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Fire Debris Analysis

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Fire Debris Analysis

Fire Debris Analysis Book
Author : Eric Stauffer,Julia A. Dolan,Reta Newman
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2007-12-10
ISBN : 9780080556260
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The study of fire debris analysis is vital to the function of all fire investigations, and, as such, Fire Debris Analysis is an essential resource for fire investigators. The present methods of analysis include the use of gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, techniques which are well established and used by crime laboratories throughout the world. However, despite their universality, this is the first comprehensive resource that addresses their application to fire debris analysis. Fire Debris Analysis covers topics such as the physics and chemistry of fire and liquid fuels, the interpretation of data obtained from fire debris, and the future of the subject. Its cutting-edge material and experienced author team distinguishes this book as a quality reference that should be on the shelves of all crime laboratories. Serves as a comprehensive guide to the science of fire debris analysis Presents both basic and advanced concepts in an easily readable, logical sequence Includes a full-color insert with figures that illustrate key concepts discussed in the text

A Survey on the Interpretive GC MS Analysis of Fire Debris

A Survey on the Interpretive GC MS Analysis of Fire Debris Book
Author : Anthony Thomas Parks
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 9780438372801
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The practice of arson analysis in a forensic science laboratory is based upon detecting the presence of ignitable liquids. If an ignitable liquid is present, it is suggestive of arson; if no ignitable liquid is found an arson claim is more difficult to assert. Ignitable liquids are detected using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Instrumental results from a GC/MS can display components of an ignitable liquid but an analyst needs to make the final decision. Even with correct instrumentation and suggested guidelines, ignitable liquid analysis can be subjective and based upon the analysts' education and experience. To better understand the interpretive practices of the fire debris analysis community, a survey consisting of reference samples, mixture standards, and multiple unknowns was created in consultation with the Los Angeles Police Department Arson Unit. The samples consisted of different substrates with varying classes and volumes of ignitable liquid. They were created using a destructive distillation method first developed by the State of Florida Bureau of Forensic Fire and Explosives Analysis. Extraction of the samples was completed using a carbon strip to perform passive headspace absorption following the ASTM E 1412 method. The samples were analyzed with a GC/MS following National Commission on Forensic Science parameters. To maintain confidentiality, participant responses are stripped of identifiers and the results of the survey, details about the procedure, and discussions will be presented.

Fire Debris Analysis

Fire Debris Analysis Book
Author : Eric Stauffer,Julia A. Dolan,Reta Newman
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2007-12-24
ISBN : 9780126639711
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The study of fire debris analysis is vital to the function of all fire investigations, and, as such, Fire Debris Analysis is an essential resource for fire investigators. The present methods of analysis include the use of gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, techniques which are well established and used by crime laboratories throughout the world. However, despite their universality, this is the first comprehensive resource that addresses their application to fire debris analysis. Fire Debris Analysis covers topics such as the physics and chemistry of fire and liquid fuels, the interpretation of data obtained from fire debris, and the future of the subject. Its cutting-edge material and experienced author team distinguishes this book as a quality reference that should be on the shelves of all crime laboratories. Serves as a comprehensive guide to the science of fire debris analysis Presents both basic and advanced concepts in an easily readable, logical sequence Includes a full-color insert with figures that illustrate key concepts discussed in the text

Chemometric Applications in Fire Debris Analysis

Chemometric Applications in Fire Debris Analysis Book
Author : Anuradha Gayathri Akmeemana
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2019
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

One of the major challenges in fire investigation is the determination of the cause of fire. The fire can be accidental or intentional. The determination of ignitable liquid residue (ILR) from fire debris helps the process and this process is called fire debris analysis in forensic science. This is one of the most complex areas in the field of forensics because of the evaporation of the ILR from the debris and the interferences of the substrate matrix with the ILR if present. In the present, the final decisions in fire debris analysis are based on categorical statements and it only represents the qualitative but not the quantitative value of the data. The likelihood ratio approach is one of the most widely used methods in forensic science in expressing the evidentiary value.

