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Fault Zone Properties And Earthquake Rupture Dynamics

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Fault Zone Properties and Earthquake Rupture Dynamics

Fault Zone Properties and Earthquake Rupture Dynamics Book
Author : Eiichi Fukuyama
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2009-04-24
ISBN : 9780080922461
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The dynamics of the earthquake rupture process are closely related to fault zone properties which the authors have intensively investigated by various observations in the field as well as by laboratory experiments. These include geological investigation of the active and fossil faults, physical and chemical features obtained by the laboratory experiments, as well as the seismological estimation from seismic waveforms. Earthquake dynamic rupture can now be modeled using numerical simulations on the basis of field and laboratory observations, which should be very useful for understanding earthquake rupture dynamics. Features: * First overview of new and improved techniques in the study of earthquake faulting * Broad coverage * Full color Benefits: * A must-have for all geophysicists who work on earthquake dynamics * Single resource for all aspects of earthquake dynamics (from lab measurements to seismological observations to numerical modelling) * Bridges the disciplines of seismology, structural geology and rock mechanics * Helps readers to understand and interpret graphs and maps Also has potential use as a supplementary resource for upper division and graduate geophysics courses.

Fault Zone Dynamic Processes

Fault Zone Dynamic Processes Book
Author : Marion Y. Thomas,Thomas M. Mitchell,Harsha S. Bhat
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2017-07-12
ISBN : 1119156882
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Why do earthquakes happen? What properties control the dynamic rupture and what are the processes at play? Chapters in the present volume capture the current state of the art by displaying an overview of the existing knowledge on the physics of dynamic faulting and promote multidisciplinary contributions on the observational and experimental fault fabric and mechanics, the evolution of fault zone physical and chemical properties, dynamic rupture processes and physically, and observationally, consistent numerical modeling of fault zone during seismic rupture. This volume examines questions such as: What are the dynamics processes recorded in fault gouge?What can we learn on rupture dynamic from laboratory experiments? How on-fault and off-fault properties affect seismic ruptures? How do they evolve trough time?Insights from physically, and observationally, consistent numerical modeling Fault Zone Dynamic Processes: Evolution of Fault Properties During Seismic Rupture is a valuable contribution for Earth s scientists, researchers and students interested in the earthquakes processes and properties of on-fault and off-fault zones. Its multidisciplinary content is relevant to a broad audience: structural geologist, experimentalists, rocks mechanicians, seismologist, geophysicists and modelers. (source: Nielsen Book Data ; 9781119156888 20170829) -- Publisher's summary.

Poro Elasto Plastic Off Fault Response and Dynamics of Earthquake Faulting

Poro Elasto Plastic Off Fault Response and Dynamics of Earthquake Faulting Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Previous models of earthquake rupture dynamics have neglected interesting deformational properties of fault zone materials. While most current studies involving off-fault inelastic deformation employ simple brittle failure yield criteria such as the Drucker-Prager yield criterion, the material surrounding the fault plane itself, known as fault gouge, has the tendency to deform in a ductile manner accompanied by compaction. We incorporate this behavior into a new constitutive model of undrained fault gouge in a dynamic rupture model. Dynamic compaction of undrained fault gouge occurs ahead of the rupture front. This corresponds to an increase in pore pressure which preweakens the fault, reducing the static friction. Subsequent dilatancy and softening of the gouge causes a reduction in pore pressure, resulting in fault restrengthening and brief slip pulses. This leads to localization of inelastic failure to a narrow shear zone. We extend the undrained gouge model to a study of self-similar rough faults. Extreme compaction and dilatancy occur at restraining and releasing bends, respectively. The consequent elevated pore pressure at restraining bends weakens the fault and allows the rupture to easily pass, while the decrease in pore pressure at releasing bends dynamically strengthens the fault and slows rupture. In comparison to other recent models, we show that the effects of fault roughness on propagation distance, slip distribution, and rupture velocity are diminished or reversed. Next, we represent large subduction zone megathrust earthquakes with a dynamic rupture model of a shallow dipping fault underlying an accretionary wedge. In previous models by our group [Ma, 2012; Ma and Hirakawa, 2013], inelastic deformation of wedge material was shown to enhance vertical uplift and potential tsunamigenesis. Here, we include a shallow region of velocity strengthening friction with a rate-and-state framework. We find that coseismic increase of the basal friction drives further inelastic wedge failure in comparison with our previous models, with the implication of larger tsunami generation.

