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Fighting Multidrug Resistance With Herbal Extracts Essential Oils And Their Components

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Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts Essential Oils and Their Components

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts  Essential Oils and Their Components Book
Author : Mahendra Rai,Kateryna Kon
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2013-05-24
ISBN : 0124017088
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts, Essential Oils and their Components offers scientists a single source aimed at fighting specific multidrug-resistant (MDR) microorganisms such as bacteria, protozoans, viruses and fungi using natural products. This essential reference discusses herbal extracts and essential oils used or under investigation to treat MDR infections, as well as those containing antimicrobial activity that could be of potential interest in future studies against MDR microorganisms. The need to combat multidrug-resistant microorganisms is an urgent one and this book provides important coverage of mechanism of action, the advantages and disadvantages of using herbal extracts, essential oils and their components and more to aid researchers in effective antimicrobial drug discovery Addresses the need to develop safe and effective approaches to coping with resistance to all classes of antimicrobial drugs Provides readers with current evidence-based content aimed at using herbal extracts and essential oils in antimicrobial drug development Includes chapters devoted to the activity of herbal products against herpes, AIDS, tuberculosis, drug-resistant cancer cells and more

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts Essential Oils and Their Components

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts  Essential Oils and Their Components Book
Author : M.L. Faleiro,M.G. Miguel
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-24
ISBN : 0128066776
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Aromatic and medicinal plants, through their secondary metabolism, provide a complex mixture of volatile molecules known as essential oils. These volatile molecules exert antibacterial activity that has been used in folk medicine for centuries. During the last few decades, the emergence of antibacterial resistance has forced us to search for new and efficient antimicrobial agents. The significant number of studies on the use of essential oils and their components against multidrug-resistant bacteria, such as Acinetobacter baumannii, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa show the exceptional potential of these natural products to curb the development of antibacterial resistance. Moreover, the use of essential oils and their components in combination with antibiotics may increase bacterial susceptibility, thus limiting resistance.

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts Essential Oils and Their Components

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts  Essential Oils and Their Components Book
Author : Lyndy McGaw
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-24
ISBN : 0128066849
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Many bacterial diseases affect animals, causing important economic losses in livestock. Subtherapeutic antibiotic use in production animals as antibiotic growth promoters has been implicated as a causative factor in the development of resistance of bacterial pathogens toward several classes of antimicrobials, some of which are used therapeutically in humans. This has led to the banning of antibiotic growth promoters by the European Union, and such a precedent may be followed in other countries. Alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters are necessary to enable the production of animal protein to keep pace with the expanding world population. One approach is to use plant extracts or essential oils as supplements to provide beneficial effects, including direct antibacterial activity and stimulation of the immune system, or enhancement of ruminal digestion. The risk of resistance developing to a combination of phytochemicals is lower than the risk of resistance against a single antibiotic, and synergistic effects of plant constituents may contribute to the overall activity of the preparation.

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts Essential Oils and Their Components

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts  Essential Oils and Their Components Book
Author : Kalpna D. Rakholiya,Mital J. Kaneria,Sumitra V. Chanda
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-24
ISBN : 0128066822
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Antibiotics are antimicrobial agents that are used to treat infectious diseases. The outbreak of pathogenic antibiotic-resistant strains illustrates our urgent need to search for new alternative sources of treatment. Hence, an attempt has been made in this review to list some plant extracts, essential/volatile oils, and their antimicrobial activity against different microorganisms using different methods, as well as synergistic effects (plant extract-plant extract, plant extract-essential oils, plant extract-conventional antibiotics, phytochemical-antibiotics, and essential oil-essential oil). Plant products and their active constituents are useful in the treatment of infectious diseases caused by multidrug-resistant microbes, food borne diseases caused by food spoiling microbes, and oral pathogens. Products derived from plants have the potential to control microbial growth in diverse situations, and specifically in the treatment of disease. The various aspects of this review may be helpful for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries.

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts Essential Oils and Their Components

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts  Essential Oils and Their Components Book
Author : Kateryna Volodymyrivna Kon,Mahendra Kumar Rai
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-24
ISBN : 0128066814
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

High prevalence of multidrug-resistant microorganisms in the etiologic structure of different infectious processes significantly decreases the effectiveness of the treatment and enhances the probability of an unfavorable outcome from the infection. Combinations between antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents represent one of the most promising approaches for combating multidrug-resistant bacteria. A high therapeutic potential exists for combinations of antibiotics and natural antimicrobial substances with complex mechanisms of action and multiple healing properties, such as plant essential oils. The purpose of the present chapter is to review published studies on antibiotic-essential oil combinations and discuss the prospects for future studies. In general, many studies have shown the potential for essential oils to act synergistically with antibiotics in vitro. The main proposed mechanism of this beneficial effect is through inhibition of efflux pumps by some essential oils, which restores the activity of the antibiotic. Future efforts should be directed into further studies of antibiotic-essential oil combinations against multidrug-resistant bacteria, with an emphasis on understanding the mechanisms of the produced effect. Combinations of essential oils with different types of antimicrobial agents, such as bacteriophages, nanoparticles, and quorum-sensing inhibitors, require greater attention and are worthy of future investigations.

