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Polymer Green Flame Retardants

Polymer Green Flame Retardants Book
Author : Constantine D. Papaspyrides,Pantelis Kiliaris
Publisher : Newnes
Release : 2014-08-14
ISBN : 0444538097
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Polymer Green Flame Retardants covers key issues regarding the response of polymers during fire, the mechanisms of their flame retardation, the regulations imposed on their use, and the health hazards arising from their combustion. Presenting the latest research developments, the book focuses in particular on nanocomposites, believed to be the most promising approach for producing physically superior materials with low flammability and ecological impact. The fire properties of nanocomposites of various matrixes and fillers are discussed, the toxicological characteristics of these materials are analyzed, addressing also their environmental sustainability. Edited by distinguished scientists, including an array of international industry and academia experts, this book will appeal to chemical, mechanical, environmental, material and process engineers, upper-level undergraduate and graduate students in these disciplines, and generally to researchers developing commercially attractive and environmentally friendly fire-proof products. Provides recent findings on the manufacture of environmentally sustainable flame retardant polymeric materials Covers legislation and regulations concerning flame retarded polymeric material use Includes tables containing the fire properties of the most common polymeric materials

Plastic Flame Retardants

Plastic Flame Retardants Book
Author : J. Innes,A. Innes
Publisher : iSmithers Rapra Publishing
Release : 2003
ISBN : 9781859574355
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This review sets out to describe the types of flame retardants available for compounding into plastics materials, mechanisms of action and uses. This review provides a clear overview of the state-of-the-art of flame retardancy for plastics. It highlights the new developments and the potential problems with legislation, together with the benefits to end users of protection from fire hazards. This review is accompanied by around 400 abstracts from papers and books in the Rapra Polymer Library.

Flame Retardants

Flame Retardants Book
Author : P. M. Visakh,Yoshihiko Arao
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-02-04
ISBN : 3319034677
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book summarizes comprehensively many recent technical research accomplishments in the area of flame retardant research. It presents mainly flame retardant studies of polymer blends, composites and nano composites such as rubber, thermosets and thermoplastics. This book discusses different types of flame retardant using in polymers especially nano composites, as well as the role and chemistry. Leading researchers from industry, academy, government and private research institutions across the globe contribute to this book. Academics, researchers, scientists, engineers and students in research and development will benefit from an application-oriented book that helps them to find solutions to both fundamental and applied problems.

Flame Retardants 101

Flame Retardants 101 Book
Author : Frca
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 1998-01-14
ISBN : 9781566764452
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Flame Retardants 101 book written by Frca, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Flame Retardants

Flame Retardants Book
Author : Johannes Karl Fink
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2020-08-18
ISBN : 111975061X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book focuses on the chemistry and applications of flame retardants for polymers and other materials. It starts with a description and types of flame retardants, as well as their properties and chemical structures, to include chlorine- and bromine-containing flame retardants, phosphorus-based flame retardants, nitrogen-based flame retardants, and silicones. Inorganic materials that serve as flame retardants, such as boron-based additives, graphenes, and others are discussed in detail. In addition, the following subjects are discussed in detail: Flame retardant polymers The mechanisms of flame retardants, such as flame cooling, synergetic effects, degradation of flame retardants, and others Other flame retardant compositions, such as dripping inhibitors and smoke suppressants Testing methods for flame retardants, international standards, human health hazards, such as smoke toxicity and problems with wastes Synthesis and fabrication methods, as well as recycling methods The application of flame retardants to the coating material using 3D printing, reactive coating, and bulk addition methods Non-burning comonomers, foams, nanocomposites and bio-based materials Flame retardants with other textiles, such as wool and electrical applications such as batteries.

Brominated Flame Retardants

Brominated Flame Retardants Book
Author : Ethel Eljarrat,Damià Barceló
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2011-04-15
ISBN : 3642192696
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Brominated flame retardants are one of the last classes of halogenated compounds that are still being produced worldwide and used in large quantities in many applications. They are used in plastics, textiles, electronic circuitry, and other materials to prevent fires. This volume covers the state-of-the-art of the analysis, fate and behaviour of brominated flame retardants. Experts in the field provide an overview of the compounds’ physico-chemical properties and uses, their occurrence in the environment and biota, advanced chemical analytical methods, degradation studies, toxicological effects and human exposure. This book is a valuable and comprehensive source of information for environmental scientists interested in brominated flame retardant issues, and for authorities and producers.

