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Evolution Explanation Ethics And Aesthetics

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Evolution Explanation Ethics and Aesthetics

Evolution  Explanation  Ethics and Aesthetics Book
Author : Francisco J. Ayala
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-07-21
ISBN : 0128037318
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Evolution, Explanation, Ethics and Aesthetics: Towards a Philosophy of Biology focuses on the dominant biological topic of evolution. It deals with the prevailing philosophical themes of how to explain the adaptation of organisms, the interplay of chance and necessity, and the recurrent topics of emergence, reductionism, and progress. In addition, the extensively treated topic of how to explain human nature as a result of natural processes and the encompassed issues of the foundations of morality and the brain-to-mind transformation is discussed. The philosophy of biology is a rapidly expanding field, not more than half a century old at most, and to a large extent is replacing the interest in the philosophy of physics that prevailed in the first two-thirds of the twentieth century. Few texts available have the benefit of being written by an eminent biologist who happens to be also a philosopher, as in this work. This book is a useful resource for seminar courses and college courses on the philosophy of biology. Researchers, academics, and students in evolutionary biology, behavior, genetics, and biodiversity will also be interested in this work, as will those in human biology and issues such as ethics, religion, and the human mind, along with professional philosophers of science and those concerned with such issues as whether evolution is compatible with religion and/or where morality comes from. Presents the unique perspective of a distinguished biologist with extensive experience in the field who has published much about the subject in a wide variety of journals and edited volumes Covers the philosophical issues related to evolution and biology in an approachable and readable style Includes the most up-to-date treatment of this burgeoning, exciting field within biology Provides the ideal guide for researchers, academics, and students in evolutionary biology, behavior, genetics, and biodiversity

Evolution and the Naked Truth

Evolution and the Naked Truth Book
Author : Gonzalo Munevar
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2018-08-21
ISBN : 0429864809
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Published in 1998, the main aim of this book is to use a naturalistic, evolutionary approach to solve some of the most important problems in philosophy. The first two problems come from the philosophy of science: the problem of rationality of science and the problem of truth in science. In presenting the first problem, the author argues that the views of Kuhn and Feyerabend do create a very serious challenge to traditional epistemology, however, if the assumption of individual rationality is abandoned in favour of the author's social concept of rationality, a committed naturalism can account for science as a rational activity. In tackling the second problem of truth, the author shows that a committed evolutionary philosophy does not support realism but leads instead to a thorough evolutionary relativism of scientific knowledge. It is nevertheless possible to use this evolutionary relativism to construct a theory of relative truth. The issue of whether science discovers truth has also been tied to absolutism, that a well formulated theory of relative truth is likely to bring about a profound transformation of the way we think about the field. The author explores the notion of relative truth in the philosophy of science, ethics and aesthetics.

Musical Aesthetics

Musical Aesthetics Book
Author : Jonathan L. Friedmann
Publisher : Cambridge Scholars Publishing
Release : 2018-07-27
ISBN : 1527514900
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book contains six chapters covering key areas of musical aesthetics, including aesthetics of emotions; aesthetics of listening; aesthetics of performance; aesthetics of composition; aesthetics of nature; and aesthetics of commerce. Each chapter adopts an experiential approach to aesthetics, in which perceptual and intuitive musical responses – real-time experiences – are valued as a source of truth. Unlike intellectual aesthetics, which values conscious associations and meticulous artistic appraisals, experiential aesthetics looks primarily at everyday subconscious appreciations. The explorations here draw from the social sciences, hard sciences, philosophy, literature, theology, musicology, humanities, and other fields that directly or indirectly contribute to an understanding of our attraction to music. Presenting user-friendly distillations of numerous theories, concepts, and functions, this book will be of interest to both lay readers and expert practitioners.