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts Essential Oils and Their Components

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts  Essential Oils and Their Components Book
Author : María José Abad,Luis Miguel Bedoya,Paulina Bermejo
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-24
ISBN : 0128066857
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Natural products have played a pivotal role in antibiotic drug discovery, with most anti-infective drugs being derived from natural products or natural product leads. However, the rapid onset of resistance to most anti-infective drugs considerably diminishes their effectiveness and requires a constant supply of new drugs for the effective treatment of infections. Infectious diseases account for a third of all deaths worldwide. The spread of multidrug-resistant strains of bacteria makes it necessary to identify new classes of antibacterials and compounds that inhibit these resistance mechanisms. Numerous members of the Asteraceae family are important as cut flowers and ornamental crops, as well as being medicinal and aromatic plants, many of which produce essential oils used in folk and modern medicine and in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. Essential oils generally have a broad spectrum of bioactivity, owing to the presence of several active ingredients (e.g., terpenes and phenol-derived aromatic and aliphatic components) that have various modes of action. Extensive studies of the chemical components of Asteraceae species have led to the identification of many substances, including essentials oils, with interesting antibacterial activity. This review summarizes some of the main reports on the chemistry and antibacterial activity of Asteraceae essential oils in the recent literature (2005 to May 2012).

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts Essential Oils and Their Components

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts  Essential Oils and Their Components Book
Author : Román Yesid Ramírez Rueda
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-24
ISBN : 0128066733
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is currently one of the most common causes of serious infections, in both hospital and community environments. This type of resistance was discovered in the 1960s, and now (50 years later) it has not been possible to develop an effective therapy to fight against it. This chapter compiles the results of several studies demonstrating the activity (mainly in vitro) of various extracts, essential oils, and plant-derived molecules that can act alone or in combination against MRSA. In addition, natural alternatives (other than from plants) being studied for the same purpose are described. Finally, the important role of phytotherapy in the development of new therapies against multidrug-resistant bacteria such as MRSA is emphasized.

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts Essential Oils and Their Components

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts  Essential Oils and Their Components Book
Author : Ali Parsaeimehr,Elmira Sargsyan,Amir Reza Jassbi
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-24
ISBN : 0128066830
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In today’s world, multidrug resistance appears to be one of the major health problems; however, screening, discovering and presenting novel effectual phytochemicals from medicinal plants have provided a promising outlook. Phytomedicines have been used for treating diseases and infections since time immemorial, but identifying new phytochemicals and effectual treatment strategies are essential in the fight against multidrug-resistant bacteria. Currently, isolated compounds such as α-mangostin, carnosic acid, epigallocatechin gallate, linalool, myricetin, novoimanin, α-terpineol, and totarol, have exhibited synergistic activity with antibiotics against resistant bacteria. This chapter presents information on multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria and the use of herbal extracts against them.

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts Essential Oils and Their Components

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts  Essential Oils and Their Components Book
Author : Philip G. Kerr
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-24
ISBN : 0128066768
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In the search for successful antitubercular treatments, investigators have often turned their efforts to ethnobotany, ethnopharmacology, and phytochemistry. Since many of the world’s peoples have well-developed systems of traditional medicine with plants and their extracts as a major component and many of these plants have been used to treat tuberculosis, indigenous herbal medicine is a logical starting point for a research program. The major aims in this chapter are to summarize current antitubercular treatments; look for structural patterns in molecules that have been used successfully in the therapeutics of tuberculosis; examine published evidence of natural products derived principally from macrophytic species with an anecdotal reputation as antitubercular treatments or that have been deliberately tested for antitubercular activity; and identify promising structural classes of plant metabolites that can serve as lead compounds. Finally, I would like to indicate some of the directions being followed by leading researchers in the field and suggest ways forward in drug discovery to treat multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts Essential Oils and Their Components

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts  Essential Oils and Their Components Book
Author : Clarissa Campos Barbosa de Castro,Mirna Meana Dias,Túlio Pessoa de Rezende,Lizandra Guidi Magalhães,Ademar A. Da Silva Filho
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-24
ISBN : 0128066792
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease that affects more than 240 million individuals throughout the world. Praziquantel and oxamniquine are the only drugs available for the control of schistosomiasis. Our dependence on just two drugs and concerns about tolerance and/or resistant schistosome strains emphasize the need for developing new schistosomicidal drugs. This chapter summarizes recent reports about schistosomicidal activity of natural products against Schistosoma species. The in vitro and in vivo effects of a number of crude plant extracts, essential oils, and several secondary metabolites (including alkaloids, flavonoids, and lignans) on schistosoma are summarized and discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on in vivo studies and on works describing the direct in vitro effects of natural products on the parasite (schistosomula and adult stages). Some interesting results with promising samples have already been obtained, but more research is required to discover an ideal natural schistosomicidal lead candidate.