Flame Retardants for Textile Materials

Flame Retardants for Textile Materials Book
Author : Asim Kumar Roy Choudhury
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2020-08-04
ISBN : 0429629672
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book focuses on flame retardants (FR) for textile materials. It discusses basics of flame retardancy and flammability and covers various types of flame retardants and materials, including natural FRs, halogen, phosphorous, and nanomaterial-based FRs. This book also discusses methods of applications of FRs and discusses FRs and the environment. Covers a variety of interdisciplinary applications in the textile industry Emphasizes environmental aspects Reports on a large number of FR compounds studied globally Discusses in detail recent developments in halogen-free eco-friendly flame retardants Extensively describes basic aspects of flame retardancy and their measurements Aimed at the practitioner and textile engineering professional this work aims to ensure development of safe textile materials for various uses, including apparel, protective wear, floor coverings, upholstery, drapery, and others.

Brominated Flame Retardants A Burning Issue

Brominated Flame Retardants  A Burning Issue Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Am Cncl on Science, Health
Release : 2022-07-06
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Brominated Flame Retardants A Burning Issue book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Handbook of Flame Retardants

Handbook of Flame Retardants Book
Author : George Wypych
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-01-25
ISBN : 1927885701
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Handbook of Flame Retardants contains an extensive evaluation of the existing literature, products and patents related to flame retardance. As a perfect complement to The Databook of Flame Retardants, this book explains the roles, selection, mechanisms of action, use in different polymers and products, and health and environmental issues of over 350 different products. Chapters highlight the fundamentals of material burning and the associated stages of heat, flame and smoke, properties and mechanisms, and preventive, delaying and extinguishing attributes of 27 chemical groups of flame retardants. Examples of synergistic and antagonistic actions of various additives are discussed next, along with testing methods. The book concludes with chapters providing guidance on optimal selection of flame retardants for various polymers and information on the toxicity of flame retardants and their effects on the environment. Evaluates the existing literature, products and patents related to flame retardance Covers the fundamentals of material burning and associated stages of heat, flame and smoke Outlines and evaluates the properties of 27 chemical groups of flame retardants Provides examples of synergistic and antagonistic actions of various additives Looks at methods of testing flame retardants and quantifies their effect on products

Emerging Halogenated Flame Retardants in the Environment

Emerging Halogenated Flame Retardants in the Environment Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2020-02-14
ISBN : 0444643400
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Analysis and Fate of Emerging Brominated and Fluorinated Organic Pollutants, Volume 87 in the Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry series, contains a wide range of topics on flame retardants in the environment, specifically focusing on halogenated flame retardants. New chapters in this release include an Introduction of emerging halogenated flame retardants in the environment, Analysis of emerging halogenated flame Retardants in environment, Toxicity of emerging halogenated organic chemicals, Occurrence and fate of emerging halogenated flame retardants in environment, Emerging halogenated flame retardants in indoor environment, Food contamination on emerging halogenated flame retardants, Human exposure to emerging halogenated flame retardants, and much more. Provides the current research results on emerging halogenated flame retardants Contains all research subjects about emerging halogenated flame retardants, from analysis to human exposure Presents critical information on halogenated flame retardants

The Effect of Two Flame Retardants on Particulate and Residue Production

The Effect of Two Flame Retardants on Particulate and Residue Production Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1972
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download The Effect of Two Flame Retardants on Particulate and Residue Production book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Co incineration of Brominated Flame Retardants and MSW in Small scale Reactor

Co incineration of Brominated Flame Retardants and MSW in Small scale Reactor Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Nordic Council of Ministers
Release : 2001
ISBN : 9789289305990
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Co incineration of Brominated Flame Retardants and MSW in Small scale Reactor book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Evaluation of Commercially Available Flame Retardants for Production of Carbon Fabric

Evaluation of Commercially Available Flame Retardants for Production of Carbon Fabric Book
Author : Lilly O. Iwuchukwu BS. MSC
Publisher : Xlibris Corporation
Release : 2017-02-21
ISBN : 1524578053
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book compared the use of flame retardant chemicals known as pyroset TPO and TKC in the production of carbon fabrics from cotton precursors. Information about the chemical was collected from the American Cyanamid company, textile and chemical division. Data was also furnished by the test fabric incorporated for the two fabrics it manufacturedmercerize 100 percent cotton sheeting, style #409 and unmercerized 100 percent cotton sheeting, style #409. The percentage of carbon remaining from each sample in all the categories was obtained through carbon analysis conducted by Galbraith Laboratories Incorporated. Percent char data were calculated from data obtained before and after pyrolysis. The results are presented and discussed with the aid of a 2(5) factorial design pattern used for the overall design of the experiment. Personal reflections on how to save the lives of infants and children, even our geriatric parents that are trapped in a burning home, with much higher statistics for rescuing them to safety. More safety resulting in having flame retardant nightwear, even home furnishings and more as time goes on. Common sense, logic, and sensible ideology in our twenty-first century. Creating safety living all around should be a right and our responsibilitya value that we should be well invested in. Research funding in the textile industry and for educators has been seriously almost nonexistent that humanity is still struggling for a safe technology for utilizing materials for public safety. Public trust must be secured by specifying performance of treated fabrics safe from fire and the extinguishing of flames, less toxic to protect and enhance our democratic ideals of freedom living in the western hemisphere. The world is in need of safe discovery for flame retardants, material to be used in active wears, home furniture, establish standard of assessments and accountability measures to be the research for the future. More and continued research is required for the textile industry. Research and more and ongoing research and funding is desperately needed. This is to empower readers and educators and students to bring great and creative ideas and ideals tog textile research back and be fully funded; to encourage companies to give funding for creating perpetual workforce for the future, economic stability, safety, and security without end.

