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Fault Zone Properties And Earthquake Rupture Dynamics

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Fault Zone Properties and Earthquake Rupture Dynamics

Fault Zone Properties and Earthquake Rupture Dynamics Book
Author : Eiichi Fukuyama
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2009-04-24
ISBN : 9780080922461
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The dynamics of the earthquake rupture process are closely related to fault zone properties which the authors have intensively investigated by various observations in the field as well as by laboratory experiments. These include geological investigation of the active and fossil faults, physical and chemical features obtained by the laboratory experiments, as well as the seismological estimation from seismic waveforms. Earthquake dynamic rupture can now be modeled using numerical simulations on the basis of field and laboratory observations, which should be very useful for understanding earthquake rupture dynamics. Features: * First overview of new and improved techniques in the study of earthquake faulting * Broad coverage * Full color Benefits: * A must-have for all geophysicists who work on earthquake dynamics * Single resource for all aspects of earthquake dynamics (from lab measurements to seismological observations to numerical modelling) * Bridges the disciplines of seismology, structural geology and rock mechanics * Helps readers to understand and interpret graphs and maps Also has potential use as a supplementary resource for upper division and graduate geophysics courses.

Fault Zone Dynamic Processes

Fault Zone Dynamic Processes Book
Author : Marion Y. Thomas,Thomas M. Mitchell,Harsha S. Bhat
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2017-07-12
ISBN : 1119156882
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Why do earthquakes happen? What properties control the dynamic rupture and what are the processes at play? Chapters in the present volume capture the current state of the art by displaying an overview of the existing knowledge on the physics of dynamic faulting and promote multidisciplinary contributions on the observational and experimental fault fabric and mechanics, the evolution of fault zone physical and chemical properties, dynamic rupture processes and physically, and observationally, consistent numerical modeling of fault zone during seismic rupture. This volume examines questions such as: What are the dynamics processes recorded in fault gouge?What can we learn on rupture dynamic from laboratory experiments? How on-fault and off-fault properties affect seismic ruptures? How do they evolve trough time?Insights from physically, and observationally, consistent numerical modeling Fault Zone Dynamic Processes: Evolution of Fault Properties During Seismic Rupture is a valuable contribution for Earth s scientists, researchers and students interested in the earthquakes processes and properties of on-fault and off-fault zones. Its multidisciplinary content is relevant to a broad audience: structural geologist, experimentalists, rocks mechanicians, seismologist, geophysicists and modelers. (source: Nielsen Book Data ; 9781119156888 20170829) -- Publisher's summary.

Poro Elasto Plastic Off Fault Response and Dynamics of Earthquake Faulting

Poro Elasto Plastic Off Fault Response and Dynamics of Earthquake Faulting Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Previous models of earthquake rupture dynamics have neglected interesting deformational properties of fault zone materials. While most current studies involving off-fault inelastic deformation employ simple brittle failure yield criteria such as the Drucker-Prager yield criterion, the material surrounding the fault plane itself, known as fault gouge, has the tendency to deform in a ductile manner accompanied by compaction. We incorporate this behavior into a new constitutive model of undrained fault gouge in a dynamic rupture model. Dynamic compaction of undrained fault gouge occurs ahead of the rupture front. This corresponds to an increase in pore pressure which preweakens the fault, reducing the static friction. Subsequent dilatancy and softening of the gouge causes a reduction in pore pressure, resulting in fault restrengthening and brief slip pulses. This leads to localization of inelastic failure to a narrow shear zone. We extend the undrained gouge model to a study of self-similar rough faults. Extreme compaction and dilatancy occur at restraining and releasing bends, respectively. The consequent elevated pore pressure at restraining bends weakens the fault and allows the rupture to easily pass, while the decrease in pore pressure at releasing bends dynamically strengthens the fault and slows rupture. In comparison to other recent models, we show that the effects of fault roughness on propagation distance, slip distribution, and rupture velocity are diminished or reversed. Next, we represent large subduction zone megathrust earthquakes with a dynamic rupture model of a shallow dipping fault underlying an accretionary wedge. In previous models by our group [Ma, 2012; Ma and Hirakawa, 2013], inelastic deformation of wedge material was shown to enhance vertical uplift and potential tsunamigenesis. Here, we include a shallow region of velocity strengthening friction with a rate-and-state framework. We find that coseismic increase of the basal friction drives further inelastic wedge failure in comparison with our previous models, with the implication of larger tsunami generation.