Advances in Fire Debris Analysis

Advances in Fire Debris Analysis Book
Author : Mary R. Williams
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2007
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Fire incidents are a major contributor to the number of deaths and property losses within the United States each year. Fire investigations determine the cause of the fire resulting in an assignment of responsibility. Current methods of fire debris analysis are reviewed including the preservation, extraction, detection and characterization of ignitable liquids from fire debris. Leak rates were calculated for the three most common types of fire debris evidence containers. The consequences of leaking containers on the recovery and characterization of ignitable liquids were demonstrated. The interactions of hydrocarbons with activated carbon during the extraction of ignitable liquids from the fire debris were studied. An estimation of available adsorption sites on the activated carbon surface area was calculated based on the number of moles of each hydrocarbon onto the activated carbon. Upon saturation of the surface area, hydrocarbons with weaker interactions with the activated carbon were displaced by more strongly interacting hydrocarbons thus resulting in distortion of the chromatographic profiles used in the interpretation of the GC/MS data. The incorporation of an additional sub-sampling step in the separation of ignitable liquids by passive headspace sampling reduces the concentration of ignitable liquid accessible for adsorption on the activated carbon thus avoiding saturation of the activated carbon. A statistical method of covariance mapping with a coincident measurement to compare GC/MS data sets of two ignitable liquids was able to distinguish ignitable liquids of different classes, sub-classes and states of evaporation. In addition, the method was able to distinguish 10 gasoline samples as having originated from different sources with a known statistical certainty. In a blind test, an unknown gasoline sample was correctly identified from the set of 10 gasoline samples without making a Type II error.

Forensic Analysis of Fire Debris and Explosives

Forensic Analysis of Fire Debris and Explosives Book
Author : Kenyon Evans-Nguyen,Katherine Hutches
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2019-10-08
ISBN : 3030258343
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This text provides training on the fundamental tools and methodologies used in active forensic laboratories for the complicated analysis of fire debris and explosives evidence. It is intended to serve as a gateway for students and transitioning forensic science or chemistry professionals. The book is divided between the two disciplines of fire debris and explosives, with a final pair of chapters devoted to the interplay between the two disciplines and with other disciplines, such as DNA and fingerprint analysis. It brings together a multi-national group of technical experts, ranging from academic researchers to active practitioners, including members of some of the premier forensic agencies of the world. Readers will gain knowledge of practical methods of analysis and will develop a strong foundation for laboratory work in forensic chemistry. End-of-chapter questions based on relevant topics and real-world data provide a realistic arena for learners to test newly-acquired techniques.

Identifying Ignitable Liquids in Fire Debris

Identifying Ignitable Liquids in Fire Debris Book
Author : Jeanet Hendrikse,Michiel Grutters,Frank Schäfer
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2015-10-05
ISBN : 0128043873
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Identifying Ignitable Liquids in Fire Debris: A Guideline for Forensic Experts discusses and illustrates the characteristics of different ignitable liquid products. This guideline builds on the minimum criteria of the ignitable liquid classes defined in the internationally accepted standard ASTM E1618 Standard Test Method for Ignitable Liquid Residues in Extracts from Fire Debris Samples by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. The volume provides information on the origin of the characteristics of these ignitable liquid products and provides a summary of characteristics to demonstrate a positive identification of the particular product class. Topics such as the term ignitable liquid, relevant guidelines for fire debris analysis, production processes of ignitable liquids, fire debris analysis methods, and interferences in fire debris analysis, are briefly discussed as these topics are essential for the understanding of the identification and classification of ignitable liquid residues in fire debris. Discusses the characteristics and variations in chemical composition of different classes of the ignitable liquid products defined by ASTM E1618:14 Covers the General Production Processes of Ignitable Liquid Products Includes a guide for the Identification of Ignitable Liquids in Fire Debris

Chemometric Applications to a Complex Classification Problem

Chemometric Applications to a Complex Classification Problem Book
Author : Erin Elizabeth Waddell
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2013
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Fire debris analysis currently relies on visual pattern recognition of the total ion chromatograms, extracted ion profiles, and target compound chromatograms to identify the presence of an ignitable liquid. This procedure is described in the ASTM International E1618-10 standard method. For large data sets, this methodology can be time consuming and is a subjective method, the accuracy of which is dependent upon the skill and experience of the analyst. This research aimed to develop an automated classification method for large data sets and investigated the use of the total ion spectrum (TIS). The TIS is calculated by taking an average mass spectrum across the entire chromatographic range and has been shown to contain sufficient information content for the identification of ignitable liquids. The TIS of ignitable liquids and substrates were compiled into model data sets. Substrates are defined as common building materials and household furnishings that are typically found at the scene of a fire and are, therefore, present in fire debris samples. Fire debris samples were also used which were obtained from laboratory-scale and large-scale burns. An automated classification method was developed using computational software, that was written in-house. Within this method, a multi-step classification scheme was used to detect ignitable liquid residues in fire debris samples and assign these to the classes defined in ASTM E1618-10. Classifications were made using linear discriminant analysis, quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). The model data sets were tested by cross-validation and used to classify fire debris samples. Correct classification rates were calculated for each data set. Classifier performance metrics were also calculated for the first step of the classification scheme which included false positive rates, true positive rates, and the precision of the method. The first step, which determines a sample to be positive or negative for ignitable liquid residue, is arguably the most important in the forensic application. Overall, the highest correct classification rates were achieved using QDA for the first step of the scheme and SIMCA for the remaining steps. In the first step of the classification scheme, correct classification rates of 95.3% and 89.2% were obtained using QDA to classify the cross-validation test set and fire debris samples, respectively. For this step, the cross-validation test set resulted in a true positive rate of 96.2%, a false positive rate of 9.3%, and a precision of 98.2%. The fire debris data set had a true positive rate of 82.9%, a false positive rate of 1.3%, and a precision of 99.0%. Correct classifications rates of 100% were achieved for both data sets in the majority of the remaining steps which used SIMCA for classification. The lowest correct classification rate, 69.2%, was obtained for the fire debris samples in one of the final steps in the classification scheme. In this research, the first statistically valid error rates for fire debris analysis have been developed through cross-validation of large data sets. The fire debris analyst can use the automated method as a tool for detecting and classifying ignitable liquid residues in fire debris samples. The error rates reduce the subjectivity associated with the current methods and provide a level of confidence in sample classification that does not currently exist in forensic fire debris analysis.