Fault Zone Properties and Earthquake Rupture Dynamics

Fault Zone Properties and Earthquake Rupture Dynamics Book
Author : Eiichi Fukuyama
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2009-04-06
ISBN : 9780123744524
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The dynamics of the earthquake rupture process are closely related to fault zone properties which the authors have intensively investigated by various observations in the field as well as by laboratory experiments. These include geological investigation of the active and fossil faults, physical and chemical features obtained by the laboratory experiments, as well as the seismological estimation from seismic waveforms. Earthquake dynamic rupture can now be modeled using numerical simulations on the basis of field and laboratory observations, which should be very useful for understanding earthquake rupture dynamics. Features: * First overview of new and improved techniques in the study of earthquake faulting * Broad coverage * Full color Benefits: * A must-have for all geophysicists who work on earthquake dynamics * Single resource for all aspects of earthquake dynamics (from lab measurements to seismological observations to numerical modelling) * Bridges the disciplines of seismology, structural geology and rock mechanics * Helps readers to understand and interpret graphs and maps Also has potential use as a supplementary resource for upper division and graduate geophysics courses.

Mechanics Structure and Evolution of Fault Zones

Mechanics  Structure and Evolution of Fault Zones Book
Author : Yehuda Ben-Zion,Charles Sammis
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2009-12-30
ISBN : 3034601387
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Considerable progress has been made recently in quantifying geometrical and physical properties of fault surfaces and adjacent fractured and granulated damage zones in active faulting environments. There has also been significant progress in developing rheologies and computational frameworks that can model the dynamics of fault zone processes. This volume provides state-of-the-art theoretical and observational results on the mechanics, structure and evolution of fault zones. Subjects discussed include damage rheologies, development of instabilities, fracture and friction, dynamic rupture experiments, and analyses of earthquake and fault zone data.

Fault Zone Dynamic Processes

Fault Zone Dynamic Processes Book
Author : Marion Y. Thomas,Thomas M. Mitchell,Harsha S. Bhat
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2017-06-19
ISBN : 1119156904
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Earthquakes are some of the most dynamic features of the Earth. This multidisciplinary volume presents an overview of earthquake processes and properties including the physics of dynamic faulting, fault fabric and mechanics, physical and chemical properties of fault zones, dynamic rupture processes, and numerical modeling of fault zones during seismic rupture. This volume examines questions such as: • What are the dynamic processes recorded in fault gouge? • What can we learn about rupture dynamics from laboratory experiments? • How do on-fault and off-fault properties affect seismic ruptures? • How do fault zones evolve over time? Fault Zone Dynamic Processes: Evolution of Fault Properties During Seismic Rupture is a valuable resource for scientists, researchers and students from across the geosciences interested in the earthquakes processes.