Mechanics Structure and Evolution of Fault Zones

Mechanics  Structure and Evolution of Fault Zones Book
Author : Yehuda Ben-Zion,Charles Sammis
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2009-12-30
ISBN : 3034601387
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Considerable progress has been made recently in quantifying geometrical and physical properties of fault surfaces and adjacent fractured and granulated damage zones in active faulting environments. There has also been significant progress in developing rheologies and computational frameworks that can model the dynamics of fault zone processes. This volume provides state-of-the-art theoretical and observational results on the mechanics, structure and evolution of fault zones. Subjects discussed include damage rheologies, development of instabilities, fracture and friction, dynamic rupture experiments, and analyses of earthquake and fault zone data.

Seismic Velocity and Elastic Properties of Plate Boundary Faults

Seismic Velocity and Elastic Properties of Plate Boundary Faults Book
Author : Tamara N. Jeppson
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2017
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The elastic properties of fault zone rock at depth play a key role in rupture nucleation, propagation, and the magnitude of fault slip. Materials that lie within major plate boundary fault zones often have very different material properties than standard crustal rock values. In order to understand the mechanics of faulting at plate boundaries, we need to both measure these properties and understand how they govern the behavior of different types of faults. Mature fault zones tend to be identified in large-scale geophysical field studies as zones with low seismic velocity and/or electrical resistivity. These anomalous properties are related to two important mechanisms: (1) mechanical or diagenetic alteration of the rock materials and/or (2) pore fluid pressure and stress effects. However, in remotely-sensed and large-length-scale data it is difficult to determine which of these mechanisms are affecting the measured properties. The objective of this dissertation research is to characterize the seismic velocity and elastic properties of fault zone rocks at a range of scales, with a focus on understanding why the fault zone properties are different from those of the surrounding rock and the potential effects on earthquake rupture and fault slip. To do this I performed ultrasonic velocity experiments under elevated pressure conditions on drill core and outcrops samples from three plate boundary fault zones: the San Andreas Fault, California, USA; the Alpine Fault, South Island, New Zealand; and the Japan Trench megathrust, Japan. Additionally, I compared laboratory measurements to sonic log and large-scale seismic data to examine the scale-dependence of the measured properties. The results of this study provide the most comprehensive characterization of the seismic velocities and elastic properties of fault zone rocks currently available. My work shows that fault zone rocks at mature plate boundary faults tend to be significantly more compliant than surrounding crustal rocks and quantifies that relationship. The results of this study are particularly relevant to the interpretation of field-scale seismic datasets at major fault zones. Additionally, the results of this study provide constraints on elastic properties used in dynamic rupture models.

Fault Zone Properties and Earthquake Rupture Dynamics

Fault Zone Properties and Earthquake Rupture Dynamics Book
Author : Eiichi Fukuyama
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2009-04-06
ISBN : 9780123744524
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The dynamics of the earthquake rupture process are closely related to fault zone properties which the authors have intensively investigated by various observations in the field as well as by laboratory experiments. These include geological investigation of the active and fossil faults, physical and chemical features obtained by the laboratory experiments, as well as the seismological estimation from seismic waveforms. Earthquake dynamic rupture can now be modeled using numerical simulations on the basis of field and laboratory observations, which should be very useful for understanding earthquake rupture dynamics. Features: * First overview of new and improved techniques in the study of earthquake faulting * Broad coverage * Full color Benefits: * A must-have for all geophysicists who work on earthquake dynamics * Single resource for all aspects of earthquake dynamics (from lab measurements to seismological observations to numerical modelling) * Bridges the disciplines of seismology, structural geology and rock mechanics * Helps readers to understand and interpret graphs and maps Also has potential use as a supplementary resource for upper division and graduate geophysics courses.