Analysis and Interpretation of Fire Scene Evidence

Analysis and Interpretation of Fire Scene Evidence Book
Author : Jose R. Almirall,Kenneth G. Furton
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2016-04-19
ISBN : 9780203492727
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Ongoing advances in arson detection tools and techniques increase the importance of scientific evidence in related court proceedings. In order to assemble an airtight case, investigators and forensic scientists need a resource that assists them in properly conducting the chemical analysis and interpretation of physical evidence found at scenes of suspected arson. Analysis and Interpretation of Fire Scene Evidence introduces the techniques that determine the presence of ignitable liquid residues (ILRs) at fire scenes. It bridges the disciplines of investigation and forensic chemistry, enabling effective communication during critical periods of evidence detection, collection, packaging, and transport. The initial chapters are written from an investigator's perspective, allowing forensic specialists to understand fire dynamics, ignition, heat transfer, and investigations. Later chapters include a comparison of the use of canines versus new detection techniques, and an examination of laboratory facilities, equipment, and procedures that are essential to organizing a new lab or upgrading an existing one. By detailing the methods used to identify potential evidence at the scene of suspected arson fires, this volume also benefits attorneys and judges in preparing for prosecution and defense of arson cases.

Fire Debris Analysis and Scene Reconstruction

Fire Debris Analysis and Scene Reconstruction Book
Author : Alberto Sturaro,Alvise Vianello,Pablo Denti,Rocco Rella
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2013
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Fire Debris Analysis and Scene Reconstruction book written by Alberto Sturaro,Alvise Vianello,Pablo Denti,Rocco Rella, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

ASTM Standards for Fire Debris Analysis

ASTM Standards for Fire Debris Analysis Book
Author : Eric Stauffer,John J. Lentini
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2003
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download ASTM Standards for Fire Debris Analysis book written by Eric Stauffer,John J. Lentini, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Determining the Presence of an Ignitable Liquid Residue in Fire Debris Samples Utilizing Target Factor Analysis

Determining the Presence of an Ignitable Liquid Residue in Fire Debris Samples Utilizing Target Factor Analysis Book
Author : Kelly M. McHugh
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2010
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Current fire debris analysis procedure involves using the chromatographic patterns of total ion chromatograms, extracted ion chromatograms, and target compound analysis to identify an ignitable liquid according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) E 1618 standard method. Classifying the ignitable liquid is accomplished by a visual comparison of chromatographic data obtained from any extracted ignitable liquid residue in the debris to the chromatograms of ignitable liquids in a database, i.e. by visual pattern recognition. Pattern recognition proves time consuming and introduces potential for human error. One particularly difficult aspect of fire debris analysis is recognizing an ignitable liquid residue when the intensity of its chromatographic pattern is extremely low or masked by pyrolysis products. In this research, a unique approach to fire debris analysis was applied by utilizing the samples' total ion spectrum (TIS) to identify an ignitable liquid, if present. The TIS, created by summing the intensity of each ion across all elution times in a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) dataset retains sufficient information content for the identification of complex mixtures . Computer assisted spectral comparison was then performed on the samples' TIS by target factor analysis (TFA). This approach allowed rapid automated searching against a library of ignitable liquid summed ion spectra. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves measured how well TFA identified ignitable liquids in the database that were of the same ASTM classification as the ignitable liquid in fire debris samples, as depicted in their corresponding area under the ROC curve. This study incorporated statistical analysis to aid in classification of an ignitable liquid, therefore alleviating interpretive error inherent in visual pattern recognition. This method could allow an analyst to declare an ignitable liquid present when utilization of visual pattern recognition alone is not sufficient.

