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Experiments And Modeling In Cognitive Science

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Experiments and Modeling in Cognitive Science

Experiments and Modeling in Cognitive Science Book
Author : Fabien Mathy,Mustapha Chekaf
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2018-11-22
ISBN : 0081027974
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Software Simulation and Modeling in Psychology: MATLAB, SPSS, Excel and E-Prime describes all the stages of psychology experimentation, from the manipulation of factors, to statistical analysis, data modeling, and automated stimuli creation. The book shows how software can help automate various stages of the experiment for which operations may quickly become repetitive. For example, it shows how to compile data files (instead of opening files one by one to copy and paste), generate stimuli (instead of drawing one by one in a drawing software), and transform and recode tables of data. This type of modeling in psychology helps determine if a model fits the data, and also demonstrates that the algorithmic is not only useful, but essential for modeling data. Covers the entire process of experimenting, from designing an experiment, to modeling the data Shows how software can help automate various stages of the experiment for which operations may quickly become repetitive Contains sections on how to compile data files (instead of opening files one by one to copy and paste) and generate stimuli (instead of drawing one by one in a drawing software)

Cognitive Models of Science

Cognitive Models of Science Book
Author : Ronald N. Giere
Publisher : U of Minnesota Press
Release : 1992
ISBN : 9780816619795
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This work resulted from a workshop on the implications of the cognitive sciences for the philosophy of science held under the auspices of the Minnesota Center for Philosophy of Science. The workshop's theme was that the cognitive sciences - identified for the purposes of this project with three disciplinary clusters: artificial intelligence, cognitive psychology, and cognitive neuroscience - have reached sufficient maturity that they are now a valuable resource for philosophers of science who are developing general theories of science as a human activity. The emergence of cognitive science has by no means escaped the notice of philosophers or philosophers of science. Within the philosophy of science one can detect an emerging speciality, the philosophy of cognitive science, which would be parallel to such specialities as the philosophy of physics or the philosophy of biology. But the reverse is also happening. That is, the cognitive sciences are beginning to have a considerable impact on the content and methods of philosophy, particularly the philosophy of language and the philosophy of mind, but also on epistemology. The underlying hope is that the cognitive sciences might now come to play the sort of role within the philosophy of science that formal logic played for logical empiricism or that history of science played for the historical school. This development might permit the philosophy of science as a whole finally to move beyond the opposition between "logical" and "historical" approaches that has characterized the field since the 1960s. "Ronald N. Giere is Professor of Philosophy and Director of the Minnesota Center for Philosophy of Science at the University of Minnesota.".

The Experimental Side of Modeling

The Experimental Side of Modeling Book
Author : Isabelle F. Peschard,Bas C. van Fraassen
Publisher : U of Minnesota Press
Release : 2018-10-02
ISBN : 1452957452
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

An innovative, multifaceted approach to scientific experiments as designed by and shaped through interaction with the modeling process The role of scientific modeling in mediation between theories and phenomena is a critical topic within the philosophy of science, touching on issues from climate modeling to synthetic models in biology, high energy particle physics, and cognitive sciences. Offering a radically new conception of the role of data in the scientific modeling process as well as a new awareness of the problematic aspects of data, this cutting-edge volume offers a multifaceted view on experiments as designed and shaped in interaction with the modeling process. Contributors address such issues as the construction of models in conjunction with scientific experimentation; the status of measurement and the function of experiment in the identification of relevant parameters; how the phenomena under study are reconceived when accounted for by a model; and the interplay between experimenting, modeling, and simulation when results do not mesh. Highlighting the mediating role of models and the model-dependence (as well as theory-dependence) of data measurement, this volume proposes a normative and conceptual innovation in scientific modeling—that the phenomena to be investigated and modeled must not be precisely identified at the start but specified during the course of the interactions arising between experimental and modeling activities. Contributors: Nancy D. Cartwright, U of California, San Diego; Anthony Chemero, U of Cincinnati; Ronald N. Giere, U of Minnesota; Jenann Ismael, U of Arizona; Tarja Knuuttila, U of South Carolina; Andrea Loettgers, U of Bern, Switzerland; Deborah Mayo, Virginia Tech; Joseph Rouse, Wesleyan U; Paul Teller, U of California, Davis; Michael Weisberg, U of Pennsylvania; Eric Winsberg, U of South Florida.