The Routledge Handbook of Evolution and Philosophy

The Routledge Handbook of Evolution and Philosophy Book
Author : Richard Joyce
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2017-08-16
ISBN : 1317655567
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In recent years, the relation between contemporary academic philosophy and evolutionary theory has become ever more active, multifaceted, and productive. The connection is a bustling two-way street. In one direction, philosophers of biology make significant contributions to theoretical discussions about the nature of evolution (such as "What is a species?"; "What is reproductive fitness?"; "Does selection operate primarily on genes?"; and "What is an evolutionary function?"). In the other direction, a broader group of philosophers appeal to Darwinian selection in an attempt to illuminate traditional philosophical puzzles (such as "How could a brain-state have representational content?"; "Are moral judgments justified?"; "Why do we enjoy fiction?"; and "Are humans invariably selfish?"). In grappling with these questions, this interdisciplinary collection includes cutting-edge examples from both directions of traffic. The thirty contributions, written exclusively for this volume, are divided into six sections: The Nature of Selection; Evolution and Information; Human Nature; Evolution and Mind; Evolution and Ethics; and Evolution, Aesthetics, and Art. Many of the contributing philosophers and psychologists are international leaders in their fields.

The Aesthetics and Ethics of Copying

The Aesthetics and Ethics of Copying Book
Author : Darren Hudson Hick,Reinold Schmücker
Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing
Release : 2016-10-20
ISBN : 1474254535
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Aesthetics and Ethics of Copying responds to the rapidly changing attitudes towards the use of another's ideas, styles, and artworks. With advances in technology making the copying of artworks and other artefacts exponentially easier, questions of copying no longer focus on the problems of forgery: they now expand into aesthetic and ethical legal concerns. This volume addresses the changes and provides the first philosophical foundation for an aesthetics and ethics of copying. Scholars from philosophy of art, philosophy of technology, philosophy of law, ethics, legal theory, media studies, art history, literary theory, and sociology discuss the role that copying plays in human culture, confronting the question of how-and why-copying fits into our broader system of values. Teasing out the factors and conceptual distinctions that must be accounted for in an ontology of copying, they set a groundwork for understanding the nature of copies and copying, showing how these interweave with ethical and legal concepts. Covering unique concerns for copying in the domain of artworks, from music and art to plays and literature, contributors look at work by artists including Heinrich von Kleist, Robert Rauschenberg, Courbet and Manet and conclude with the normative dimensions of copying in the twenty-first century. By bringing this topic into the philosophical domain and highlighting its philosophical relevance, The Aesthetics and Ethics of Copying establishes the complex conditions-ontological, aesthetic, ethical, cultural, and legal-that underlie and complicate the topic. The result is a timely collection that establishes the need for further discussion.

The Cognitive Underpinnings of Anthropomorphism

The Cognitive Underpinnings of Anthropomorphism Book
Author : Gabriella Airenti,Marco Cruciani,Alessio Plebe
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2019-10-04
ISBN : 2889630382
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The attribution of human traits to non-humans - animals, artifacts or even natural events - is an attitude, deeply grounded in human mind. It is frequent to see children addressing dolls and figures as if they were alive. Adults often attribute mental states and emotions to animals. In everyday life humans speak of events such as fires as if they possessed some form of intentionality, a behavior sometimes shared also by scientists. Furthermore, a systematized form of anthropomorphism underlies most religions. The pervasiveness of this phenomenon makes it a particularly interesting object of psychological enquiry. Psychologists have set out to understand which aspects of human mind are involved in this behavior, its motivations and the circumstances favoring its enactment. Moreover, there is an ongoing debate among scientists about the merits or harm of anthropomorphism in the scientific study of animal behavior and in scientific discourse. Despite the interest and the specificity of the topic most of the relevant studies are scattered across disciplines and have not built a systematic research framework. This observation has motivated the collection of articles presented here, under the unifying perspective of the cognitive underpinnings of anthropomorphism. Within this general umbrella, the authors included in this e-book have explored the issues mentioned above from different points of view. From their work it emerges that far from being the result of naive beliefs, the exercise of anthropomorphism involves a multiplicity of mental abilities including perception and imagination. They also show that the context and the interactive situation are crucial to understanding this phenomenon. Some authors analyze the relationship between anthropomorphization and theory of mind abilities both in typical and atypical populations. Finally, others contributions have identified possible benefits deriving from the natural attitude to anthropomorphize, as a design philosophy for robots and artifacts in general, or as a useful heuristic in the scientific study of animal behavior.

