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Fire Debris Analysis

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Fire Debris Analysis

Fire Debris Analysis Book
Author : Eric Stauffer,Julia A. Dolan,Reta Newman
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2007-12-10
ISBN : 9780080556260
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The study of fire debris analysis is vital to the function of all fire investigations, and, as such, Fire Debris Analysis is an essential resource for fire investigators. The present methods of analysis include the use of gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, techniques which are well established and used by crime laboratories throughout the world. However, despite their universality, this is the first comprehensive resource that addresses their application to fire debris analysis. Fire Debris Analysis covers topics such as the physics and chemistry of fire and liquid fuels, the interpretation of data obtained from fire debris, and the future of the subject. Its cutting-edge material and experienced author team distinguishes this book as a quality reference that should be on the shelves of all crime laboratories. Serves as a comprehensive guide to the science of fire debris analysis Presents both basic and advanced concepts in an easily readable, logical sequence Includes a full-color insert with figures that illustrate key concepts discussed in the text

Forensic Analysis of Fire Debris and Explosives

Forensic Analysis of Fire Debris and Explosives Book
Author : Kenyon Evans-Nguyen,Katherine Hutches
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2019-10-08
ISBN : 3030258343
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This text provides training on the fundamental tools and methodologies used in active forensic laboratories for the complicated analysis of fire debris and explosives evidence. It is intended to serve as a gateway for students and transitioning forensic science or chemistry professionals. The book is divided between the two disciplines of fire debris and explosives, with a final pair of chapters devoted to the interplay between the two disciplines and with other disciplines, such as DNA and fingerprint analysis. It brings together a multi-national group of technical experts, ranging from academic researchers to active practitioners, including members of some of the premier forensic agencies of the world. Readers will gain knowledge of practical methods of analysis and will develop a strong foundation for laboratory work in forensic chemistry. End-of-chapter questions based on relevant topics and real-world data provide a realistic arena for learners to test newly-acquired techniques.

Identifying Ignitable Liquids in Fire Debris

Identifying Ignitable Liquids in Fire Debris Book
Author : Jeanet Hendrikse,Michiel Grutters,Frank Schäfer
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2015-10-05
ISBN : 0128043873
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Identifying Ignitable Liquids in Fire Debris: A Guideline for Forensic Experts discusses and illustrates the characteristics of different ignitable liquid products. This guideline builds on the minimum criteria of the ignitable liquid classes defined in the internationally accepted standard ASTM E1618 Standard Test Method for Ignitable Liquid Residues in Extracts from Fire Debris Samples by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. The volume provides information on the origin of the characteristics of these ignitable liquid products and provides a summary of characteristics to demonstrate a positive identification of the particular product class. Topics such as the term ignitable liquid, relevant guidelines for fire debris analysis, production processes of ignitable liquids, fire debris analysis methods, and interferences in fire debris analysis, are briefly discussed as these topics are essential for the understanding of the identification and classification of ignitable liquid residues in fire debris. Discusses the characteristics and variations in chemical composition of different classes of the ignitable liquid products defined by ASTM E1618:14 Covers the General Production Processes of Ignitable Liquid Products Includes a guide for the Identification of Ignitable Liquids in Fire Debris

A Survey on the Interpretive GC MS Analysis of Fire Debris

A Survey on the Interpretive GC MS Analysis of Fire Debris Book
Author : Anthony Thomas Parks
Publisher :
Release : 2018
ISBN : 9780438372801
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The practice of arson analysis in a forensic science laboratory is based upon detecting the presence of ignitable liquids. If an ignitable liquid is present, it is suggestive of arson; if no ignitable liquid is found an arson claim is more difficult to assert. Ignitable liquids are detected using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Instrumental results from a GC/MS can display components of an ignitable liquid but an analyst needs to make the final decision. Even with correct instrumentation and suggested guidelines, ignitable liquid analysis can be subjective and based upon the analysts' education and experience. To better understand the interpretive practices of the fire debris analysis community, a survey consisting of reference samples, mixture standards, and multiple unknowns was created in consultation with the Los Angeles Police Department Arson Unit. The samples consisted of different substrates with varying classes and volumes of ignitable liquid. They were created using a destructive distillation method first developed by the State of Florida Bureau of Forensic Fire and Explosives Analysis. Extraction of the samples was completed using a carbon strip to perform passive headspace absorption following the ASTM E 1412 method. The samples were analyzed with a GC/MS following National Commission on Forensic Science parameters. To maintain confidentiality, participant responses are stripped of identifiers and the results of the survey, details about the procedure, and discussions will be presented.

Chemometric Applications in Fire Debris Analysis

Chemometric Applications in Fire Debris Analysis Book
Author : Anuradha Gayathri Akmeemana
Publisher :
Release : 2019
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

One of the major challenges in fire investigation is the determination of the cause of fire. The fire can be accidental or intentional. The determination of ignitable liquid residue (ILR) from fire debris helps the process and this process is called fire debris analysis in forensic science. This is one of the most complex areas in the field of forensics because of the evaporation of the ILR from the debris and the interferences of the substrate matrix with the ILR if present. In the present, the final decisions in fire debris analysis are based on categorical statements and it only represents the qualitative but not the quantitative value of the data. The likelihood ratio approach is one of the most widely used methods in forensic science in expressing the evidentiary value.