Computational Modeling of Cognition and Behavior

Computational Modeling of Cognition and Behavior Book
Author : Simon Farrell,Stephan Lewandowsky
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2018-02-22
ISBN : 9781107525610
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Computational modeling is now ubiquitous in psychology, and researchers who are not modelers may find it increasingly difficult to follow the theoretical developments in their field. This book presents an integrated framework for the development and application of models in psychology and related disciplines. Researchers and students are given the knowledge and tools to interpret models published in their area, as well as to develop, fit, and test their own models. Both the development of models and key features of any model are covered, as are the applications of models in a variety of domains across the behavioural sciences. A number of chapters are devoted to fitting models using maximum likelihood and Bayesian estimation, including fitting hierarchical and mixture models. Model comparison is described as a core philosophy of scientific inference, and the use of models to understand theories and advance scientific discourse is explained.

Computational Cognitive Modeling and Linguistic Theory

Computational Cognitive Modeling and Linguistic Theory Book
Author : Adrian Brasoveanu,Jakub Dotlačil
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2020-06-01
ISBN : 9783030318444
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This open access book introduces a general framework that allows natural language researchers to enhance existing competence theories with fully specified performance and processing components. Gradually developing increasingly complex and cognitively realistic competence-performance models, it provides running code for these models and shows how to fit them to real-time experimental data. This computational cognitive modeling approach opens up exciting new directions for research in formal semantics, and linguistics more generally, and offers new ways of (re)connecting semantics and the broader field of cognitive science.

Big Data in Cognitive Science

Big Data in Cognitive Science Book
Author : Michael N. Jones
Publisher : Psychology Press
Release : 2016-11-03
ISBN : 1315413566
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

While laboratory research is the backbone of collecting experimental data in cognitive science, a rapidly increasing amount of research is now capitalizing on large-scale and real-world digital data. Each piece of data is a trace of human behavior and offers us a potential clue to understanding basic cognitive principles. However, we have to be able to put the pieces together in a reasonable way, which necessitates both advances in our theoretical models and development of new methodological techniques. The primary goal of this volume is to present cutting-edge examples of mining large-scale and naturalistic data to discover important principles of cognition and evaluate theories that would not be possible without such a scale. This book also has a mission to stimulate cognitive scientists to consider new ways to harness big data in order to enhance our understanding of fundamental cognitive processes. Finally, this book aims to warn of the potential pitfalls of using, or being over-reliant on, big data and to show how big data can work alongside traditional, rigorously gathered experimental data rather than simply supersede it. In sum, this groundbreaking volume presents cognitive scientists and those in related fields with an exciting, detailed, stimulating, and realistic introduction to big data – and to show how it may greatly advance our understanding of the principles of human memory, perception, categorization, decision-making, language, problem-solving, and representation.

Dynamical Models In Neurocognitive Psychology

Dynamical Models In Neurocognitive Psychology Book
Author : Ralf Engbert
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021-06-16
ISBN : 3030672999
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Dynamical Models In Neurocognitive Psychology book written by Ralf Engbert, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Bayesian Cognitive Modeling

Bayesian Cognitive Modeling Book
Author : Michael D. Lee,Eric-Jan Wagenmakers
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2014-04-03
ISBN : 1107653916
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Bayesian inference has become a standard method of analysis in many fields of science. Students and researchers in experimental psychology and cognitive science, however, have failed to take full advantage of the new and exciting possibilities that the Bayesian approach affords. Ideal for teaching and self study, this book demonstrates how to do Bayesian modeling. Short, to-the-point chapters offer examples, exercises, and computer code (using WinBUGS or JAGS, and supported by Matlab and R), with additional support available online. No advance knowledge of statistics is required and, from the very start, readers are encouraged to apply and adjust Bayesian analyses by themselves. The book contains a series of chapters on parameter estimation and model selection, followed by detailed case studies from cognitive science. After working through this book, readers should be able to build their own Bayesian models, apply the models to their own data, and draw their own conclusions.

Cognitive Modeling in Perception and Memory

Cognitive Modeling in Perception and Memory Book
Author : J G W Raaijmakers,Robert Goldstone,Mark Steyvers,Amy Criss,Robert Nosofsky
Publisher : Psychology Press
Release : 2015-02-11
ISBN : 113462932X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The work of Richard M. Shiffrin has highly impacted the field of cognitive science, and current developments within perception and memory have been influenced by his ideas. In this volume, several key figures in the field will comment on these developments and put them in a wider perspective. Although many theories and models have been presented in recent years for various aspects of human cognition, there have not been many comparative evaluations that focus on how these models have really advanced our understanding of the underlying mechanisms. This volume will be a valuable source of information for both cognitive scientists working in the field, and researchers and students looking for a clear, accessible presentation of the key problems in cognitive science. Highlighted sections include attention and perception, memory functions and processes, knowledge representation and semantics, modelling approaches and applications.

