner that the microscopic transition from a nucleus to a void (nucleation) and macroscopic movement from a void to an object (formation) are plausibly addressed. To keep pace with significant improvements in foam extrusion technology, this Second Edition: Includes new chapters on the latest developments in processing/thermal management, rheology/melt strength, and biodegradable and sustainable foams Features extensive updates to chapters on extrusion equipment, blowing agents, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) foam, and microcellular innovation Contains new coverage of cutting-edge foaming mechanisms and technology, as well as new case studies, examples, and figures Capturing the interesting evolution of the field, Foam Extrusion: Principles and Practice, Second Edition provides scientists, engineers, and product development professionals with a modern, holistic view of foam extrusion to enhance research and development and aid in the selection of the optimal screw, die design, and foaming system.

Supercritical Fluids

Supercritical Fluids Book
Author : E. Kiran,Pablo G. Debenedetti,Cor J. Peters
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 9401139296
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Supercritical fluids are neither gas nor liquid, but can be compressed gradually from low to high density and they are therefore interesting and important as tunable solvents and reaction media in the chemical process industry. By adjusting the density the properties of these fluids can be customised and manipulated for a given process - physical or chemical transformation. Separation and processing using supercritical solvents such as CO2 are currently on-line commercially in the food, essential oils and polymer industries. Many agencies and industries are considering the use of supercritical water for waste remediation. Supercritical fluid chromatography represents another, major analytical application. Significant advances have recently been made in materials processing, ranging from particle formation to the creation of porous materials. The chapters in this book provide tutorial accounts of topical areas centred around: (1) phase equilibria, thermodynamics and equations of state; (2) critical behaviour, crossover effects; (3) transport and interfacial properties; (4) molecular modelling, computer simulation; (5) reactions, spectroscopy; (6) phase separation kinetics; (7) extractions; (8) applications to polymers, pharmaceuticals, natural materials and chromatography; (9) process scale-up.

Practical Aspects of Chemical Engineering

Practical Aspects of Chemical Engineering Book
Author : Marek Ochowiak,Szymon Woziwodzki,Michał Doligalski,Piotr Tomasz Mitkowski
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-02-07
ISBN : 3319739786
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book focuses on Chemical Engineering and Processing, covering interdisciplinary innovation technologies and sciences closely related to chemical engineering, such as computer image analysis, modelling and IT. The book presents interdisciplinary aspects of chemical and biochemical engineering interconnected with process system engineering, process safety and computer science.

Breath Figures

Breath Figures Book
Author : Juan Rodríguez-Hernández,Edward Bormashenko
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-08-31
ISBN : 3030511367
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book offers a complete and concise overview of the different strategies used to prepare microstructured surfaces employing information regarding surface instabilities and physical processes. Based upon the concept of the remarkably uniform layer of water vapor that is applied when one simply breathes onto a surface in cold temperatures, the book presents a comprehensive treatise addressing chemical and physical fundamentals, fabrication, and applications of the breath figures approach to surface wetting, coating, and modification (breath figures self-assembly) of various materials. The main topics of the book are divided into six parts: the control of surface properties in polymer blends; block copolymer design with the aim of providing order at different lengths; combination of block copolymer blends with the breath figures (BFs); dynamic templating; the breath figures method; biorecognition; and alternative approaches for surface structuring and functionalization. Discusses various physical processing methods in preparing microstructured surfaces; Describes relevant aspects of micro- and nanostructured surfaces from fabrication to final applications, including additive manufacturing, bacterial adhesion and entrapment, optical and electro-optical applications, and membrane technology; Details the breath figures approach to surface structuring while discussing alternative strategies that tie morphology to functionality of materials.

Biomedical Foams for Tissue Engineering Applications

Biomedical Foams for Tissue Engineering Applications Book
Author : Paulo Netti
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2014-02-28
ISBN : 0857097032
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biomedical foams are a new class of materials, which are increasingly being used for tissue engineering applications. Biomedical Foams for Tissue Engineering Applications provides a comprehensive review of this new class of materials, whose structure can be engineered to meet the requirements of nutrient trafficking and cell and tissue invasion, and to tune the degradation rate and mechanical stability on the specific tissue to be repaired. Part one explores the fundamentals, properties, and modification of biomedical foams, including the optimal design and manufacture of biomedical foam pore structure for tissue engineering applications, biodegradable biomedical foam scaffolds, tailoring the pore structure of foam scaffolds for nerve regeneration, and tailoring properties of polymeric biomedical foams. Chapters in part two focus on tissue engineering applications of biomedical foams, including the use of bioactive glass foams for tissue engineering applications, bioactive glass and glass-ceramic foam scaffolds for bone tissue restoration, composite biomedical foams for engineering bone tissue, injectable biomedical foams for bone regeneration, polylactic acid (PLA) biomedical foams for tissue engineering, porous hydrogel biomedical foam scaffolds for tissue repair, and titanium biomedical foams for osseointegration. Biomedical Foams for Tissue Engineering Applications is a technical resource for researchers and developers in the field of biomaterials, and academics and students of biomedical engineering and regenerative medicine. Explores the fundamentals, properties, and modification of biomedical foams Includes intense focus on tissue engineering applications of biomedical foams A technical resource for researchers and developers in the field of biomaterials, and academics and students of biomedical engineering and regenerative medicine