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Evolution Since Coding

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Evolution since Coding

Evolution since Coding Book
Author : Zachary F. Burton
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2017-08-01
ISBN : 0128130342
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Evolution since Coding: Cradles, Halos, Barrels, and Wings describes genesis of metabolism, transcription, translation, cell structure, eukaryotic complexity, LUCA (the last universal common (cellular) ancestor), the great divergence of archaea and bacteria, LECA (the last eukaryotic common ancestor), extinction, and cancer in very simple ways. The work (almost) "synthesizes life from scratch" (since coding) and describes the tools for readers to check the author’s work. As a result, readers understand living systems and their evolution in a conceptual way and are empowered to utilize powerful but accessible tools in computer-based biology. The work serves as foundational reading for a variety of researchers, academics, and students in life sciences, for example in evolution/evolutionary biology, biochemistry, genetics/molecular genetics, molecular biology, cell biology, and microbiology, as well as disciplines beyond biological science. Its approachable style makes the book accessible for introductory students and educated laypersons. Evolution since Coding is suitable to supplement college courses that mix computers, evolution, and biology from freshman to senior level. Provides a simple, hands-on, conceptual route to understanding ancient evolution and the diversification of life on earth Offers a conceptual understanding of biology, evolution, protein structure, RNA synthesis systems, protein synthesis systems, signaling systems, genesis of the three domains, and cell structures Approaches ancient evolution via code-breaking protein and RNA sequences and motifs

Molecular Evolution

Molecular Evolution Book
Author : Vadim A. Ratner,Andrey A. Zharkikh,Nikolay Kolchanov,Sergey N. Rodin,Viktor V. Solovyov,Andrey S. Antonov
Publisher : Springer
Release : 1995-12-05
ISBN : 9783540570837
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In 1970, Manfred Eigen initiated the study of the origin of self-reproducing systems of macromolecules and their evolution. Large-scale nucleotide sequencing (with computer methods) was introduced from 1977. The authors of this book, the first edition of which appeared (in Russian) in 1985, have been engaged in the research of the evolution of molecular genetic regulatory systems ever since those pioneering years. The book considers many fundamental problems of molecular biology, evolution, molecular genetic organization, the structure and function of macromolecules, always with the underlying motive of developing a unified theory. It describes many original, theoretical results as well as computational methods.

DNA Coding the Core of Life Sciences

DNA Coding  the Core of Life Sciences Book
Author : Victor W Chang , Guoping Song
Publisher : Samuel Chang
Release : 2020-06-26
ISBN : 1640086838
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

For over one hundred years before DNA coding was discovered, the Theory of Evolution dominated biology. We can call the biology of that era as "Pre-DNA Biology". During this era, generations of biologists inherited biological theories derived from the Theory of Evolution. Thus, these biologists cannot understand the error of the Theory of Evolution. However, science does not follow human will. The conclusions expressed by DNA coding conflict with the foundations of the Theory of Evolution. The fact that the DNA coding of all humans have consistent sequences shatters the premise of the Theory of Evolution, namely, that evolution is random. The uniqueness in the number and karyotypes of biological chromosomes prevents the production of new species through continuous and slight change. DNA coding gives new life to biology by revealing the inherent secret of living creatures. Thus, "Post-DNA Biology" must be established. In this new era of biology, the most urgent task is to understand the inherent nature of living creatures through DNA coding, which consists of DNA decoding and mathematic analysis.

Mind and Its Evolution

Mind and Its Evolution Book
Author : Allan Paivio
Publisher : Psychology Press
Release : 2014-01-14
ISBN : 1317716906
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book updates the Dual Coding Theory of mind (DCT), a theory of modern human cognition consisting of separate but interconnected nonverbal and verbal systems. Allan Paivio, a leading scholar in cognitive psychology, presents this masterwork as new findings in psychological research on memory, thought, language, and other core areas have flourished, as have pioneering developments in the cognitive neurosciences. Mind and Its Evolution provides a thorough exploration into how these adaptive nonverbal and verbal systems might have evolved, as well as a careful comparison of DCT with contrasting "single-code" cognitive theories. Divided into four parts, this text begins with a general, systematic theory of modern human cognition as the reference model for interpreting the cognitive abilities of evolutionary ancestors. The first half of the book discusses mind as it is; the second half addresses how it came to be that way. Each half is subdivided into two parts defined by thematic chapters. Mind and Its Evolution concludes with evidence-based suggestions about nourishing mental growth through applications of DCT in education, psychotherapy, and health. This volume will appeal to cognitive and evolutionary psychologists, as well as students in the areas of memory, language, cognition, and mind evolution specialists in psychology, philosophy, and other disciplines.