Mental Models In Cognitive Science

Mental Models In Cognitive Science Book
Author : Alan Garnham,Jane Oakhill
Publisher : Psychology Press
Release : 2013-06-17
ISBN : 1134835736
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Phil Johnson-Laird's theory of mental models has proved to be an influential development in the cognitive sciences. This theory aims to provide a detailed account of both reasoning and inference on the one hand, and language on the other. It can therefore be regarded as a step toward the much-sought-after unified theory of cognition.; This book provides an overview of mental models research. Some of the contributors were collaborators or former graduate students of Johnson-Laird, and between them they cover the main strands of mental models theory. After an appreciation of Johnson-Laird, the book covers topics including language Processing, Reasoning, Inference, The Role Of Emotions, And The Impact Of mental illnesses on thought processes.

Computational Cognitive Modeling and Linguistic Theory

Computational Cognitive Modeling and Linguistic Theory Book
Author : Adrian Brasoveanu,Jakub Dotlačil
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-01-01
ISBN : 303031846X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This open access book introduces a general framework that allows natural language researchers to enhance existing competence theories with fully specified performance and processing components. Gradually developing increasingly complex and cognitively realistic competence-performance models, it provides running code for these models and shows how to fit them to real-time experimental data. This computational cognitive modeling approach opens up exciting new directions for research in formal semantics, and linguistics more generally, and offers new ways of (re)connecting semantics and the broader field of cognitive science. The approach of this book is novel in more ways than one. Assuming the mental architecture and procedural modalities of Anderson's ACT-R framework, it presents fine-grained computational models of human language processing tasks which make detailed quantitative predictions that can be checked against the results of self-paced reading and other psycho-linguistic experiments. All models are presented as computer programs that readers can run on their own computer and on inputs of their choice, thereby learning to design, program and run their own models. But even for readers who won't do all that, the book will show how such detailed, quantitatively predicting modeling of linguistic processes is possible. A methodological breakthrough and a must for anyone concerned about the future of linguistics! (Hans Kamp) This book constitutes a major step forward in linguistics and psycholinguistics. It constitutes a unique synthesis of several different research traditions: computational models of psycholinguistic processes, and formal models of semantics and discourse processing. The work also introduces a sophisticated python-based software environment for modeling linguistic processes. This book has the potential to revolutionize not only formal models of linguistics, but also models of language processing more generally. (Shravan Vasishth) .

Quantum Structures in Cognitive and Social Science

Quantum Structures in Cognitive and Social Science Book
Author : Diederik Aerts,Jan Broekaert,Liane Gabora,Sandro Sozzo
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2016-06-26
ISBN : 2889198766
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Traditional approaches to cognitive psychology correspond with a classical view of logic and probability theory. More specifically, one typically assumes that cognitive processes of human thought are founded on the Boolean structures of classical logic, while the probabilistic aspects of these processes are based on the Kolmogorovian structures of classical probability theory. However, growing experimental evidence indicates that the models founded on classical structures systematically fail when human decisions are at stake. These experimental deviations from classical behavior have been called `paradoxes’, `fallacies’, `effects’ or `contradictions’, depending on the specific situation where they appear. But, they involve a broad spectrum of cognitive and social science domains, ranging from conceptual combination to decision making under uncertainty, behavioral economics, and linguistics. This situation has constituted a serious drawback to the development of various disciplines, like cognitive science, linguistics, artificial intelligence, economic modeling and behavioral finance. A different approach to cognitive psychology, initiated two decades ago, has meanwhile matured into a new domain of research, called ‘quantum cognition’. Its main feature is the use of the mathematical formalism of quantum theory as modeling tool for these cognitive situations where traditional classically based approaches fail. Quantum cognition has recently attracted the interest of important journals and editing houses, academic and funding institutions, popular science and media. Specifically, within a quantum cognition approach, one assumes that human decisions do not necessarily obey the rules of Boolean logic and Kolmogorovian probability, and can on the contrary be modeled by the quantum-mechanical formalism. Different concrete quantum-theoretic models have meanwhile been developed that successfully represent the cognitive situations that are classically problematical, by explaining observed deviations from classicality in terms of genuine quantum effects, such as `contextuality’, `emergence’, `interference’, `superposition’, `entanglement’ and `indistinguishability’. In addition, the validity of these quantum models is convincingly confirmed by new experimental tests. We also stress that, since the use of a quantum-theoretic framework is mainly for modeling purposes, the identification of quantum structures in cognitive processes does not presuppose (without being incompatible with it) the existence of microscopic quantum processes in the human brain. In this Research Topic, we review the major achievements that have been obtained in quantum cognition, by providing an accurate picture of the state-of-the-art of this emerging discipline. Our overview does not pretend to be either complete or exhaustive. But, we aim to introduce psychologists and social scientists to this challenging new research area, encouraging them, at the same time, to consider its promising results. It is our opinion that, if continuous progress in this domain can be realized, quantum cognition can constitute an important breakthrough in cognitive psychology, and potentially open the way towards a new scientific paradigm in social science.

