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Flavour Science

Flavour Science Book
Author : Vicente Ferreira,Ricardo Lopez
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2013-07-29
ISBN : 012401724X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Flavor science is continually evolving. Remaining current with the latest research and establishing a broad and sound understanding of the major developments and breakthroughs can be a challenge. The Weurman Flavour Research Symposium has long been regarded as the premier professional meeting focused on the science of flavor. Flavour Science, an extensive review of the most recent symposium, presents the latest in flavor research, enriching the chemistry-based vision of most flavorists and flavor chemists with understanding from a broad range of fields, including human physiology, ethology, psychophysics, genetics, bioinformatics or metabolomics. This book is ideal for all flavor scientists, food chemists and sensory scientists and has a strong audience among enologists as well. Focuses on the rapidly changing field of flavor science Includes the latest information on the physiology, chemistry and measurement of flavor Presents practical information on the flavor industry and emerging trends

Flavour Science

Flavour Science Book
Author : A. J. Taylor,D S Mottram
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 1997-01-01
ISBN : 1845698231
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume contains the 86 lectures, posters and workshop presentations made at the 8th Weurman Flavour Research Symposium. These are mainly research papers and are divided into seven subject areas reflecting the major divisions of flavour science.

Flavour Science

Flavour Science Book
Author : Wender L.P. Bredie,Mikael Agerlin Petersen
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2006-05-10
ISBN : 9780080462219
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The flavor of a food is often the most desirable quality characteristic for the consumer, yet the understanding of flavour is a fascinatingly complicated subject, which calls for interdisciplinary research efforts. This latest volume presents the proceedings of the 11th Weurman Flavour Research Symposium and describes the most recent and original research advances related to the flavour of foods and beverages with contributions of experts from 25 countries world-wide. * Efficiently summarises the current front line research within food flavor * Highlights the modern approaches to flavor production using biotechnology, enzymes and gene-technology * The dynamic effects of manipulation of food in the mouth during consumption influencing the release of flavour compounds is discussed in detail

Flavour Science

Flavour Science Book
Author : Belén Concejero-Pardos,Purificación Hernandez-Orte,Vicente Ferreira
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-07-29
ISBN : 0128067454
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The maturation and fining of the organoleptic character of wine continues from the end of the fermentation process until the moment of consumption, due to permanent modifications of the aromatic composition during the whole process, from grapes to wine. In order to study the potential aroma of grapes, a synthetic wine solution supplemented with grape precursors extract and with pure aromatic compounds was submitted to accelerated ageing, simulating maturation in the bottle.

Flavour Science

Flavour Science Book
Author : Lisa Methven,Maria Dermiki,Chutipapha Suwankanit,Orla B. Kennedy,Donald S. Mottram
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-07-29
ISBN : 0128067772
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Taste and flavor enhancement are often induced through the use of savory umami compounds such as glutamic acid and 5′-nucleotides. These compounds are found at high levels in numerous natural ingredients. Utilizing such natural ingredients within real food systems, such as meat products, requires consideration of the other taste and flavor attributes that the ingredient contributes. Quantification of umami amino acids and nucleotides allows the predicted equivalent umami concentration (EUC) to be calculated. In this study, an increase in EUC led to increased umami taste perception within meat products, however where sweetness and acidity were concurrently increased, the overall umami taste was suppressed.

Flavour Science

Flavour Science Book
Author : Terry E. Acree,Gavin L. Sacks,Anne J. Kurtz,Misha T. Kwasniewski,Robert C. Williams,Edward H. Lavin
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-07-29
ISBN : 0128067810
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The perception of wine aroma is an excellent example of the human ability to experience multiple sensations as a single gestalt, i.e. a configural perception or as a top-down process. For example, the same wine recognized as Riesling could, after some time spent on analysis, yield, “This Riesling has a moderate petrol aroma and a faint lemon smell.” Recent studies of binary mixtures showed that only similar odors cross-adapt while dissimilar odors suppress each other in mixtures, indicating a possible explanation for the suppression of fruity/floral by 2,2,1-trimethyl- dihydronaphthalene (TDN) in Riesling.