Fire Investigation

Fire Investigation Book
Author : Niamh Nic Daeid
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2004-01-27
ISBN : 9780203646953
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Fire Investigation covers the concepts and theories used to determine a specfic fire has been deliberately or accidentally set. The author clearly explains the concepts needed to gain insight into a fire scene investigation, including the dynamics of the fire, the necessary conditions for a fire to start and be maintained, the different types of co

Analysis and Interpretation of Fire Scene Evidence

Analysis and Interpretation of Fire Scene Evidence Book
Author : Jose R. Almirall,Kenneth G. Furton
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2016-04-19
ISBN : 9780203492727
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Ongoing advances in arson detection tools and techniques increase the importance of scientific evidence in related court proceedings. In order to assemble an airtight case, investigators and forensic scientists need a resource that assists them in properly conducting the chemical analysis and interpretation of physical evidence found at scenes of suspected arson. Analysis and Interpretation of Fire Scene Evidence introduces the techniques that determine the presence of ignitable liquid residues (ILRs) at fire scenes. It bridges the disciplines of investigation and forensic chemistry, enabling effective communication during critical periods of evidence detection, collection, packaging, and transport. The initial chapters are written from an investigator's perspective, allowing forensic specialists to understand fire dynamics, ignition, heat transfer, and investigations. Later chapters include a comparison of the use of canines versus new detection techniques, and an examination of laboratory facilities, equipment, and procedures that are essential to organizing a new lab or upgrading an existing one. By detailing the methods used to identify potential evidence at the scene of suspected arson fires, this volume also benefits attorneys and judges in preparing for prosecution and defense of arson cases.

GC MS Guide to Ignitable Liquids

GC MS Guide to Ignitable Liquids Book
Author : Reta Newman,Michael W. Gilbert,Kevin Lothridge
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2020-08-26
ISBN : 1000141233
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The rapidly increasing number of different ignitable liquid formulations available today poses a new challenge to fire debris analysts and other forensic chemistry specialists - that of accurately identifying and classifying ignitable liquids with unfamiliar chromatographic patterns. GC-MS Guide to Ignitable Liquids addresses that challenge with a selection of more than 100 different ignitable liquid formulations designed to supplement the laboratory's standard collection. Both total ion chromatograms and extracted ion chromatograms (mass chromatograms) are included. Written by authors who are also experienced forensic chemists, this complete reference is the only single source of information on ignitable liquids - a must for students of fire science, forensic chemists, and anyone conducting fire debris analysis.

Scientific Protocols for Fire Investigation

Scientific Protocols for Fire Investigation Book
Author : John J. Lentini,Joseph Poirier
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2012-10-02
ISBN : 146657870X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Knowledge of the science behind fires is critical to understanding a fire‘s cause and successfully presenting that determination to the authorities or in litigation. Now in its second edition, Scientific Protocols for Fire Investigation focuses on the practical application of scientific principles to determine the causes of fires. Uniquely qualifie

Inherent Ignitable Liquids in Shoes

Inherent Ignitable Liquids in Shoes Book
Author : Natalie Stevens
Publisher :
Release : 2018
ISBN : 9780438929999
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Some items commonly submitted as evidence in fire investigations contain inherent interferences that pose challenges during data acquisition, analysis and interpretation. One common type of interference is inherent ignitable liquids, or ignitable liquids that are inherently part of the item due to manufacture. Petroleum-based solvents may be introduced to shoes during the manufacturing process. The challenge in data interpretation arises from the fact that some shoes contain the same types of ignitable liquids that are used as accelerants during the criminal act of committing arson. The current study aimed to determine the type and the rate of occurrence of inherent ignitable liquids in shoes; how inherent ignitable liquids differ between different shoe brands; and how different sampling conditions affect the impact of inherent ignitable liquids on fire debris analysis of shoes. Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, 86 pairs of new/lightly used shoes were extracted by Passive Headspace Concentration at three different extraction temperatures of ambient temperature, 400C and 650C. Inherent ignitable liquids were identified in 6 of the 430 shoe extracts. The sensitivity of the method increased as the extraction temperature increased; however, some compounds unexpectedly increased significantly in abundance relative to compounds of similar volatility when extracted at higher temperatures. Room temperature was determined to be too low of an extraction temperature to identify inherent ignitable liquids in shoe samples. One shoe contained an ignitable liquid when extracted at 400C, and five shoes had identifiable ignitable liquids when extracted at 650C. While the higher temperatures provide increased sensitivity, the unexpected increase in select compounds suggests that 650C may be enhancing the extraction of compounds from the matrix, possibly due to adhesive failure. Examiners should consider sampling shoes at 400C to avoid potential interferences from inherent ignitable liquids.