Coding in the Evolution of Signalling Behavior

Coding in the Evolution of Signalling Behavior Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Ardent Media
Release : 2021-10-21
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Coding in the Evolution of Signalling Behavior book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Long Non Coding RNA

Long Non Coding RNA Book
Author : Syed Mudasir Ahmad,Nazir Ahmad Ganai
Publisher : Cambridge Scholars Publishing
Release : 2020-09-03
ISBN : 1527559106
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) were originally regarded as “noise” in the genome due to their lack of protein-encoding capacity. However, their roles are now understood to cover various biological functions like gene regulation, cell proliferation, survival, differentiation, and chromatin remodeling. As an emerging group of non-coding RNA molecules, LncRNAs are involved in diverse diseases like cancer, cardiovascular, autoimmune, hormonal disorders, neurodegeneration, and infection, among others. However, knowledge of the mechanisms by which they act is still ambiguous. As such, this book meets the essential need for a textbook dedicated to this topic and provides a comprehensive and captivating account of lncRNA research.

Speech Coding Algorithms

Speech Coding Algorithms Book
Author : Wai C. Chu
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2004-03-04
ISBN : 0471668877
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Speech coding is a highly mature branch of signal processing deployed in products such as cellular phones, communication devices, and more recently, voice over internet protocol This book collects many of the techniques used in speech coding and presents them in an accessible fashion Emphasizes the foundation and evolution of standardized speech coders, covering standards from 1984 to the present The theory behind the applications is thoroughly analyzed and proved

Error Correction Coding

Error Correction Coding Book
Author : Todd K. Moon
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2020-12-07
ISBN : 1119567483
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Providing in-depth treatment of error correction Error Correction Coding: Mathematical Methods and Algorithms, 2nd Edition provides a comprehensive introduction to classical and modern methods of error correction. The presentation provides a clear, practical introduction to using a lab-oriented approach. Readers are encouraged to implement the encoding and decoding algorithms with explicit algorithm statements and the mathematics used in error correction, balanced with an algorithmic development on how to actually do the encoding and decoding. Both block and stream (convolutional) codes are discussed, and the mathematics required to understand them are introduced on a “just-in-time” basis as the reader progresses through the book. The second edition increases the impact and reach of the book, updating it to discuss recent important technological advances. New material includes: Extensive coverage of LDPC codes, including a variety of decoding algorithms. A comprehensive introduction to polar codes, including systematic encoding/decoding and list decoding. An introduction to fountain codes. Modern applications to systems such as HDTV, DVBT2, and cell phones Error Correction Coding includes extensive program files (for example, C++ code for all LDPC decoders and polar code decoders), laboratory materials for students to implement algorithms, and an updated solutions manual, all of which are perfect to help the reader understand and retain the content. The book covers classical BCH, Reed Solomon, Golay, Reed Muller, Hamming, and convolutional codes which are still component codes in virtually every modern communication system. There are also fulsome discussions of recently developed polar codes and fountain codes that serve to educate the reader on the newest developments in error correction.

Fundamentals in Information Theory and Coding

Fundamentals in Information Theory and Coding Book
Author : Monica Borda
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-05-27
ISBN : 9783642203473
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The work introduces the fundamentals concerning the measure of discrete information, the modeling of discrete sources without and with a memory, as well as of channels and coding. The understanding of the theoretical matter is supported by many examples. One particular emphasis is put on the explanation of Genomic Coding. Many examples throughout the book are chosen from this particular area and several parts of the book are devoted to this exciting implication of coding.