Flavour Science

Flavour Science Book
Author : Thomas M. Amrein,Hugo Schwager,Roberto Meier,Peter Frey,Klaus Gassenmeier
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-07-29
ISBN : 0128068094
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Prenyl ethyl ether (PRE) was identified as the compound causing a solvent off-note in ground hazelnuts using GC/olfactometry, odor value calculation, and spiking experiments. Studies aiming to discover the origin of this off-note were conducted. A mold strain could be isolated from decayed fruit which formed PRE on citrus fruit.

Flavour Science

Flavour Science Book
Author : Andreas Stangl,Herta Ziegler
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-07-29
ISBN : 0128068078
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The juices of provenance-specific, non-blended Valencia Late oranges were analytically investigated. Focus was put on the establishment of a correlation between sensory evaluation of these premium quality juices and their quantitatively recorded aroma patterns, which were elucidated by a specially designed purge and trap/thermal desorption/GC technique. While the astonishing, reproducible diversity of juices from different geographic origins was striking, sensory evaluation clearly showed that consumer acceptance is more correlated with the physicochemical properties of the specific juice matrices than with the content of single aroma constituents. The elucidation of the aroma pattern of non-blended provenance-specific juices contributes to a better understanding of oranges juices, clearly demonstrating that a specific amount of aroma or even single aroma compounds, often considered a necessity for reconstituted juices, is contradicted by the diversity of nature.

Flavour Science

Flavour Science Book
Author : Andreas Degenhardt,Rüdiger Wittlake,Stefan Seilwind,Margit Liebig,Christa Runge,Jens-Michael Hilmer,Gerhard Krammer,André Gohr,Ludger Wessjohann
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-07-29
ISBN : 0128066911
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The meaningful correlation of sensory data with analytical data is one of the most challenging tasks in flavor research. In beef stocks in particular, due to the presence of low levels of aroma-active compounds and the taste contribution of non-volatile molecules to the typical “juiciness” character, the consumer encounters a complex matrix situation. The goal of our study was to carry out a comprehensive analysis of all relevant flavor molecules and the correlation to human sensory data. A technique recently developed at the IPB and termed “reverse metabolomics” was used to link biological activity (i.e., sensory data) with variations in the metabolic profile (i.e., analytical data). We used this methodology for the first time to correlate sensorial attributes and GC-MS, LC-MS, and NMR data in culinary beef stocks. Reverse metabolomics was applied to study the link between sensory and chemical composition in a series of freshly prepared culinary beef stocks. A set of 10 different beef stocks was prepared. The degree of liking of the samples was recorded on a hedonic 1–9 scale. Analysis of the stocks was performed by LC-MS, GC-MS, and NMR. 1H-NMR data directly obtained from the meat stock were very complex. Analysis of this dataset by reverse metabolomics revealed some basic structural elements of the key taste compounds, such as carnosine or anserine. The reverse metabolomics correlation of quantitative data with partiality revealed the importance of a set of compounds. This relevance of these compounds has been confirmed by additional sensory experiments which showed an increase in perceived juiciness.

Flavour Science

Flavour Science Book
Author : Christofora Hanny Wijayaa,I. Silamba,B. Kusbiantoro
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-07-29
ISBN : 0128067497
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Two varieties of pineapples, Mahkota Bogor and Delika Subang, and their new genotype, Pasir Kuda, were freshly extracted by using liquid–liquid extraction and SPME, then analyzed by GC-MS and GC-O based on the NIF method. A total of 14 odor-active compounds were associated with the aroma of pineapple, of which methyl 2-methyl butanoate and ethyl 2-methyl butanoate were found to be responsible for the fruity sweet odor. Mahkota Bogor has the highest liking rank, followed by Pasir Kuda and Delika Subang, respectively. The fruity, sweet, caramel, fresh pineapple, sweet-candy olfactory attributes could be contributing to the acceptability. The cross-bred pineapple showed a different aroma signature.