Scientific Protocols for Fire Investigation Third Edition

Scientific Protocols for Fire Investigation  Third Edition Book
Author : John J. Lentini
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2018-09-28
ISBN : 1351712365
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Scientific Protocols for Fire Investigation, Third Edition focuses on the practical application of fundamental scientific principles to determine the causes of fires. Originally published in 2006, the First Edition was very well received by fire investigators and those who work with them. Since fire investigation is a rapidly evolving field—driven by new discoveries about fire behavior—the Second Edition was published in late 2012. This latest, fully updated Third Edition reflects the most recent developments in the field. Currently, serious research is underway to try to understand the role of ventilation in structure fires. Likewise, there is improved understanding of the kinds of errors investigators can make that lead to incorrect determinations of the causes of fires. In addition to the scientific aspects, the litigation of fire related events is rapidly changing, particularly with respect to an investigator's qualifications to serve as an expert witness. This book covers these latest developments and ties together the changing standards for fire investigations with the fundamental scientific knowledge presented in the early chapters of the book. The book is intended for those individuals who have recently entered the field of fire investigation, and those who are studying fire investigation with a plan to become certified professionals. In addition, professionals in the insurance industry who hire fire investigators will find this an invaluable resource. Insurance companies have sustained significant losses by hiring individuals who are not qualified, resulting in cases being settled or lost at a cost of millions. Insurance adjusters and investigators will learn to recognize quality fire investigations and those that are not up to today's standards. Lastly, this book is also for the many attorneys who litigate fire cases. Written with language and terms that make the science accessible even to the non-scientist, this new edition will be a welcome resource to any professional involved in fire and arson cases.

Basic Tools and Resources for Fire Investigators

Basic Tools and Resources for Fire Investigators Book
Author : U S Departmen U S Fire Administration
Publisher : FEMA
Release : 2013-02-28
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This handbook is designed to serve as a compendium of basic information about the tools and techniques of fire investigation.

Forensic Chemistry

Forensic Chemistry Book
Author : Max M. Houck
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2015-01-26
ISBN : 0128006242
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Forensic Chemistry is the first publication to provide coordinated expert content from world-renowned leading authorities in forensic chemistry. Covering the range of forensic chemistry, this volume in the Advanced Forensic Science Series provides up-to-date scientific learning on drugs, fire debris, explosives, instrumental methods, interpretation, and more. Technical information, written with the degreed professional in mind, brings established methods together with newer approaches to build a comprehensive knowledge base for the student and practitioner alike. Like each volume in the Advanced Forensic Science Series, review and discussion questions allow the text to be used in classrooms, training programs, and numerous other applications. Sections on fundamentals of forensic science, history, safety, and professional issues provide context and consistency in support of the forensic enterprise. Forensic Chemistry sets a new standard for reference and learning texts in modern forensic science. Advanced articles written by international forensic chemistry experts Covers the range of forensic chemistry, including methods and interpretation Includes entries on history, safety, and professional issues Useful as a professional reference, advanced textbook, or training review

Statistical Analysis in Forensic Science

Statistical Analysis in Forensic Science Book
Author : Grzegorz Zadora,Agnieszka Martyna,Daniel Ramos,Colin Aitken
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2013-12-12
ISBN : 1118763181
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A practical guide for determining the evidential value of physicochemical data Microtraces of various materials (e.g. glass, paint, fibres, and petroleum products) are routinely subjected to physicochemical examination by forensic experts, whose role is to evaluate such physicochemical data in the context of the prosecution and defence propositions. Such examinations return various kinds of information, including quantitative data. From the forensic point of view, the most suitable way to evaluate evidence is the likelihood ratio. This book provides a collection of recent approaches to the determination of likelihood ratios and describes suitable software, with documentation and examples of their use in practice. The statistical computing and graphics software environment R, pre-computed Bayesian networks using Hugin Researcher and a new package, calcuLatoR, for the computation of likelihood ratios are all explored. Statistical Analysis in Forensic Science will provide an invaluable practical guide for forensic experts and practitioners, forensic statisticians, analytical chemists, and chemometricians. Key features include: Description of the physicochemical analysis of forensic trace evidence. Detailed description of likelihood ratio models for determining the evidential value of multivariate physicochemical data. Detailed description of methods, such as empirical cross-entropy plots, for assessing the performance of likelihood ratio-based methods for evidence evaluation. Routines written using the open-source R software, as well as Hugin Researcher and calcuLatoR. Practical examples and recommendations for the use of all these methods in practice.

A Companion to Forensic Anthropology

A Companion to Forensic Anthropology Book
Author : Dennis Dirkmaat
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2012-03-19
ISBN : 1118255410
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A Companion to Forensic Anthropology presents the most comprehensive assessment of the philosophy, goals, and practice of forensic anthropology currently available, with chapters by renowned international scholars and experts. Highlights the latest advances in forensic anthropology research, as well as the most effective practices and techniques used by professional forensic anthropologists in the field Illustrates the development of skeletal biological profiles and offers important new evidence on statistical validation of these analytical methods. Evaluates the goals and methods of forensic archaeology, including the preservation of context at surface-scattered remains, buried bodies and fatal fire scenes, and recovery and identification issues related to large-scale mass disaster scenes and mass grave excavation.