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Evolution Of Dental Tissues And Paleobiology In Selachians

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Evolution of Dental Tissues and Paleobiology in Selachians

Evolution of Dental Tissues and Paleobiology in Selachians Book
Author : Gilles Cuny,Guillaume Guinot,Sebastien Enault
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2017-11-21
ISBN : 0081011407
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Chondrichthyans possess unique anatomical features compared to other vertebrates, in particular a fully cartilaginous skeleton and a permanently renewed dentition. These characteristics make the fossilization of whole bodies difficult and consequently their fossil record consists mainly of a large number of isolated teeth. The study of their dentition is therefore of primary interest for our understanding of the evolution of this group. Beyond the dental morphology, the structure of the tissues composing the dentition has proved an important source of information, sometimes difficult to interpret, on the eating habits and the paleobiology of these animals. This book makes a thorough review of the existing theories in this field of research as well as introducing new elements from more recent studies. Through close reference to the fossil record of ancient selachians it examines what the study of dental tissue in cartilaginous fish can tell us about the evolution and the past biology of these animals, as well as what we can learn about the evolution of teeth themselves. Focuses on the evolution of the teeth microstructure of the cartilaginous fishes Offers a complete overview of the terminology used to describe fish tooth microstructures Offers an overview of convergent enameloid microstructures between actinopterygians (ray-finned fishes) and chondrichthyans to enable better understanding of the evolution of this kind of tissue Highlights the importance of isolated fossil teeth to understand the evolution of whole clades Discusses the use of isolated fossil teeth to understand the evolution of whole clades

Timetrees Incorporating Fossils and Molecules 2nd edition

Timetrees  Incorporating Fossils and Molecules  2nd edition Book
Author : Michel Laurin,Gilles Didier,Rachel C. M. Warnock
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2022-09-15
ISBN : 2889766667
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Calibrating phylogenies to time is central to addressing many questions in evolutionary biology and macroevolution. The fossil record once provided our only source for establishing a timeline for evolution. However, the incompleteness of the fossil record and the non-uniformity of fossil recovery rate make it challenging to obtain precise estimates of divergence times from fossil evidence alone. Molecular dating, which combines evidence from the geological and molecular records, enables us to generate a much more complete and precise timeline of events. The molecular clock can be time-calibrated using temporal evidence from fossils and used to estimate divergence times based on the assumption that the rate of sequence evolution will be approximately constant over time and among lineages. Methodological challenges to applying this concept in practice have been to relax the assumption of constant evolutionary rates and to model the uncertainty associated with paleontological and geological calibrations. To this end, available statistical methods have become increasingly complex in order to capture key features of empirical data. These are typically applied using Bayesian inference, which provides a powerful framework for incorporating multiple sources of uncertainty. Although overall more effort has been expended in developing models of molecular sequence evolution, critical advances have also included approaches to modeling taxonomic diversification and fossilization. In particular, recent advances in birth-death process models have allowed for continuous sampling along lineages, enabling more information from the fossil record to be incorporated into dating analyses in a statistically coherent way. In addition, available dating methods can now be applied to scenarios in which no molecular data may be available, allowing for novel insights into the evolution of entirely extinct clades. Other recent innovations enable us to date divergence times among taxa that have no fossil record, including the use of gene duplication events or biogeographic evidence. Furthermore, time-calibrated trees are necessary for obtaining phylogenetic estimates of taxonomic diversification and extinction rates, which can now be jointly inferred along with lineage divergence times. These approaches offer an exciting opportunity to understand the evolution of life in deep time, although key challenges remain, especially with regards to modeling the processes of genome evolution, taxonomic diversification and fossil recovery. In this Research Topic, we focus on recent advances in methodology, outstanding challenges, and the application of molecular and paleontological dating methods to empirical case studies across the Tree of Life.