Deformation of Compliant Fault Zones Induced by Nearby Earthquakes

Deformation of Compliant Fault Zones Induced by Nearby Earthquakes Book
Author : Jingqian Kang
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Using dynamic modeling of earthquake rupture on a strike-slip fault and seismic wave propagation in a three dimensional inhomogeneous elastoplastic medium, I investigate the inelastic response of compliant fault zones to nearby earthquakes. I primarily examine the plastic strain distribution within the fault zone and the displacement field that characterizes the effects of the presence of the fault zone. I find that when the fault zone rocks are close to failure in the prestress field, plastic strain occurs along the entire fault zone near the Earth's surface and some portions of the fault zone in the extensional quadrant at depth, while the remaining portion deforms elastically. Plastic strain enhances the surface displacement of the fault zone, and the enhancement in the extensional quadrant is stronger than that in the compressive quadrant. These findings suggest that taking into account both elastic and inelastic deformation of fault zones to nearby earthquakes may improve our estimations of fault zone structure and properties from small-scale surface deformation signals. Furthermore, identifying the inelastic response of nearby fault zones to large earthquakes may allow us to place some constraints on the absolute stress level in the crust. I also investigate how to distinguish inelastic and elastic responses of compliant fault zones to the nearby rupture. I explore in detail the range of plastic parameters that allow plastic strain to occur and examine its effect on the displacement field around compliant fault zone. I find that the sympathetic motion (i.e., consistent to long-term geologic slip) or the reduced retrograde motion (i.e., opposite to long-term geologic slip) observed in residual displacement on fault parallel horizontal direction can be directly used to distinguish the inelastic deformation from the elastic deformation. This may help better interpret the geodetic observations in the further. In addition, I conduct models with various fault zone geometries (i.e., depth, width and shape) and rigidity reduction properties to test their effects on the displacement field. The results from elastic models suggest that to the same dynamic rupture source, the deeper and wider pre-existing nearby fault zone will result in larger residual displacement. But this only applies to fault zones with large depth extent. For shallow fault zones, residual displacement tends to keep the same magnitude or even decreases with fault zone width. While in plastic models, where plastic strain is allowed, displacement field is more complex. The magnitude of the residual displacement will be enhanced by the occurrence of plastic strain. Then I extend the theoretical simulations of an idealized planar rupture fault system into one in a geometrically complex real fault system in the East California Shear Zone (ECSZ). I compare our simulation results of the 1992 Landers Earthquake with the geodetic observations. Responses of the Calico and Rodman compliant fault zone are better understood by taking into account of both inelastic and elastic responses of compliant fault zones to the nearby Landers rupture. The electronic version of this dissertation is accessible from http://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/152529

Fall Meeting

Fall Meeting Book
Author : American Geophysical Union. Meeting
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2005
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Fall Meeting book written by American Geophysical Union. Meeting, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Properties and Processes of Crustal Fault Zones

Properties and Processes of Crustal Fault Zones Book
Author : Yehuda Ben-Zion,Antonio Rovelli
Publisher : Birkhäuser
Release : 2015-06-02
ISBN : 9783034809238
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Recent theoretical developments, acquisitions of large seismic and other data sets, detailed geological studies and novel laboratory experiments offer new opportunities for advancing the understanding of fault zone and earthquake processes. The present and a previous volume provide broad state-of-the-art perspectives on earthquakes and crustal fault zones. Subjects discussed in this volume include imaging of fault zones and the crust, microstructural analyses of fault zone rocks, long paleoseismic record, inferences on stress, stress drops and fault geometries, properties of dynamic ruptures, generation and healing of rock damage, temporal changes of attenuation, postseismic deformation and scaling of earthquake source properties. The volume will be useful to students and professional researchers from Earth Sciences, Material Sciences, Physics and other disciplines, who are interested in properties and processes of earthquakes and faults.