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts Essential Oils and Their Components

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts  Essential Oils and Their Components Book
Author : Maria de las Mercedes Oliva,Mauro Nicolás Gallucci,Maria Evangelina Carezzano,Mirta Susana Demo
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-24
ISBN : 012806675X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The genus Candida comprises more than 200 species, but few of them have been associated with human infections. C. albicans is the most important cause of disease. Other species such as C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. guilliermondii, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis are also being increasingly recognized as significant human pathogens. In recent years, the number of clinical infections caused by Candida species worldwide has risen considerably, and the incidence of resistance to traditional antifungal therapies is also increasing. There is an exigent need for novel antifungal remedies, and plants remain a vital source of these new substances, especially in low-resource countries. Natural compounds are potential antimycotic agents either in their nascent form or as template structures for more effective derivatives. The data and studies described in this chapter document the antimicrobial activity of plant extracts and essential oils against Candida species and show that medicinal plants can be a rich source of potential antifungal compounds.

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts Essential Oils and Their Components

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts  Essential Oils and Their Components Book
Author : Valerie Edwards-Jones
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-24
ISBN : 0128066725
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The global increase in antimicrobial resistance has led to renewed interest in alternative antimicrobial treatment strategies. Research is being done into a wide range of possible treatment regimens, including phage therapy, novel vaccines, and novel peptides, to name a few. Many microbiologists continue to lobby their governments to ensure that the available antibiotics are retained for the treatment of serious infections and their inappropriate use is stopped. In addition, large pharmaceutical companies are being encouraged to develop new treatments for the future. Much research now focuses on medicinal plants and essential oils. These and other alternative approaches are outlined in this chapter.

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts Essential Oils and Their Components

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts  Essential Oils and Their Components Book
Author : Camila Bernardes de Andrade Carli,Marcela Bassi Quilles,Iracilda Zeppone Carlos
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-24
ISBN : 0128066873
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Multidrug resistance is the main mechanism by which cancers develop resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. Consequently, it is also an important factor in the failure of many forms of chemotherapy. This review describes the mechanisms of tumor resistance to drugs and the attempts to discover novel compounds that interact with multidrug-resistant tumor cells. The information presented here will facilitate retrospective of studies and the identification of new drug development candidates with the potential to treat cell populations with multidrug-resistance.

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts Essential Oils and Their Components

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts  Essential Oils and Their Components Book
Author : Luiz Felipe Domingues Passero,Márcia D. Laurenti,Gabriela Santos-Gomes,Bruno Luiz Soares Campos,Patrícia Sartorelli,João Henrique G. Lago
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-24
ISBN : 0128066784
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by parasites belonging to the Leishmania genus. This disease has a prevalence that exceeds 12 million, and approximately 350 million individuals are currently residing in areas at risk for contracting the infection. The standard drugs employed in the treatment pose serious side effects for patients. Moreover, some reports suggested that the Leishmania species present different degrees of resistance to conventional drugs, which justifies the ongoing search for novel leishmanicidal molecules. In only a few decades, the available research pertaining to plant-derived leishmanicidal compounds has increased considerably; however, the majority of bioguided studies have only shown antileishmanial activity in vitro, thus ignoring the potential in vivo effects of different classes of plant-derived compounds on Leishmania species. This chapter will discuss the main findings of works published from 2002 to 2012 on purified plant compounds and their leishmanicidal effects in vivo.

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts Essential Oils and Their Components

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts  Essential Oils and Their Components Book
Author : Victor Kuete
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-24
ISBN : 0128066741
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The development of vancomycin resistance by some microbial strains has made the treatment of some infections more difficult and, in many cases, impossible. Although the search for new drugs against vancomycin-resistant organisms has been very successful, resistance can arise against many of these compounds. Natural products are an invaluable source of a diversity of biologically active compounds for addressing the challenges facing drug development initiatives to combat vancomycin-resistant enterococcal infections. Despite the fact that scientific data on plant metabolites active against vancomycin-resistant enterococci remain scarce, some compounds (including terpenoids and phenolics) have been reported to have inhibitory effects at various levels. This chapter describes the state of the art of research into plant bioactive metabolites against vancomycin-resistant enterococci, highlighting the hit compounds.