Vertebrate Skeletal Histology and Paleohistology

Vertebrate Skeletal Histology and Paleohistology Book
Author : Vivian de Buffrénil,Armand J. de Ricqlès,Louise Zylberberg,Kevin Padian
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2021-06-24
ISBN : 1351189573
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Vertebrate Skeletal Histology and Paleohistology summarizes decades of research into the biology and biological meaning of hard tissues, in both living and extinct vertebrates. In addition to outlining anatomical diversity, it provides fundamental phylogenetic and evolutionary contexts for interpretation. An international team of leading authorities review the impact of ontogeny, mechanics, and environment in relation to bone and dental tissues. Synthesizing current advances in the biological problems of growth, metabolism, evolution, ecology, and behavior, this comprehensive and authoritative volume is built upon a foundation of concepts and technology generated over the past fifty years.

The Beginning of the Age of Dinosaurs

The Beginning of the Age of Dinosaurs Book
Author : Kevin Padian
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 1988-09-30
ISBN : 9780521367790
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Around 210 million years ago, life on Earth experienced sweeping changes. Many archaic reptiles and mammalian predecessors became extinct and were replaced by dinosaurs, pterosaurs, crocodiles, turtles, mammals, and essentially all of the major modern vertebrate groups except the birds. This period of change, which took place over a period of approximately five to ten million years, ushered in the beginning of the 'Age of Dinosaurs,' a period that lasted 160 million years to the end of the Cretaceous 65 million years ago. In the past decade, paleontologists have come to know a great deal more about this crucial interval of time. New discoveries, ideas, and insights from scientists in many related- disciplines have created new paradigms about the beginning of the 'Age of Dinosaurs.' What were the animals that preceded the dinosaurs like? How did the dinosaurs originate, and what do we know of their early history? Was their ascent tied to evolutionary innovations, global climatic and ecological changes, or just chance factors? How do paleontologists decide about the evidence preserved in the fossil record, and what areas now require major thought and reevaluation? In this book, 31 specialists in the paleontology of this era consider these and other questions related to Late Triassic and Early Jurassic times - the beginning of the 'Age of Dinosaurs,' its fauna, flora, climate, stratigraphic relationships, and major evolutionary changes. The book is divided into sections on background, Late Triassic taxa and faunas, changes across the boundary, Early Jurassic taxa and faunas, and major macroevolutionary patterns. This comprehensive volume is richly illustrated and is intended for students and professionals in the areas of paleontology, evolutionary biology, geology, and vertebrate zoology. Introductory and summary chapters are provided to acquaint the non-specialist with the issues and the setting of this interval of time in which the ancestral components of the modem fauna, as well as the Dinosauria, first appeared to rule the Earth.

Transactions and Proceedings of the Palaeontological Society of Japan

Transactions and Proceedings of the Palaeontological Society of Japan Book
Author : Nihon Koseibutsu Gakkai
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1995
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Transactions and Proceedings of the Palaeontological Society of Japan book written by Nihon Koseibutsu Gakkai, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Palaeobiology of Giant Flightless Birds

Palaeobiology of Giant Flightless Birds Book
Author : Delphine Angst,Eric Buffetaut
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2017-11-16
ISBN : 0081011431
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The fossil record of giant flightless birds extends back to the Late Cretaceous, more than 70 million years ago, but our understanding of these extinct birds is still incomplete. This is partly because the number of specimens available is sometimes limited, but also because widely different approaches have been used to study them, with sometimes contradictory results. This book summarizes the current knowledge of the paleobiology of seven groups of giant flightless birds: Dinornithiformes, Aepyornithiformes, Dromornithidae, Phorusrhacidae, Brontornithidae, Gastornithidae and Gargantuavis. The first chapter presents the global diversity of these birds and reviews the tools and methods used to study their paleobiology. Chapters 2 to 8 are each dedicated to one of the seven groups of extinct birds. Finally, a conclusion offers a global synthesis of the information presented in the book in an attempt to define a common evolutionary model. Focuses on the giant flightless birds that evolved independently in different parts of the world since the Cretaceous period Covers a number of different families with different evolutionary histories, providing a source of interesting comparisons Provides emphasis on the palaeobiology of these birds, including their evolution, adaptations, mode of life, ecology and extinction

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2008
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Evolution and Development of Fishes

Evolution and Development of Fishes Book
Author : Zerina Johanson,Charlie Underwood,Martha Richter
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2019-01-10
ISBN : 1107179440
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

World-class palaeontologists and biologists summarise the state-of-the-art on fish evolution and development.