Deformation of Compliant Fault Zones Induced by Nearby Earthquakes

Deformation of Compliant Fault Zones Induced by Nearby Earthquakes Book
Author : Jingqian Kang
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Using dynamic modeling of earthquake rupture on a strike-slip fault and seismic wave propagation in a three dimensional inhomogeneous elastoplastic medium, I investigate the inelastic response of compliant fault zones to nearby earthquakes. I primarily examine the plastic strain distribution within the fault zone and the displacement field that characterizes the effects of the presence of the fault zone. I find that when the fault zone rocks are close to failure in the prestress field, plastic strain occurs along the entire fault zone near the Earth's surface and some portions of the fault zone in the extensional quadrant at depth, while the remaining portion deforms elastically. Plastic strain enhances the surface displacement of the fault zone, and the enhancement in the extensional quadrant is stronger than that in the compressive quadrant. These findings suggest that taking into account both elastic and inelastic deformation of fault zones to nearby earthquakes may improve our estimations of fault zone structure and properties from small-scale surface deformation signals. Furthermore, identifying the inelastic response of nearby fault zones to large earthquakes may allow us to place some constraints on the absolute stress level in the crust. I also investigate how to distinguish inelastic and elastic responses of compliant fault zones to the nearby rupture. I explore in detail the range of plastic parameters that allow plastic strain to occur and examine its effect on the displacement field around compliant fault zone. I find that the sympathetic motion (i.e., consistent to long-term geologic slip) or the reduced retrograde motion (i.e., opposite to long-term geologic slip) observed in residual displacement on fault parallel horizontal direction can be directly used to distinguish the inelastic deformation from the elastic deformation. This may help better interpret the geodetic observations in the further. In addition, I conduct models with various fault zone geometries (i.e., depth, width and shape) and rigidity reduction properties to test their effects on the displacement field. The results from elastic models suggest that to the same dynamic rupture source, the deeper and wider pre-existing nearby fault zone will result in larger residual displacement. But this only applies to fault zones with large depth extent. For shallow fault zones, residual displacement tends to keep the same magnitude or even decreases with fault zone width. While in plastic models, where plastic strain is allowed, displacement field is more complex. The magnitude of the residual displacement will be enhanced by the occurrence of plastic strain. Then I extend the theoretical simulations of an idealized planar rupture fault system into one in a geometrically complex real fault system in the East California Shear Zone (ECSZ). I compare our simulation results of the 1992 Landers Earthquake with the geodetic observations. Responses of the Calico and Rodman compliant fault zone are better understood by taking into account of both inelastic and elastic responses of compliant fault zones to the nearby Landers rupture. The electronic version of this dissertation is accessible from http://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/152529

Seismic Velocity and Elastic Properties of Plate Boundary Faults

Seismic Velocity and Elastic Properties of Plate Boundary Faults Book
Author : Tamara N. Jeppson
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2017
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The elastic properties of fault zone rock at depth play a key role in rupture nucleation, propagation, and the magnitude of fault slip. Materials that lie within major plate boundary fault zones often have very different material properties than standard crustal rock values. In order to understand the mechanics of faulting at plate boundaries, we need to both measure these properties and understand how they govern the behavior of different types of faults. Mature fault zones tend to be identified in large-scale geophysical field studies as zones with low seismic velocity and/or electrical resistivity. These anomalous properties are related to two important mechanisms: (1) mechanical or diagenetic alteration of the rock materials and/or (2) pore fluid pressure and stress effects. However, in remotely-sensed and large-length-scale data it is difficult to determine which of these mechanisms are affecting the measured properties. The objective of this dissertation research is to characterize the seismic velocity and elastic properties of fault zone rocks at a range of scales, with a focus on understanding why the fault zone properties are different from those of the surrounding rock and the potential effects on earthquake rupture and fault slip. To do this I performed ultrasonic velocity experiments under elevated pressure conditions on drill core and outcrops samples from three plate boundary fault zones: the San Andreas Fault, California, USA; the Alpine Fault, South Island, New Zealand; and the Japan Trench megathrust, Japan. Additionally, I compared laboratory measurements to sonic log and large-scale seismic data to examine the scale-dependence of the measured properties. The results of this study provide the most comprehensive characterization of the seismic velocities and elastic properties of fault zone rocks currently available. My work shows that fault zone rocks at mature plate boundary faults tend to be significantly more compliant than surrounding crustal rocks and quantifies that relationship. The results of this study are particularly relevant to the interpretation of field-scale seismic datasets at major fault zones. Additionally, the results of this study provide constraints on elastic properties used in dynamic rupture models.

Earthquake Research and Analysis

Earthquake Research and Analysis Book
Author : Sebastiano D'Amico
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2012-02-08
ISBN : 9533079916
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book is devoted to different aspects of earthquake research. Depending on their magnitude and the placement of the hypocenter, earthquakes have the potential to be very destructive. Given that they can cause significant losses and deaths, it is really important to understand the process and the physics of this phenomenon. This book does not focus on a unique problem in earthquake processes, but spans studies on historical earthquakes and seismology in different tectonic environments, to more applied studies on earthquake geology.

The Mechanics of Earthquakes and Faulting

The Mechanics of Earthquakes and Faulting Book
Author : Christopher H. Scholz
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2019-01-03
ISBN : 110716348X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A major update of this classic reference text on earthquakes and faulting with a wealth of new topics and observations.