Flavour Science

Flavour Science Book
Author : Katharina V. Reichelt,Susanne Paetz,Karen M. Swanepoel,Jakob P. Ley,Gerhard E. Krammer
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-07-29
ISBN : 0128067934
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Sensory-guided analysis of an aqueous-ethanolic extract of Mondia whitei indicated sweetness enhancing effects of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde (HMBA). Further sensory tests confirmed these findings at low concentrations (0.5mg/L). Higher concentrations did not show the desired effect, probably due to the strong coumarin-like flavor of HMBA. Similar to vanillin, the enhancement mainly results from a congruent flavor effect. Trials with nose clamps clearly reduced the observed effects. In a simple sugar reduced beverage application, however, HMBA was able to partly restore the sweetness of the beverage.

Flavour Science

Flavour Science Book
Author : Daniel Plyer,Emily S. Mort,Lewis L. Jones,Neil C. Desforges,James W. Marshall
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-07-29
ISBN : 0128067780
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The structure of the human umami receptor and orthosteric and allosteric-binding modes of umami compounds have been proposed. The relationship between in vivo concentration of umami compounds (on the tongue) and the perception of umami flavor does not appear to have been investigated. Using a swabbing technique similar to Davidson and co-workers, taste perception and analytical chemistry were used to study the relationship between taste stimuli and taste perception. Synergistic effects of orthosteric and allosteric-binding umami compounds were also studied.

Flavour Science

Flavour Science Book
Author : Elisabeth Guichard,Claude Yven,Marie Repoux,Etienne Sémon,Hélène Labouré,Gilles Feron
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-07-29
ISBN : 0128067799
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This chapter proposed an integrated approach to better understand the role of cheese composition, physiological parameters, and individual chewing behavior on aroma release and perception. Product effect (six cheeses) was more important than subject effect (14 healthy consumers). Differences were observed according to the hydrophobic properties of aroma compounds. More ethyl propanoate and less nonan-2-one (more hydrophobic compound) were released from cheeses with higher fat levels, and more of these two aroma compounds were released from firmer cheeses compared to softer cheeses. For nonan-2-one, the amount of aroma released could not explain the perception due to fat-aroma sensory interactions.

Flavour Science

Flavour Science Book
Author : Francisco J. Olachea-Martínez,Hector B. Escalona-Buendia,Jose Ramon Verde-Calvo,Francisco Ruiz-Teran
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-07-29
ISBN : 0128068027
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The effect of three different conditions for hops addition during must cooking was evaluated on beer produced at laboratory scale. Response variables were volatile composition, sensory perception, and bitterness index, as well as color, pH, sugars, and alcohol content. Results showed that even though the bitterness index was different among treatments, no difference in bitter taste was found by assessors. Volatile composition and sensory analysis showed that there were small changes in the aromatic profile of the beers from the different treatments.

Flavour Science

Flavour Science Book
Author : Barbara Suess,Daniel Festring,Anne Brockhoff,Andreas Degenhardt,Silvia Billmayer,Wolfgang Meyerhof,Thomas Hofmann
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-07-29
ISBN : 0128067438
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Activity guided fractionation of a commercially available yeast extract led to the identification of (S)-N2-(1-carboxyethyl)guanosine 5′-monophosphate, a nucleotide exhibiting pronounced umami taste enhancing activity. Applying model reaction systems, this compound was found to be formed upon Maillard reaction of 5′-GMP with short chained carbohydrates. Consequently, systematic studies were undertaken to better understand thermal transformation reactions of the purine ribonucleotide resulting in two structurally diverse groups of Maillard-modified 5′-GMP derivatives which were evaluated with regard to structure–activity relationships in human sensory studies. Results suggested that substitution of the nucleotide’s exocyclic amino function with small, unpolar residues has a beneficial effect on taste enhancement. In addition, selected representatives of the 5′-GMP derivatives were tested in a cell-based taste receptor assay, underlining the human sensory results.