The biology of Latimeria chalumnae and evolution of coelacanths

The biology of Latimeria chalumnae and evolution of coelacanths Book
Author : J.A. Musick,Michael N. Bruton,E.K. Balon
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 9401131945
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download The biology of Latimeria chalumnae and evolution of coelacanths book written by J.A. Musick,Michael N. Bruton,E.K. Balon, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Fossil Record 5

Fossil Record 5 Book
Author : Robert M. Sullivan,Spencer G. Lucas
Publisher : New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science
Release : 2016-01-01
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Fossil Record 5 book written by Robert M. Sullivan,Spencer G. Lucas, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Living Fossils

Living Fossils Book
Author : N. Eldredge,S. M. Stanley
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 1461382718
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The case history approach has an impressive record of success in a variety of disciplines. Collections of case histories, casebooks, are now widely used in all sorts of specialties other than in their familiar appli cation to law and medicine. The case method had its formal beginning at Harvard in 1871 when Christopher Lagdell developed it as a means of teaching. It was so successful in teaching law that it was soon adopted in medical education, and the collection of cases provided the raw material for research on various diseases. Subsequently, the case history approach spread to such varied fields as business, psychology, management, and economics, and there are over 100 books in print that use this approach. The idea for a series of Casehooks in Earth Science grew from my experience in organizing and editing a collection of examples of one variety of sedimentary deposits. The prqject began as an effort to bring some order to a large number of descriptions of these deposits that were so varied in presentation and terminology that even specialists found them difficult to compare and analyze. Thus, from the beginning, it was evident that something more than a simple collection of papers was needed. Accordingly, the nearly fifty contributors worked together with George de Vries Klein and me to establish a standard format for presenting the case histories.

Fishes of the World

Fishes of the World Book
Author : Joseph S. Nelson,Terry C. Grande,Mark V. H. Wilson
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2016-04-25
ISBN : 1119220823
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Take your knowledge of fishes to the next level Fishes of the World, Fifth Edition is the only modern, phylogenetically based classification of the world’s fishes. The updated text offers new phylogenetic diagrams that clarify the relationships among fish groups, as well as cutting-edge global knowledge that brings this classic reference up to date. With this resource, you can classify orders, families, and genera of fishes, understand the connections among fish groups, organize fishes in their evolutionary context, and imagine new areas of research. To further assist your work, this text provides representative drawings, many of them new, for most families of fishes, allowing you to make visual connections to the information as you read. It also contains many references to the classical as well as the most up-to-date literature on fish relationships, based on both morphology and molecular biology. The study of fishes is one that certainly requires dedication—and access to reliable, accurate information. With more than 30,000 known species of sharks, rays, and bony fishes, both lobe-finned and ray-finned, you will need to master your area of study with the assistance of the best reference materials available. This text will help you bring your knowledge of fishes to the next level. Explore the anatomical characteristics, distribution, common and scientific names, and phylogenetic relationships of fishes Access biological and anatomical information on more than 515 families of living fishes Better appreciate the complexities and controversies behind the modern view of fish relationships Refer to an extensive bibliography, which points you in the direction of additional, valuable, and up-to-date information, much of it published within the last few years Fishes of the World, Fifth Edition is an invaluable resource for professional ichthyologists, aquatic ecologists, marine biologists, fish breeders, aquaculturists, and conservationists.

Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains

Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains Book
Author : Donald J. Ortner
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2003-01-10
ISBN : 9780080525631
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains provides an integrated and comprehensive treatment of pathological conditions that affect the human skeleton. There is much that ancient skeletal remains can reveal to the modern orthopaedist, pathologist, forensic anthropologist, and radiologist about the skeletal manifestations of diseases that are rarely encountered in modern medical practice. Beautifully illustrated with over 1,100 photographs and drawings, this book provides essential text and materials on bone pathology, which will improve the diagnostic ability of those interested in human dry bone pathology. It also provides time depth to our understanding of the effect of disease on past human populations. Key Features *Comprehensive review of skeletal diseases encountered in archeological human remains * More than 1100 photographs and line drawings illustrating skeletal disease including both microscopic and gross features * Based on extensive research on skeletal paleopathology in many countries for over 35 years * Review of important theoretical issues in interpreting evidence of skeletal disease in archeological human populations

Thermodynamics Solubility and Environmental Issues

Thermodynamics  Solubility and Environmental Issues Book
Author : Trevor M. Letcher
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2007-04-20
ISBN : 9780080481036
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Environmental problems are becoming an important aspect of our lives as industries grow apace with populations throughout the world. Thermodynamics, Solubility and Environmental Issues highlights some of the problems and shows how chemistry can help to reduce these them. The unifying theme is Solubility – the most basic and important of thermodynamic properties. This informative book looks at the importance and applications of solubility and thermodynamics, in understanding and in reducing chemical pollution in the environment. Written by experts in their respective fields and representing the latest findings in this very important and broad area. A collection of twenty-five chapters cover a wide range of topics including; mining, polymer manufacture and applications, radioactive wastes, industries in general, agro-chemicals, soil pollution and biology, together with the basic theory and recent developments in the modelling of environmental pollutants. Latest research into solving some of the most important environmental problems Covering new technologies, new chemicals and new processes eg, biodegradable polymers, ionic liquids and green chemistry Contains the basic theories and underlying importance of solubility

Dental Morphology 98

Dental Morphology  98 Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1999
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Dental Morphology 98 book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Cardio Respiratory Control in Vertebrates

Cardio Respiratory Control in Vertebrates Book
Author : Mogens L. Glass,Stephen C. Wood
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2009-07-24
ISBN : 9783540939856
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Hopefully, this book will be taken off of the shelf frequently to be studied carefully over many years. More than 40 researchers were involved in this project, which examines respiration, circulation, and metabolism from ?sh to the land vertebrates, including human beings. A breathable and stable atmosphere ?rst appeared about 500 million years ago. Oxygen levels are not stable in aquatic environments and exclusively water-breathing ?sh must still cope with the ever-changing levels of O 2 and with large temperature changes. This is re?ected in their sophisticated count- current systems, with high O extraction and internal and external O receptors. 2 2 The conquest for the terrestrial environment took place in the late Devonian period (355–359 million years ago), and recent discoveries portray the gradual transitional evolution of land vertebrates. The oxygen-rich and relatively stable atmospheric conditionsimpliedthatoxygen-sensingmechanismswererelativelysimpleandl- gain compared with acid–base regulation. Recently, physiology has expanded into related ?elds such as biochemistry, molecular biology, morphology and anatomy. In the light of the work in these ?elds, the introduction of DNA-based cladograms, which can be used to evaluate the likelihood of land vertebrates and lung?sh as a sister group, could explain why their cardio-respiratory control systems are similar. The diffusing capacity of a duck lung is 40 times higher than that of a toad or lung?sh. Certainly, some animals have evolved to rich high-performance levels.

Feeding in Vertebrates

Feeding in Vertebrates Book
Author : Vincent Bels,Ian Q. Whishaw
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-04-23
ISBN : 3030137392
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides students and researchers with reviews of biological questions related to the evolution of feeding by vertebrates in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Based on recent technical developments and novel conceptual approaches, the book covers functional questions on trophic behavior in nearly all vertebrate groups including jawless fishes. The book describes mechanisms and theories for understanding the relationships between feeding structure and feeding behavior. Finally, the book demonstrates the importance of adopting an integrative approach to the trophic system in order to understand evolutionary mechanisms across the biodiversity of vertebrates.