Running Behavioral Studies With Human Participants

Running Behavioral Studies With Human Participants Book
Author : Frank E. Ritter,Jong W. Kim,Jonathan H. Morgan,Richard A. Carlson
Publisher : SAGE
Release : 2013
ISBN : 1452217424
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Running Behavioral Experiments With Human Participants: A Practical Guide, by Frank E. Ritter, Jong W. Kim, Jonathan H. Morgan, and Richard A. Carlson, provides a concrete, practical roadmap for the implementation of experiments and controlled observation using human participants. Ideal for those with little or no practical experience in research methodology, the text covers both conceptual and practical issues that are critical to implementing an experiment. The book is organized to follow a standard process in experiment-based research, covering such issues as potential ethical problems, risks to validity, experimental setup, running a study, and concluding a study.

An Experimental Investigation of Two Cognitive Science Models of Language Processing as Potential Models of Reading

An Experimental Investigation of Two Cognitive Science Models of Language Processing as Potential Models of Reading Book
Author : Ronan G. Reilly
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1982
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download An Experimental Investigation of Two Cognitive Science Models of Language Processing as Potential Models of Reading book written by Ronan G. Reilly, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Science

The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Science Book
Author : Susan E. F. Chipman
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2016-12-08
ISBN : 0199842191
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cognitive Science is an avowedly multidisciplinary field, drawing upon many traditional disciplines or research areas--including Linguistics, Neuroscience, Philosophy, Psychology, Anthropology, Artificial Intelligence, and Education--that contribute to our understanding of cognition. Just as learning and memory cannot truly prove effective as disconnected studies, practical applications of cognitive research, such as the improvement of education and human-computer interaction, require dealing with more complex cognitive phenomena by integrating the methods and insights from multiple traditional disciplines. The societal need for such applications has played an important role in the development of cognitive science. The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Science emphasizes the research and theory that is most central to modern cognitive science. Sections of the volume address computational theories of human cognitive architecture; cognitive functioning, such as problem solving and decision making as they have been studied with both experimental methods and formal modeling approaches; and cognitive linguistics and the advent of big data. Chapters provide concise introductions to the present achievements of cognitive science, supplemented by references to suggested reading, and additional facets of cognitive science are discussed in the handbook's introductory chapter, complementing other key publications to access for further study. With contributions from among the best representatives in their fields, this volume will appeal as the critical resource for the students in training who determine the future of cognitive science.

Cognitive Science

Cognitive Science Book
Author : Jay Friedenberg,Gordon Silverman
Publisher : SAGE Publications
Release : 2011-07-14
ISBN : 1412977614
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In this Second Edition of their landmark text, Authors Jay Friedenberg and Gordon Silverman survey significant theoretical models of the human mind from an interdisciplinary perspective. Unlike other texts for this course which focus solely on classic experiments to illustrate major phenomena, Cognitive Science introduces students to the theoretical models and ideas underlying such empirical work. While experiments are discussed, they are used primarily to illustrate the specific characteristics of a model. This edition includes two new chapters on emotional cognition and social cognition.