Flavour Science

Flavour Science Book
Author : Elisa Gracia-Moreno,Ricardo Lopez,Juan Cacho,Vicente Ferreira
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-07-29
ISBN : 0128067071
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The content of 3-alkyl-2-methoxypyrazines was analyzed in a representative set of Spanish red wines in order to ascertain the importance of these compounds in such wines. Furthermore, the aromatic relevance of these compounds and its relationship with concentration values have been studied. Very low levels of the analytes were found in the whole set of wines: none of them had concentrations higher than 10ng/L, with Rioja wines having the lower concentrations. Significant correlation with vegetable aromas and anticorrelation with fruity aromas was found for 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine.

Flavour Science

Flavour Science Book
Author : Adamantini Paraskevopoulou,Fani Mantzouridou
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-07-29
ISBN : 0128068000
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In the present work, the dynamics of orange peel (OP) was examined for the production of flavor compounds by using a commercial wine strain (Sacharomyces cerevisiae). The effect of OP as a supplementary substrate to glucose for bioflavor production in oxygen limited and non-limited cultures was examined and the results were compared with those obtained from conventional processes on glucose in the absence of OP. OP was found to stimulate the de novo synthesis of isoamyl acetate, phenethyl acetate and ethyl esters (hexanoate, octanoate, decanoate, dodecanoate) by S. cerevisiae. This was strongly evident in the case of limited oxygen supply under semi-anaerobic conditions.

Flavour Science

Flavour Science Book
Author : Barbara Siegmund,Erich Leitner
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-07-29
ISBN : 0128067144
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The flavor of strawberries (Fragaria ananassa) and the influence of the mutualistic association between the strawberry plant and methylobacteria on strawberry flavor formation in the fruit were the focus of this study. With the aim of better understanding the underlying reactions and their influence on strawberry flavor formation, we investigated strawberries that were treated with methylobacteria as well as fruits from control plants by the use of comprehensive GC×GC-qMS in comparison to traditional GC-MS. For various reasons, the preliminary results did not provide any clear explanation of what happens in this specific plant–bacteria association; further efforts are therefore required in plant breeding as well as in analytical investigations.

Flavour Science

Flavour Science Book
Author : Arancha De La Fuente,Ricardo Lopez,Juan Cacho,Vicente Ferreira
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-07-29
ISBN : 0128067675
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The ability of Gas Chromatography with Olfactometric detection (GC-O) to provide a screening method to detect the presence of some wine off-flavors has been evaluated. A panel of 12 trained sniffers assessed the presence of 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP), 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA), 4-ethylphenol (4EF), and 4-ethylguaiacol (4EG) in wine spiked at six levels of concentration. The screening method proposed allowed us to obtain a reliable positive response when the concentration was above 4ng/L for IBMP, 0.25ng/L for TCA, and 10μg/L for 4EG, all of them below their odor threshold in wine.

Flavour Science

Flavour Science Book
Author : Josefa Espitia-Lopez,Jose Ramon Verde-Calvo,Hector B. Escalona-Buendia,Daniel Mendez-Iturbe
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-07-29
ISBN : 0128067381
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The objective of this study was to explore the effect of red wine bottle aging at 4° and 18°C, both on antioxidant capacity and on the flavor profile of ruby Cabernet Mexican wine. Wine from the same batch was bottled, and half the samples were stored at 4°C and the other half at 18°C. The color was measured and the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) test performed every 15 days for a 6-month period. At the end of the maturation period, volatiles were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS, while sensory evaluation was carried out by QDA. Results showed that antioxidant capacity was higher in wine aged at 18°C, while color, volatiles, and sensory profile showed some differences among wines from each maturation temperature.