Genomic Elements in Health Disease and Evolution

Genomic Elements in Health  Disease and Evolution Book
Author : Kyriacos Felekkis,Konstantinos Voskarides
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-09-30
ISBN : 1493930702
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Over 98% of the human genome contains non-coding DNA sequences. For many years molecular biologists referred to this component of the genome as the “junk” DNA since it does not code for any “useful” protein product. Over the last years this notion changed significantly as scientists discovered that a large part of this DNA contains various genomic elements that have important roles in cell physiology. Genomic elements such as non-coding RNAs, transposons, splicing RNAs, DNA repeats and others were shown to play a significant role in regulating gene expression. In addition, all these elements were implicated to contribute in the pathogenesis or progression of various human diseases. In this book, the editor will attempt to describe all these genomic elements that constitute the junk DNA of the genome. For every genomic element, the physiologic role in the organism, its role in evolution and any possible involvement in human diseases will be discussed. Additionally, interaction between these elements in normal or pathologic condition will be discussed. Since a large amount of new knowledge is generated daily in regards to these genomic elements, this book will attempt to combine all the information in a single publication that can serve as a reference for future studies. The first part will discuss RNA elements such as microRNAs, long non-coding RNAs, piRNAs and splicing RNAs. The second part of the book will deal with transposons, retrotransposons and DNA transposons. Finally the third part of the book will discuss DNA elements that include DNA repeats, conserved non-coding sequences, distal genomic elements, introns, pseudogenes, CpG islands and telomeres. For miRNAs and CNVs a separate chapter will be dedicated to their role in human diseases since an extensive amount of information exists about these two elements.

Programming of Life

Programming of Life Book
Author : Donald E. Johnson
Publisher : Big Mac Publishers
Release : 2010
ISBN : 0982355467
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"This is currently the best book covering the relationship between genome and computer architectures." - JOHNATHAN BARTLETT, Author / Publisher / Speaker / Director of Technology ----- This book highlights the informational aspects of life that are generally overlooked or ignored in chemical and biological evolutionary scenarios. Each cell of an organism has millions of interacting computers reading and processing digital information, using digital programs and digital codes to communicate and translate information. Life is an intersection of physical science and information science. Both domains are critical for any life to exist, and each must be investigated using that domain's principles. Yet most scientists have been attempting to use physical science to explain life's information domain, a practice which has no scientific justification. -- As you can tell by the preceding words this research is a fascinating approach to the question of the origin of life. - (PUBLISHER) ----- "Programming of Life is an excellent freshman level review of the formal programming, coding/decoding, integration, organization, Prescriptive Information (PI), memory, regulation and control required for a physical object to find itself 'alive.' DONALD E. JOHNSON is uniquely qualified to unpackage the strong parallels between everyday cybernetic design and engineering and the workings of the cell. I highly recommend this book." -DAVID L. ABEL, Director, The Gene Emergence Project Department of ProtoBioCybernetics and ProtoBioSemiotics The Origin of Life Science Foundation, Inc. ----- (ABOUT THE AUTHOR: ) DR. DON JOHNSON has earned Ph.D.s in both Computer & Information Sciences from the University of Minnesota and in Chemistry from Michigan State University. He was a senior research scientist for 10 years in pharmaceutical and medical / scientific instrument fields, served as president and technical expert in an independent computer consulting firm for many years, and taught for 20 years in universities in Wisconsin, Minnesota, California, and Europe. He now maintains scienceintegrity.net to expose unsubstantiated claims in science and has made presentations on most continents.

Origin And Evolution Of The Cell The Proceedings Of The Conference On The Origin And Evolution Of Prokaryotic And Eukaryotic Cells

Origin And Evolution Of The Cell  The   Proceedings Of The Conference On The Origin And Evolution Of Prokaryotic And Eukaryotic Cells Book
Author : Matsuno K,Hartman Hyman
Publisher : World Scientific
Release : 1993-02-13
ISBN : 9814553549
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

On the 50th anniversary of Yang-Mills theory, this invaluable volume looks back at the developments and achievements in elementary particle physics that ensued from that beautiful idea.During the last five decades, Yang-Mills theory, which is undeniably the most important cornerstone of theoretical physics, has expanded widely. It has been investigated from many perspectives, and many new and unexpected features have been uncovered from this theory. In recent decades, apart from high energy physics, the theory has been actively applied in other branches of physics, such as statistical physics, condensed matter physics, nonlinear systems, etc. This makes the theory an indispensable topic for all who are involved in physics.An international team of experts, each of whom has left his mark on the developments of this remarkable theory, contribute essays or more detailed technical accounts to this volume. These articles highlight the new discoveries from the respective authors' perspectives. The distinguished contributors are: S Adler, F A Bais, C Becchi, M Creutz, A De Rújula, B S DeWitt, F Englert, L D Faddeev, P Hasenfratz, R Jackiw, A Polyakov, V N Popov, R Stora, P van Baal, P van Nieuwenhuizen, S Weinberg, F Wilczek, E Witten, C N Yang. Included in each article are introductory and explanatory remarks by the editor, G 't Hooft, who is himself a major player in the development of Yang-Mills theory.