Fault Zone Dynamic Processes

Fault Zone Dynamic Processes Book
Author : Marion Y. Thomas,Thomas M. Mitchell,Harsha S. Bhat
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2017-06-19
ISBN : 1119156904
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Earthquakes are some of the most dynamic features of the Earth. This multidisciplinary volume presents an overview of earthquake processes and properties including the physics of dynamic faulting, fault fabric and mechanics, physical and chemical properties of fault zones, dynamic rupture processes, and numerical modeling of fault zones during seismic rupture. This volume examines questions such as: • What are the dynamic processes recorded in fault gouge? • What can we learn about rupture dynamics from laboratory experiments? • How do on-fault and off-fault properties affect seismic ruptures? • How do fault zones evolve over time? Fault Zone Dynamic Processes: Evolution of Fault Properties During Seismic Rupture is a valuable resource for scientists, researchers and students from across the geosciences interested in the earthquakes processes.

Involvement of Fluids in Earthquake Ruptures

Involvement of Fluids in Earthquake Ruptures Book
Author : Teruo Yamashita,Akito Tsutsumi
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-07-24
ISBN : 4431565620
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book furnishes state-of-the-art knowledge about how earthquake faulting is coupled with fluid flow. The authors describe the theoretical background of modeling of faulting coupled with fluid flow in detail. Field and laboratory evidence to suggest the fluid involvement in earthquake faulting is also carefully explained. All of the provided information constitutes together a basic framework of the fault modeling for a comprehensive understanding of the involvement of fluids in earthquake ruptures. Earthquake generation is now widely believed to be significantly affected by high-pressure fluid existing at depths. Consequently, modeling study of earthquake faulting coupled with fluid flow is becoming increasingly active as a field of research. This work is aimed at a wide range of readers, and is especially relevant for graduate students and solid-earth researchers who wish to become more familiar with the field.

Mechanics Structure and Evolution of Fault Zones

Mechanics  Structure and Evolution of Fault Zones Book
Author : Yehuda Ben-Zion,Charles Sammis
Publisher : Birkhäuser
Release : 2009-10-19
ISBN : 9783034601375
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Considerable progress has been made recently in quantifying geometrical and physical properties of fault surfaces and adjacent fractured and granulated damage zones in active faulting environments. There has also been significant progress in developing rheologies and computational frameworks that can model the dynamics of fault zone processes. This volume provides state-of-the-art theoretical and observational results on the mechanics, structure and evolution of fault zones. Subjects discussed include damage rheologies, development of instabilities, fracture and friction, dynamic rupture experiments, and analyses of earthquake and fault zone data.

The Physics of Rock Failure and Earthquakes

The Physics of Rock Failure and Earthquakes Book
Author : Mitiyasu Ohnaka
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2013-04-11
ISBN : 1107030064
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"Physical modelling of earthquake generation processes is essential to further our understanding of seismic hazard. However, the scale-dependent nature of earthquake rupture processes is further complicated by the heterogeneous nature of the crust. Despite significant advances in the understanding of earthquake generation processes, and the derivation of underlying physical laws, controversy remains regarding what the constitutive law for earthquake ruptures ought to be, and how it should be formulated. It is extremely difficult to obtain field data to define physical properties along a fault during a rupture event, at sufficiently high spatial and temporal resolution to resolve the controversy. Instead, laboratory experiments offer a means of obtaining high-resolution measurements that allow the physical nature of shear rupture processes to be deduced. This important new book is written using consistent notation, providing a deeper understanding of earthquake processes from nucleation to their dynamic propagation. Its key focus is a deductive approach based on laboratory-derived physical laws and formulae, such as a unifying constitutive law, a constitutive scaling law, and a physical model of shear rupture nucleation. Topics covered include: the fundamentals of rock failure physics, earthquake generation processes, physical scale dependence, and large-earthquake generation cycles and their seismic activity"--

Scientific Drilling Into the San Andreas Fault at Parkfield CA

Scientific Drilling Into the San Andreas Fault at Parkfield  CA Book
Author : Mark D. Zoback
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1998
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Scientific Drilling Into the San Andreas Fault at Parkfield CA book written by Mark D. Zoback, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Physics Briefs

Physics Briefs Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1994
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Physics Briefs book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Faulting Friction and Earthquake Mechanics

Faulting  Friction  and Earthquake Mechanics Book
Author : Chris J. Marone,Michael L. Blanpied
Publisher : Birkhäuser
Release : 1994-11-01
ISBN : 9783764350994
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Reprint from Pure and Applied Geophysics (PAGEOPH), Volume 143 (1994), No. 1-3