Statistical Assessment of the Probability of Correct Identification of Ignitable Liquids in Fire Debris Analysis

Statistical Assessment of the Probability of Correct Identification of Ignitable Liquids in Fire Debris Analysis Book
Author : United States. Department of Justice,Mary Williams,Erin Waddell
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Identification of ignitable liquid residues in the presence of background interferences, especially those arising from pyrolysis processes, is a major challenge for the fire debris analyst. The proposed research will lead to a mathematical model that allows for the detection of an ignitable liquid in a fire debris sample and the classification of the ignitable liquid according to the ASTM E1618 classification scheme. The research will examine the influence of substrate pyrolysis and non-pyrolysis interferences on: (1) probability of correct prediction of the presence of an ignitable liquid in real and simulated fire debris samples (Type I and Type II error rates) and (2) probability of correct prediction of the associated ignitable liquid ASTM class and sub-class (heavy, medium or light) in positive samples. Potential alternative sub-groupings of ignitable liquids will be examined based on cluster analysis techniques. Models will be examined which are based on principal components analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and soft independent model classification analogy (SIMCA). The model will be developed from the summed ion spectra of nearly 500 ignitable liquid and 50 pyrolysis sample GC-MS data sets with ANOVA-assisted variable selection. Training data sets will be taken from the National Center for Forensic Science ignitable liquid and substrate pyrolysis databases. Simulated fire debris samples generated in the laboratory and samples from large-scale burns will also be employed in model testing. Model performance will be statistically evaluated by receiver operator characteristic analysis. The final model will be implemented in a software solution for forensic laboratory use. This project proposed to investigate the development of a method for classifying fire debris GC-MS data sets as: (1) containing or not containing an ignitable liquid, (2) classifying any ignitable liquid that may be present under the ASTM E1618 classification scheme and (3) estimating the statistical certainty of the answers to questions 1 and 2. The proposed approach is to build a mathematical model that can correctly classify GC-MS data from ignitable liquids and pyrolyzed substrates (wood, plastic, etc.). The model will then be applied to GC-MS data from laboratory-generated fire debris samples, as well as ignitable liquids and substrates that were not used to build the model. The classification success of the model will allow a determination of the statistical performance of the model by ROC analysis. The model will be developed based on the total ion spectrum, which has already shown a propensity for classifying a set of ignitable liquids drawn from multiple ASTM classes.

Overcoming Challenges in Fire Debris Analysis Caused by Evaporation

Overcoming Challenges in Fire Debris Analysis Caused by Evaporation Book
Author : Rebecca Brehe
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015
ISBN : 9781339186603
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Overcoming Challenges in Fire Debris Analysis Caused by Evaporation book written by Rebecca Brehe, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

The Evaluation of Classifier Performance on the Forensic Analysis of Fire Debris and the Expansion of the Substrate Database

The Evaluation of Classifier Performance on the Forensic Analysis of Fire Debris and the Expansion of the Substrate Database Book
Author : Alyssa Nicole Allen
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2019
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The current protocols in fire debris analysis rely on ignitable liquid pattern recognition and the identification of target compounds. These practices allow fire debris analysts to determine whether a sample contains or is absent of ignitable liquid residue and to classify that type of ignitable liquid based upon subjective thresholds.

Forensic Analysis of Ignitable Liquids in Fire Debris by Comprehensive Two dimensional Gas Chromatography

Forensic Analysis of Ignitable Liquids in Fire Debris by Comprehensive Two dimensional Gas Chromatography Book
Author : Glenn S. Frysinger,Richard B. Gaines
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2002
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Forensic Analysis of Ignitable Liquids in Fire Debris by Comprehensive Two dimensional Gas Chromatography book written by Glenn S. Frysinger,Richard B. Gaines, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Multiple Analysis of Fire Debris Samples Using Passive Headspace Concentration

Multiple Analysis of Fire Debris Samples Using Passive Headspace Concentration Book
Author : LV. Waters,LA. Palmer
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1993
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Recent advances in the field of fire debris analysis have resulted in the development of the passive headspace concentration method for the separation of flammable and combustible liquid residues from debris. Not only is this method applicable to most sample matrices, but because it is essentially nondestructive, multiple passive separations can be performed on a given sample yielding the same results.