Handbook of Paleoichthyology

Handbook of Paleoichthyology Book
Author : Henri Cappetta
Publisher : Lubrecht & Cramer Limited
Release : 2004-01
ISBN : 9783899370461
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Handbook of Paleoichthyology book written by Henri Cappetta, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Biological Consequences of Plate Tectonics

Biological Consequences of Plate Tectonics Book
Author : Guntupalli V.R. Prasad,Rajeev Patnaik
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-11-23
ISBN : 3030497534
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book recognizes and celebrates the contributions of Professor Ashok Sahni to the field of paleontology. Prof. Sahni established a School of Vertebrate Palaeontology at Panjab University, Chandigarh, India, where he trained many of today’s vertebrate paleontologists of India. The book covers topics on evolutionary patterns, macroevolutionary events, origination and radiation events, changes in physical environments & climate and their implications for biodiversity dynamics, intercontinental affinities and biogeographic connections in a plate tectonic framework. The book begins by exploring India in the age of the dinosaurs, discussing new fossil remains from the Jurassic Era, then moves through the Cretaceous and Eocene to provide a picture on faunal and floral changes in Gondwanaland in the context of plate tectonics. Furthermore, the book explores the evolutionary patterns and biotic dispersals that resulted from the northward drift of Indian plate during the Cretaceous and its collision with Asia in the Eocene. The respective chapters reveal the role of plate tectonics and climate in shaping the geographical distribution of plants and animals in Gondwana, specifically in India, as well as the post-India/Asia collision implications for biodiversity changes and biogeography in the region’s continental environments. Given its scope, the book will appeal to vertebrate paleontologists, evolutionary biologists, and paleobiogeographers.

Fluorine and Health

Fluorine and Health Book
Author : Alain Tressaud,Gunter Haufe
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2008-06-06
ISBN : 9780080558110
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Fluorine and Health presents a critical multidisciplinary overview on the contribution of fluorinated compounds to resolve the important global issue of medicinal monitoring and health care. The involved subjects are organized in three thematic parts devoted to Molecular Imaging, Biomedical Materials and Pharmaceuticals. Initially the key-position of partially fluorinated low molecular weight compounds labelled either with the natural 19F-isotope for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) or labelled with the radioactive [18F]-isotope for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is highlighted. Both non-invasive methods belong to the most challenging in vivo imaging techniques in oncology, neurology and in cardiology for the diagnosis of diseases having the highest mortality in the industrialized countries. The manifold facets of fluorinated biomaterials range from inorganic ceramics to perfluorinated organic molecules. Liquid perfluorocarbons are suitable for oxygen transport and as potential respiratory gas carriers, while fluorinated polymers are connected to the pathology of blood vessels. Another important issue concerns the application of highly fluorinated liquids in ophthalmology. Moreover, fluorine is an essential trace element in bone mineral, dentine and tooth enamel and is applied for the prophylaxis and treatment of dental caries. The various origins of human exposure to fluoride species is detailed to promote a better understanding of the effect of fluoride species on living organisms. Medicinally relevant fluorinated molecules and their interactions with native proteins are the main focus of the third part. New molecules fluorinated in strategic position are crucial for the development of pharmaceuticals with desired action and optimal pharmacological profile. Among the hundreds of marketed active drug components there are more than 150 fluorinated compounds. The chapters will illustrate how the presence of fluorine atoms alters properties of bioactive compounds at various biochemical steps, and possibly facilitate its emergence as pharmaceuticals. Finally the synthetic potential of a fluorinase, the first C-F bond forming enzyme, is summarized. - New approach of topics involving chemistry, biology and medicinal techniques - Transdisciplinar papers on fluoride products - Importance of fluoride products in health - Updated data on specific topics