Geology of the Earthquake Source

Geology of the Earthquake Source Book
Author : Åke Fagereng,Virginia G. Toy,Julie V. Rowland
Publisher : Geological Society of London
Release : 2011
ISBN : 9781862393370
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Professor Richard (Rick) Sibson revolutionized structural geology by illustrating that fault rocks contain an integrated record of earthquakes. Fault-rock textures develop in response to geological and physical variables such as composition, environmental conditions (e.g. temperature and pressure), fluid presence and strain rate. These parameters also determine the rate- and state-variable frictional stability of a fault, the dominant mineral deformation mechanism and shear strength, and ultimately control the partitioning between seismic and aseismic deformation. This volume contains a collection of papers that address the geological record of earthquake faulting from field-based or theoretical perspectives.

Classic Concepts and New Directions

Classic Concepts and New  Directions Book
Author : Lon D. Abbott,Gregory S. Hancock
Publisher : Geological Society of America
Release : 2013-10-16
ISBN : 0813700337
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"This guide's 14 chapters, which span the Rocky Mountain region's 1.7-billion-year history, give a retrospective glimpse of early geologic ideas being forged, bring the latest mapping and analytical results from classic locations, and introduce techniques that will form the bedrock of our geologic understanding in the years to come"--

Storm and Cloud Dynamics

Storm and Cloud Dynamics Book
Author : William R. Cotton,George Bryan,Susan C. van den Heever
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2010-12-21
ISBN : 9780080916651
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book focuses on the dynamics of clouds and of precipitating mesoscale meteorological systems. Clouds and precipitating mesoscale systems represent some of the most important and scientifically exciting weather systems in the world. These are the systems that produce torrential rains, severe winds including downburst and tornadoes, hail, thunder and lightning, and major snow storms. Forecasting such storms represents a major challenge since they are too small to be adequately resolved by conventional observing networks and numerical prediction models. * Provides a complete treatment of clouds integrating the analysis of air motions with cloud structure, microphysics, and precipitation mechanics * Describes and explains the basic types of clouds and cloud systems that occur in the atmosphere-fog, stratus, stratocumulus, altocumulus, altostratus, cirrus, thunderstorms, tornadoes, waterspouts, orographically induced clouds, mesoscale convection complexes, hurricanes, fronts, and extratropical cyclones * Summarizes the fundamentals, both observational and theoretical, of atmospheric dynamics, thermodynamics, cloud microphysics, and radar meteorology, allowing each type of cloud to be examined in depth * Integrates the latest field observations, numerical model simulations, and theory * Supplies a theoretical treatment suitable for the advanced undergraduate or graduate level, as well as post-graduate

The Physics of Rock Failure and Earthquakes

The Physics of Rock Failure and Earthquakes Book
Author : Mitiyasu Ohnaka
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2013-04-11
ISBN : 1107030064
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"Physical modelling of earthquake generation processes is essential to further our understanding of seismic hazard. However, the scale-dependent nature of earthquake rupture processes is further complicated by the heterogeneous nature of the crust. Despite significant advances in the understanding of earthquake generation processes, and the derivation of underlying physical laws, controversy remains regarding what the constitutive law for earthquake ruptures ought to be, and how it should be formulated. It is extremely difficult to obtain field data to define physical properties along a fault during a rupture event, at sufficiently high spatial and temporal resolution to resolve the controversy. Instead, laboratory experiments offer a means of obtaining high-resolution measurements that allow the physical nature of shear rupture processes to be deduced. This important new book is written using consistent notation, providing a deeper understanding of earthquake processes from nucleation to their dynamic propagation. Its key focus is a deductive approach based on laboratory-derived physical laws and formulae, such as a unifying constitutive law, a constitutive scaling law, and a physical model of shear rupture nucleation. Topics covered include: the fundamentals of rock failure physics, earthquake generation processes, physical scale dependence, and large-earthquake generation cycles and their seismic activity"--

Instabilities Modeling in Geomechanics

Instabilities Modeling in Geomechanics Book
Author : Ioannis Stefanou,Jean Sulem
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2021-03-12
ISBN : 1119755182
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Instabilities Modeling in Geomechanics describes complex mechanisms which are frequently met in earthquake nucleation, geothermal energy production, nuclear waste disposal and CO2 sequestration. These mechanisms involve systems of non-linear differential equations that express the evolution of the geosystem (e.g. strain localization, temperature runaway, pore pressure build-up, etc.) at different length and time scales. In order to study the evolution of a system and possible instabilities, it is essential to know the mathematical properties of the governing equations. Therefore, questions of the existence, uniqueness and stability of solutions naturally arise. This book particularly explores bifurcation theory and stability analysis, which are robust and rigorous mathematical tools that allow us to study the behavior of complex geosystems, without even explicitly solving the governing equations. The contents are organized into 10 chapters which illustrate the application of these methods in various fields of geomechanics.