An Invitation to Cognitive Science

An Invitation to Cognitive Science Book
Author : Daniel N. Osherson,Don Scarborough,Saul Sternberg
Publisher : MIT Press
Release : 1998
ISBN : 9780262650465
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The chapters in this volume span many areas of cognitive science -- including artificial intelligence, neural network models, animal cognition, signal detection theory, computational models, reaction-time methods, and cognitive neuroscience. An Invitation to Cognitive Science provides a point of entry into the vast realm of cognitive science by treating in depth examples of issues and theories from many subfields. The first three volumes of the series cover Language, Visual Cognition, and Thinking. Volume 4, Methods, Models, and Conceptual Issues, expands the series in new directions. The chapters span many areas of cognitive science -- including artificial intelligence, neural network models, animal cognition, signal detection theory, computational models, reaction-time methods, and cognitive neuroscience. The volume also offers introductions to several general methods and theoretical approaches for analyzing the mind, and shows how some of these approaches are applied in the development of quantitative models. Rather than general and inevitably superficial surveys of areas, the contributors present "case studies" -- detailed accounts of one or two achievements within an area. The goal is to tell a good story, challenging the reader to embark on an intellectual adventure.

Selected Research Publications in Cognitive Science by Rand Staff

Selected Research Publications in Cognitive Science by Rand Staff Book
Author : Richard H. Anderson
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1978
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Selected Research Publications in Cognitive Science by Rand Staff book written by Richard H. Anderson, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Integrated Models of Cognitive Systems

Integrated Models of Cognitive Systems Book
Author : Wayne D. Gray
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2007-04-19
ISBN : 019029339X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The field of cognitive modeling has progressed beyond modeling cognition in the context of simple laboratory tasks and begun to attack the problem of modeling it in more complex, realistic environments, such as those studied by researchers in the field of human factors. The problems that the cognitive modeling community is tackling focus on modeling certain problems of communication and control that arise when integrating with the external environment factors such as implicit and explicit knowledge, emotion, cognition, and the cognitive system. These problems must be solved in order to produce integrated cognitive models of moderately complex tasks. Architectures of cognition in these tasks focus on the control of a central system, which includes control of the central processor itself, initiation of functional processes, such as visual search and memory retrieval, and harvesting the results of these functional processes. Because the control of the central system is conceptually different from the internal control required by individual functional processes, a complete architecture of cognition must incorporate two types of theories of control: Type 1 theories of the structure, functionality, and operation of the controller, and type 2 theories of the internal control of functional processes, including how and what they communicate to the controller. This book presents the current state of the art for both types of theories, as well as contrasts among current approaches to human-performance models. It will be an important resource for professional and student researchers in cognitive science, cognitive-engineering, and human-factors. Contributors: Kevin A. Gluck, Jerry T. Ball, Michael A. Krusmark, Richard W. Pew, Chris R. Sims, Vladislav D. Veksler, John R. Anderson, Ron Sun, Nicholas L. Cassimatis, Randy J. Brou, Andrew D. Egerton, Stephanie M. Doane, Christopher W. Myers, Hansjörg Neth, Jeremy M Wolfe, Marc Pomplun, Ronald A. Rensink, Hansjörg Neth, Chris R. Sims, Peter M. Todd, Lael J. Schooler, Wai-Tat Fu, Michael C. Mozer, Sachiko Kinoshita, Michael Shettel, Alex Kirlik, Vladislav D. Veksler, Michael J. Schoelles, Jerome R. Busemeyer, Eric Dimperio, Ryan K. Jessup, Jonathan Gratch, Stacy Marsella, Glenn Gunzelmann, Kevin A. Gluck, Scott Price, Hans P. A. Van Dongen, David F. Dinges, Frank E. Ritter, Andrew L. Reifers, Laura Cousino Klein, Michael J. Schoelles, Eva Hudlicka, Hansjörg Neth, Christopher W. Myers, Dana Ballard, Nathan Sprague, Laurence T. Maloney, Julia Trommershäuser, Michael S. Landy, A. Hornof, Michael J. Schoelles, David Kieras, Dario D. Salvucci, Niels Taatgen, Erik M. Altmann, Richard A. Carlson, Andrew Howes, Richard L. Lewis, Alonso Vera, Richard P. Cooper, and Michael D. Byrne

Stevens Handbook of Experimental Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience Methodology

Stevens  Handbook of Experimental Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience  Methodology Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2018-02-12
ISBN : 111917015X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

V. Methodology: E. J. Wagenmakers (Volume Editor) Topics covered include methods and models in categorization; cultural consensus theory; network models for clinical psychology; response time modeling; analyzing neural time series data; models and methods for reinforcement learning; convergent methods of memory research; theories for discriminating signal from noise; bayesian cognitive modeling; mathematical modeling in cognition and cognitive neuroscience; the stop-signal paradigm; hypothesis testing and statistical inference; model comparison in psychology; fmri; neural recordings; open science; neural networks and neurocomputational modeling; serial versus parallel processing; methods in psychophysics.