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts Essential Oils and Their Components

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts  Essential Oils and Their Components Book
Author : M. Fawzi Mahomoodally,Ameenah Gurib-Fakim
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-24
ISBN : 0128066865
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Infectious diseases are responsible for one in every two deaths in many developing countries, but people in sub-Saharan Africa are particularly vulnerable, as poverty is rampant and access to health care is limited. Additionally, the unregulated use of antibiotics in some parts of Africa has led to the emergence of resistance in pathogens. Indeed, one of the biggest pandemics is malaria, which kills millions annually. Currently, artemisinin (effective against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium) is the only weapon available to fight this pandemic, yet the World Health Organization has reported with concern that some countries in Southeast Asia are beginning to witness resistance to artemisinin. As a consequence, increasing attention is being drawn to botanicals, as they have the potential to provide alternative and complementary therapies, as well as potential leads to address emerging infections and resistance. This chapter will review some medicinal plants from the African Herbal Pharmacopoeia that show promise for containing existing and emerging infectious diseases.

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts Essential Oils and Their Components

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts  Essential Oils and Their Components Book
Author : T.O. Lawal,K.K. Soni,B.A. Adeniyi,B.J. Doyle,G.B. Mahady
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-24
ISBN : 0128066806
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

High prevalence of multidrug-resistant microorganisms in the etiologic structure of different infectious processes significantly decreases the effectiveness of the treatment and enhances the probability of an unfavorable outcome from the infection. Combinations between antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents represent one of the most promising approaches for combating multidrug-resistant bacteria. A high therapeutic potential exists for combinations of antibiotics and natural antimicrobial substances with complex mechanisms of action and multiple healing properties, such as plant essential oils. The purpose of the present chapter is to review published studies on antibiotic-essential oil combinations and discuss the prospects for future studies. In general, many studies have shown the potential for essential oils to act synergistically with antibiotics in vitro. The main proposed mechanism of this beneficial effect is through inhibition of efflux pumps by some essential oils, which restores the activity of the antibiotic. Future efforts should be directed into further studies of antibiotic-essential oil combinations against multidrug-resistant bacteria, with an emphasis on understanding the mechanisms of the produced effect. Combinations of essential oils with different types of antimicrobial agents, such as bacteriophages, nanoparticles, and quorum-sensing inhibitors, require greater attention and are worthy of future investigations.

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts Essential Oils and Their Components

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts  Essential Oils and Their Components Book
Author : Adil M. Allahverdiyev,Melahat Bagirova,Serkan Yaman,Rabia Cakir Koc,Emrah Sefik Abamor,Sezen Canim Ates,Serap Yesilkir Baydar,Serhat Elcicek,Olga Nehir Oztel
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-24
ISBN : 0128066881
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections comprise one of the most important health problems worldwide. HSV-1 and HSV-2 that are the types most frequently seen in disease, manifested by sores and blisters on the mouth, tongue, skin, and genitals of infected individuals. Moreover, herpetic infections can reach life-threatening levels; for instance, HSV-2 prevalence has increased greatly in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients. This indicates that the herpetic infection could be a major cause of morbidity in immunosuppressed patients. Unfortunately, resistance against antiherpetic drugs has recently been reported. Therefore there is an immediate need to search for new antiviral agents in order to cope with HSV infections. Recently, it has been demonstrated that traditional medicinal plants have strong antiviral activity and some are already being used in the treatment of viral infections, including herpes simplex infections. Accordingly, this chapter aims to present published information on various herbal compounds, investigate the antiherpetic effectiveness of these compounds, and determine the potential of plants as herpetic treatments in the future.

The Constituents of Medicinal Plants 3rd Edition

The Constituents of Medicinal Plants  3rd Edition Book
Author : Andrew Pengelly
Publisher : CABI
Release : 2021-04-19
ISBN : 1789243076
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A classic in the literature of herbal medicine, this book explains in simple terms the commonly occurring chemical constituents of medicinal plants, and how these react with the human body. The major classes of plant constituents, such as phenols, terpenes and polysaccharides, are described both in terms of their chemical structures and their pharmacological activities. The last 20 years has seen huge growth in research output in phytochemistry, and this edition has been thoroughly revised to incorporate up-to-date research. It contains a new chapter on resins and cannabinoids, and additional content on macrocarpals, essential oil chemotypes, mushroom polysaccharides, phytochemical synergy, and toxicology of phytochemicals.

Handbook of Encapsulation and Controlled Release

Handbook of Encapsulation and Controlled Release Book
Author : Munmaya Mishra
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2015-12-01
ISBN : 1482232340
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The field of encapsulation, especially microencapsulation, is a rapidly growing area of research and product development. The Handbook of Encapsulation and Controlled Release covers the entire field, presenting the fundamental processes involved and exploring how to use those processes for different applications in industry. Written at a level comp