The Non halogenated Flame Retardant Handbook

The Non halogenated Flame Retardant Handbook Book
Author : Alexander B. Morgan,Charles A. Wilkie
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2014-04-07
ISBN : 1118939204
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Due to the emphasis on replacing halogenated flame retardantswith alternate technologies, this handbook contains in one placeall of the current commercial non-halogenated flame retardanttechnologies, as well as experimental systems nearcommercialization. This book focuses on non-halogenated flame retardants in aholistic but practical manner. It starts with an overview ofthe regulations and customer perceptions driving non-halogenatedflame retardant selection over older halogenatedtechnologies. It then moves into separate chapters coveringthe known major classes of non-halogenated flame retardants. These chapters are written by known experts in those specificchemistries who are also industrial experts in how to apply thattechnology to polymers for fire safety needs. The handbookconcludes with some of the newer technologies in place that areeither niche performers or may be commercial in the nearfuture. Future trends in flame retardancy are alsodiscussed. The Non-Halogenated Flame Retardant Handbook book takes apractical approach to addressing the narrow subject ofnon-halogenated flame retardancy. This includes more emphasison flame retardant selection for specific plastics, practicalconsiderations in flame retardant material design, and what thestrengths and limits of these various technologies are. Previous flame retardant material science books have coverednon-halogenated flame retardants, but they focus more on how theywork rather than how to use them.

Toxicological Risks of Selected Flame Retardant Chemicals

Toxicological Risks of Selected Flame Retardant Chemicals Book
Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Life Sciences,Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,Committee on Toxicology,Subcommittee on Flame-Retardant Chemicals
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2000-07-06
ISBN : 0309171938
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Ignition of upholstered furniture by small open flames from matches, cigarette lighters, and candles is one of the leading causes of residential-fire deaths in the United States. These fires accounted for about 16% of civilian fire deaths in 1996. On average, each year since 1990, about 90 deaths (primarily of children), 440 injuries, and property losses amounting to 50 million dollars have resulted from fires caused by the ignition of upholstered furniture by small open flames. Certain commercial seating products (such as aircraft and bus seats) are subject to flammability standards and sometimes incorporate FR-treated upholstery cover materials, but there is no federal-government requirement for residential upholstered furniture, and it is generally not treated with FR chemicals. It is estimated that less than 0.2% of all U.S. residential upholstery fabric is treated with flame-retardant (FR) chemicals. The Consumer Product Safety Act of 1972 created the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) as an independent federal regulatory agency whose mission is to protect the public from unreasonable risks of injury and death associated with consumer products. CPSC also administers the Flammable Fabrics Act, under which it regulates flammability hazards and the Federal Hazardous Substances Act (FHSA), which regulates hazardous substances including chemicals. In 1993, the National Association of State Fire Marshals petitioned CPSC to issue a performance-based flammability standard for upholstered furniture to reduce the risk of residential fires. The Commission granted that portion of the petition relating to small open flame ignition risks. In response to concerns regarding the safety of FR chemicals, Congress, in the fiscal year 1999 appropriations report for CPSC, requested that the National Research Council conduct an independent study of the health risks to consumers posed by exposure to FR chemicals that are likely to be used in residential upholstered furniture to meet a CPSC standard. The National Research Council assigned the project to the Committee on Toxicology (COT) of the Commission on Life Sciences' Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology. COT convened the Subcommittee on Flame-Retardant Chemicals, which prepared this report. Subcommittee members were chosen for their recognized expertise in toxicology, pharmacology, epidemiology, chemistry, exposure assessment, risk assessment, and biostatistics. Toxicological Risks of Selected Flame-Retardant Chemicals is organized into 18 chapters and two appendices. Chapter 2 describes the risk assessment process used by the subcommittee in determining the risk associated with potential exposure to the various FR chemicals. Chapter 3 describes the method the subcommittee used to measure and estimate the intensity, frequency, extent, and duration of human exposure to FR chemicals. Chapters 4-19 provide the subcommittee's review and assessment of health risks posed by exposure to each of the 16 FR chemicals. Data gaps and research needs are provided at the end of these chapters.