The Earth s Ionosphere

The Earth s Ionosphere Book
Author : Michael C. Kelley
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2009-06-12
ISBN : 9780080916576
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Although interesting in its own right, due to the ever-increasing use of satellites for communication and navigation, weather in the ionosphere is of great concern. Every such system uses trans-ionospheric propagation of radio waves, waves which must traverse the commonly turbulent ionosphere. Understanding this turbulence and predicting it are one of the major goals of the National Space Weather program. Acquiring such a prediction capability will rest on understanding the very topics of this book, the plasma physics and electrodynamics of the system. Fully updated to reflect advances in the field in the 20 years since the first edition published Explores the buffeting of the ionosphere from above by the sun and from below by the lower atmosphere Unique text appropriate both as a reference and for coursework

Paleoseismology

Paleoseismology Book
Author : James P. McCalpin
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2009-07-02
ISBN : 9780080919980
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Paleoseismology has become an important component of seismic risk analysis, which is mandated for nuclear power plants, dams, waste repositories, and other critical structures. This book is the first in the English language to be devoted solely to paleoseismology. It summarizes the development of the field from the 1960s to the present, encompassing material that is currently widely dispersed in journal articles. * Includes a comprehensive review of the techniques currently used in paleoseismology * Emphasizes practical methods of data collection and field studies * Covers interpretation of field data based on current theory concerning fault segmentation and recurrence cycles * Contains more than 170 line drawings and 50 photographs of paleoseismic phenomena

Principles of Seismology

Principles of Seismology Book
Author : Agustín Udías,Elisa Buforn
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2017-12-21
ISBN : 1108547451
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The second edition of Principles of Seismology has been extensively revised and updated to present a modern approach to observation seismology and the theory behind digital seismograms. It includes: a new chapter on Earthquakes, Earth's structure and dynamics; a considerably revised chapter on instrumentation, with new material on processing of modern digital seismograms and a list of website hosting data and seismological software; and 100 end-of-chapter problems. The fundamental physical concepts on which seismic theory is based are explained in full detail with step-by-step development of the mathematical derivations, demonstrating the relationship between motions recorded in digital seismograms and the mechanics of deformable bodies. With chapter introductions and summaries, numerous examples, newly drafted illustrations and new color figures, and an updated bibliography and reference list, this intermediate-level textbook is designed to help students develop the skills to tackle real research problems.

Principles of Seismology

Principles of Seismology Book
Author : Agustín Udías,Elisa Buforn
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2017-12-21
ISBN : 1107138698
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This new edition features a completely new chapter on digital seismic data processing, numerous examples and 100 problems.

Nonlinear Ocean Waves and the Inverse Scattering Transform

Nonlinear Ocean Waves and the Inverse Scattering Transform Book
Author : Alfred Osborne
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2010-04-07
ISBN : 9780080925103
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

For more than 200 years, the Fourier Transform has been one of the most important mathematical tools for understanding the dynamics of linear wave trains. Nonlinear Ocean Waves and the Inverse Scattering Transform presents the development of the nonlinear Fourier analysis of measured space and time series, which can be found in a wide variety of physical settings including surface water waves, internal waves, and equatorial Rossby waves. This revolutionary development will allow hyperfast numerical modelling of nonlinear waves, greatly advancing our understanding of oceanic surface and internal waves. Nonlinear Fourier analysis is based upon a generalization of linear Fourier analysis referred to as the inverse scattering transform, the fundamental building block of which is a generalized Fourier series called the Riemann theta function. Elucidating the art and science of implementing these functions in the context of physical and time series analysis is the goal of this book. Presents techniques and methods of the inverse scattering transform for data analysis Geared toward both the introductory and advanced reader venturing further into mathematical and numerical analysis Suitable for classroom teaching as well as research