Non Coding RNAs

Non Coding RNAs Book
Author : Jan Barciszewski
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2003-08-31
ISBN : 9780306478352
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

General inspection of a role performed in the cell by RNAs allows us to distinguish three major groups of transcripts: I. protein-coding mRNAs, II. non-coding housekeeping and III. regulatory RNAs. The housekeeping RNAs include RNA classes that are generally, constitutively expressed and whose presence is required for normal function and viability of the cells. On the other hand, a group of regulatory RNAs includes RNA species that are expressed at certain stages of organism development or cell differentiation or as a response to external stimuli and can affect expression of other genes on the levels of transcription or translation. Non-coding RNA transcripts form a heterogeneous class of RNAs that can not be characterized by a single specific function. Initially, the term non-coding RNA (ncRNA) was used primarily to describe polyadenylated and a capped eukaryotic RNAs transcribed by RNA polymerase II, but lacking long open reading frames. Now, this definition can be extended to cover all RNA transcripts that do not show protein-coding capacity and is sometimes used to describe any RNA that does not encode protein, including introns. This book is an in-depth look at the function of Non-Coding RNAs and their relationship to Molecular Biology and Molecular Biology.

Essentials of Error Control Coding

Essentials of Error Control Coding Book
Author : Jorge Castiñeira Moreira,Patrick Guy Farrell
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2006-08-04
ISBN : 0470035714
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Rapid advances in electronic and optical technology have enabled the implementation of powerful error-control codes, which are now used in almost the entire range of information systems with close to optimal performance. These codes and decoding methods are required for the detection and correction of the errors and erasures which inevitably occur in digital information during transmission, storage and processing because of noise, interference and other imperfections. Error-control coding is a complex, novel and unfamiliar area, not yet widely understood and appreciated. This book sets out to provide a clear description of the essentials of the subject, with comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of the most useful codes and their decoding algorithms. A practical engineering and information technology emphasis, as well as relevant background material and fundamental theoretical aspects, provides an in-depth guide to the essentials of Error-Control Coding. Provides extensive and detailed coverage of Block, Cyclic, BCH, Reed-Solomon, Convolutional, Turbo, and Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, together with relevant aspects of Information Theory EXIT chart performance analysis for iteratively decoded error-control techniques Heavily illustrated with tables, diagrams, graphs, worked examples, and exercises Invaluable companion website features slides of figures, algorithm software, updates and solutions to problems Offering a complete overview of Error Control Coding, this book is an indispensable resource for students, engineers and researchers in the areas of telecommunications engineering, communication networks, electronic engineering, computer science, information systems and technology, digital signal processing and applied mathematics.

Old Haystack

Old Haystack Book
Author : Zachary Burton
Publisher : Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
Release : 2018-04-09
ISBN : 9781987455823
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Old Haystack reports on Old Elsieburt (an old cow) jumping over the moon. You are what you eat, so a cow is a haystack and vice versa. The moon adores cows.

Channel Coding Theory Algorithms and Applications

Channel Coding  Theory  Algorithms  and Applications Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2014-07-29
ISBN : 012397223X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book gives a review of the principles, methods and techniques of important and emerging research topics and technologies in Channel Coding, including theory, algorithms, and applications. Edited by leading people in the field who, through their reputation, have been able to commission experts to write on a particular topic. With this reference source you will: Quickly grasp a new area of research Understand the underlying principles of a topic and its applications Ascertain how a topic relates to other areas and learn of the research issues yet to be resolved Quick tutorial reviews of important and emerging topics of research in Channel Coding Presents core principles in Channel Coding theory and shows their applications Reference content on core principles, technologies, algorithms and applications Comprehensive references to journal articles and other literature on which to build further, more specific and detailed knowledge