Flame Retardant and Thermally Insulating Polymers

Flame Retardant and Thermally Insulating Polymers Book
Author : Yanfei Xu
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2021-09-08
ISBN : 1839687142
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Polymers have infiltrated almost every aspect of modern technology, as they have wide applications ranging from building insulation and firefighter uniforms to the Boeing 787 Dreamliner aircraft and electronics packaging. However, common polymers are flammable. Inflammability and thermal insulation properties in polymers are important for specific applications. This book discusses recent advances in developing eco-friendly, flame-retardant, and thermally insulative polymer-based materials. It not only focuses on developments of high-performance flame retardants, but also examines flame retardant behaviors in polymers. Eco-friendly polymers with superior flame retardancy, extraordinary thermal insulation, and excellent mechanical strength will provide new opportunities for existing and future applications.

Handbook of Flame Retardants

Handbook of Flame Retardants Book
Author : George Wypych
Publisher : ChemTec Publishing
Release : 2021-03-15
ISBN : 1927885698
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Handbook of Flame Retardants contains an extensive evaluation of the existing literature, products and patents related to flame retardance. As a perfect complement to The Databook of Flame Retardants, this book explains the roles, selection, mechanisms of action, use in different polymers and products, and health and environmental issues of over 350 different products. Chapters highlight the fundamentals of material burning and the associated stages of heat, flame and smoke, properties and mechanisms, and preventive, delaying and extinguishing attributes of 27 chemical groups of flame retardants. Examples of synergistic and antagonistic actions of various additives are discussed next, along with testing methods. The book concludes with chapters providing guidance on optimal selection of flame retardants for various polymers and information on the toxicity of flame retardants and their effects on the environment. Evaluates the existing literature, products and patents related to flame retardance Covers the fundamentals of material burning and associated stages of heat, flame and smoke Outlines and evaluates the properties of 27 chemical groups of flame retardants Provides examples of synergistic and antagonistic actions of various additives Looks at methods of testing flame retardants and quantifies their effect on products

Databook of Flame Retardants

Databook of Flame Retardants Book
Author : Anna Wypych,George Wypych
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-01-26
ISBN : 1927885728
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Databook of Flame Retardants contains information on commonly-used additives broken out into five sections, including General, Physical, Health and Safety, Ecological, and Use. Over one hundred types of data are included for over three hundred and fifty commercial-based products. All data fields are defined and include a broad range of information, such as calcium contents, molecular mass, brightness, freezing/melting points, viscosity, volatility, UN/NA class, autoignition temperature, partition coefficient, processing methods, concentrations used, and more. This book is best utilized in tandem with the Handbook of Flame Retardants. Each book complements the other without repeating information, with the other release explaining the role of these products, their selection, mechanism of action, use in different polymers and products, and health and commercial issues related to flame retardants. Provides key physical, health and safety, ecological, and application data for over 350 commonly-used fire retardant additives Covers halogenated, inorganic, phosphorus, intumescent, and nitrogen-based fire retardants Data listed includes CAS #, chemical class and name, decomposition temperature, electrical conductivity, IMDG class, biodegradation probability, product and resin recommendations, guidelines for use, and more

Fire Retardancy of Polymeric Materials

Fire Retardancy of Polymeric Materials Book
Author : Arthur F. Grand,Charles A. Wilkie
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2000-04-05
ISBN : 9781420027099
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume addresses the state of the art in fire retardancy studies and the need for fire retardant chemicals and fire-retarded polymers, while considering the interrelationship among polymer degradation, fire retardant efficacy, fire testing and environmental concerns. The work examines the principles of polymer science with respect to fire retardancy.

Fire Retardant Materials

Fire Retardant Materials Book
Author : A. Richard Horrocks,D. Price
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2001-02-16
ISBN : 1855737469
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This is a comprehensive source of information on all aspects of fire retardancy. Particluar emphasis is placed on the burning behaviour and flame retarding properties of polymeric materials and textiles. It covers combustion, flame retardants, smoke and toxic products generally and then goes on to concentrate on some more material-specific aspects of combustion in relation to textiles, composites and bulk polymers. Developments in all areas of fire retardant materials are covered including research in new areas such as nanocomposition. Fire retardant materials is an essential reference source for all those working with, researching into, or designing new fire retardant materials. Detailed analysis of the burning behaviour and flame retarding properties of ploymers, composites and textiles Covers smoke and toxic gas generation Analysis of material performance in fire