Earthquake Prediction Research Funding

Earthquake Prediction Research Funding Book
Author : California. Legislature. Joint Committee on Science and Technology
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1990
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Earthquake Prediction Research Funding book written by California. Legislature. Joint Committee on Science and Technology, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Science Technology in Japan

Science   Technology in Japan Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2005
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Science Technology in Japan book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

The Internal Structure of Fault Zones

The Internal Structure of Fault Zones Book
Author : Christopher A. J. Wibberley
Publisher : Geological Society of London
Release : 2008
ISBN : 9781862392533
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Faults are primary focuses of both fluid migration and deformation in the upper crust. The recognition that faults are typically heterogeneous zones of deformed material, not simple discrete fractures, has fundamental implications for the way geoscientists predict fluid migration in fault zones, as well as leading to new concepts in understanding seismic/aseismic strain accommodation. This book captures current research into understanding the complexities of fault-zone internal structure, and their control on mechanical and fluid-flow properties of the upper crust. A wide variety of approaches are presented, from geological field studies and laboratory analyses of fault-zone and fault-rock properties to numerical fluid-flow modelling, and from seismological data analyses to coupled hydraulic and rheological modelling. The publication aims to illustrate the importance of understanding fault-zone complexity by integrating such diverse approaches, and its impact on the rheological and fluid-flow behaviour of fault zones in different contexts.

Mechanical Properties of the Seismogenic Zone

Mechanical Properties of the Seismogenic Zone Book
Author : Marco Scuderi
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Understanding the processes that dictate the evolution of frictional strength during the seismic cycle is a central problem in characterizing the seismic potential of faults and in relating earthquake source parameters such as stress drop to recurrence interval and geologic and geodetic fault slip rates. Laboratory friction experiments provide insight into the mechanisms of fault healing, and results of these studies provide the fundamental underpinnings of the rate- and state-friction laws. Frictional healing is the mechanism(s) associated with fault restrengthening following failure, where time-, slip- and velocity- dependent processes dictate the evolution of real contact area at grain junctions within fault gouge. The objective of this work is to illuminate the micromechanics of frictional healing and the relation between mechanical and hydraulic properties of fault gouge. Four main dissertation chapters are combined with three additional collaborative works describing research on the fundamental processes that govern earthquakes and tectonic faulting. Chapter one is focused on the role of water during repetitive stick- slip frictional sliding, with particular emphasis on the grain scale mechanisms of frictional restrengthening. A micromechanical model for gouge deformation is developed, based on the interpretation of mechanical and microstructural observations.Chapter two describes the role of pore fluid pressure during earthquake nucleation and dynamic rupture. Experiments were performed on synthetic granular fault gouge under a range of hydrological boundary conditions from drained to undrained. The experiments demonstrate that when gouge layers are deformed under undrained boundary conditions, time-dependent strengthening and the magnitude of stress drop increase, when compared with drained conditions. I conclude that under undrained conditions, a series of feedback processes between pore fluid depressurization and stress enhanced pressure solution creep control time-dependent elasto-plastic deformation at frictional contacts. These observations have important implications for models of earthquake recurrence and for theoretical models of granular deformation.Chapter three was designed to investigate the relation between permeability and porosity across the brittle ductile transition in siliciclastic rocks, with implication for the up-dip limit of seismo-genesis along subduction zones. I find that permeability is dependent on the deformation style and strain localization. In the brittle regime shear localization along discrete bands can act as a barrier to fluid flow, modifying the hydrological properties and distribution of fluids. The possible generation of overpressures can lower the effective stress surrounding the shear plane and thus favor the nucleation/propagation of earthquake rupture.Chapter four describes work to examine the frictional stability and hydrological properties of natural serpentinite samples from the San Andreas Fault in central California. The aim of this work was to shed light on the deformation mechanism(s) responsible for the spectrum of fault slip behaviors, including Low Frequency Earthquakes (LFE), slow earthquakes, and non volcanic tremor. I find that when serpentinite is associated with other weak phyllosilicates minerals (i.e. talc), for typical seismogenic depths, it can control the mode of fault failure showing the potential characteristics for generating LFE and other forms of transient slip.