Principles of Coding and Reimbursement for Surgeons

Principles of Coding and Reimbursement for Surgeons Book
Author : Mark Savarise,Christopher Senkowski
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-12-30
ISBN : 3319435957
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This text provides the in-depth understanding of the mechanisms that guide coding and reimbursement. The text is meant to be useful to surgeons in practice, both in general surgery and in surgical subspecialties; practice management teams of surgical practices and to resident physicians in surgery. Part 1 of the text addresses the CPT coding process, the relative valuation system (RVU), the ICD-9 and ICD-10 systems of classification, Medicare Part B payment rules for physicians, the DRG system and Medicare Part A payment for hospitals, alternative payment models, and the myriad of quality measures of importance to surgeons. Part 2 of the text addresses specific coding in areas where surgeons historically have had the most difficulty. This is not meant to substitute for the available texts, software or courses on coding, but to provide the historical background and rationale for the specific coding rules. Principles of Coding and Reimbursement for Surgeons will be of great value to general surgeons and surgical subspecialists in private practice, academic institutions, and employed positions. It will provide direction to management teams from practice and institutional levels. It is also of use to surgical trainees and to researchers in health policy issues.

Trellis and Turbo Coding

Trellis and Turbo Coding Book
Author : Christian B. Schlegel,Lance C. Perez
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2004-09-07
ISBN : 0471667838
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Trellis and turbo coding are used to compress and clean communications signals to allow greater bandwidth and clarity Presents the basics, theory, and applications of these techniques with a focus on potential standard state-of-the art methods in the future Provides a classic basis for anyone who works in the area of digital communications A Wiley-IEEE Press Publication

Turbo Coding Turbo Equalisation and Space Time Coding

Turbo Coding  Turbo Equalisation and Space Time Coding Book
Author : Lajos Hanzo,T. H. Liew,B. L. Yeap,R. Y. S. Tee,Soon Xin Ng
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2011-05-03
ISBN : 9780470978337
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Covering the full range of channel codes from the most conventional through to the most advanced, the second edition of Turbo Coding, Turbo Equalisation and Space-Time Coding is a self-contained reference on channel coding for wireless channels. The book commences with a historical perspective on the topic, which leads to two basic component codes, convolutional and block codes. It then moves on to turbo codes which exploit iterative decoding by using algorithms, such as the Maximum-A-Posteriori (MAP), Log-MAP and Soft Output Viterbi Algorithm (SOVA), comparing their performance. It also compares Trellis Coded Modulation (TCM), Turbo Trellis Coded Modulation (TTCM), Bit-Interleaved Coded Modulation (BICM) and Iterative BICM (BICM-ID) under various channel conditions. The horizon of the content is then extended to incorporate topics which have found their way into diverse standard systems. These include space-time block and trellis codes, as well as other Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) schemes and near-instantaneously Adaptive Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (AQAM). The book also elaborates on turbo equalisation by providing a detailed portrayal of recent advances in partial response modulation schemes using diverse channel codes. A radically new aspect for this second edition is the discussion of multi-level coding and sphere-packing schemes, Extrinsic Information Transfer (EXIT) charts, as well as an introduction to the family of Generalized Low Density Parity Check codes. This new edition includes recent advances in near-capacity turbo-transceivers as well as new sections on multi-level coding schemes and of Generalized Low Density Parity Check codes Comparatively studies diverse channel coded and turbo detected systems to give all-inclusive information for researchers, engineers and students Details EXIT-chart based irregular transceiver designs Uses rich performance comparisons as well as diverse near-capacity design examples

Evolutionary Algorithms in Engineering Applications

Evolutionary Algorithms in Engineering Applications Book
Author : Dipankar Dasgupta,Zbigniew Michalewicz
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-06-29
ISBN : 3662034239
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Evolutionary algorithms are general-purpose search procedures based on the mechanisms of natural selection and population genetics. They are appealing because they are simple, easy to interface, and easy to extend. This volume is concerned with applications of evolutionary algorithms and associated strategies in engineering. It will be useful for engineers, designers, developers, and researchers in any scientific discipline interested in the applications of evolutionary algorithms. The volume consists of five parts, each with four or five chapters. The topics are chosen to emphasize application areas in different fields of engineering. Each chapter can be used for self-study or as a reference by practitioners to help them apply evolutionary algorithms to problems in their engineering domains.