The Aesthetics and Ethics of Copying

The Aesthetics and Ethics of Copying Book
Author : Darren Hudson Hick,Reinold Schmücker
Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing
Release : 2016-10-20
ISBN : 1474254527
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Aesthetics and Ethics of Copying responds to the rapidly changing attitudes towards the use of another's ideas, styles, and artworks. With advances in technology making the copying of artworks and other artefacts exponentially easier, questions of copying no longer focus on the problems of forgery: they now expand into aesthetic and ethical legal concerns. This volume addresses the changes and provides the first philosophical foundation for an aesthetics and ethics of copying. Scholars from philosophy of art, philosophy of technology, philosophy of law, ethics, legal theory, media studies, art history, literary theory, and sociology discuss the role that copying plays in human culture, confronting the question of how-and why-copying fits into our broader system of values. Teasing out the factors and conceptual distinctions that must be accounted for in an ontology of copying, they set a groundwork for understanding the nature of copies and copying, showing how these interweave with ethical and legal concepts. Covering unique concerns for copying in the domain of artworks, from music and art to plays and literature, contributors look at work by artists including Heinrich von Kleist, Robert Rauschenberg, Courbet and Manet and conclude with the normative dimensions of copying in the twenty-first century. By bringing this topic into the philosophical domain and highlighting its philosophical relevance, The Aesthetics and Ethics of Copying establishes the complex conditions-ontological, aesthetic, ethical, cultural, and legal-that underlie and complicate the topic. The result is a timely collection that establishes the need for further discussion.

Oxford Studies in Metaethics 13

Oxford Studies in Metaethics 13 Book
Author : Russ Shafer-Landau
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2018-07-12
ISBN : 0192557165
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Oxford Studies in Metaethics is the only publication devoted exclusively to original philosophical work in the foundations of ethics. It provides an annual selection of much of the best new scholarship being done in the field. Its broad purview includes work being done at the intersections of ethical theory with metaphysics, epistemology, philosophy of language, and philosophy of mind. The essays included in the series provide an excellent basis for understanding recent developments in the field; those who would like to acquaint themselves with the current state of play in metaethics would do well to start here.

Evolutionary Aesthetics of Human Ethics in Hardy s Tragic Narratives

Evolutionary Aesthetics of Human Ethics in Hardy   s Tragic Narratives Book
Author : Riza Öztürk
Publisher : Cambridge Scholars Publishing
Release : 2011-05-25
ISBN : 1443830410
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Treatment of Hardy’s tragic narratives under the objective lens of evolutionary literary theory has led to three basic findings: First, within the scope of the analysis of the five major tragic narratives, representation of Hardy’s evolutionary aesthetics of human ethics, in terms of altruistic sympathy and compassion, shows that adapted parental investment in children indicates the reason why women submit to pain and suffering more than the men do. The costly investment of women in maternal behaviour leads to submission in many cases, but in return they gain better fitness for survival and reproduction than men. This is implicitly highlighted as a force of superiority in the tragedies studied, as the male characters often invest in heroic deeds over their children. Second, that which has for many years been identified as pessimism in Hardy’s tragic narratives is in fact a surface cognitive layer, under which is an implicit teaching of evolutionary aesthetics of human ethics, which guides to a true fitness of human life. Third, sympathy and particularly compassion are not only human emotions but also adapted cognitive virtues that centre on ethical teaching. Thus, an integrated model of science and humanities for art and literary analysis is required to address not only those of English language and literature departments, but also those aligned to the idea of integrating the two methods. A scientific and objective view of human life is in opposition to postmodern and structuralist approaches, which have generally been considered as the centre of interest during the latter half of the 20th century.

Doing Science In The Light Of Philosophy

Doing Science  In The Light Of Philosophy Book
Author : Bunge Mario Augusto
Publisher : World Scientific
Release : 2016-11-25
ISBN : 9813202793
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nearly all philosophers have dealt with the outcomes of scientific research, and have overlooked its philosophical presuppositions, such as those of rationality and realism. Although these presuppositions are mostly tacit and thus easily overlooked, actually they are supremely important, since some of them favor research whereas others hamper it. For instance, whereas subjectivism leads to navel gazing and uncontrolled fantasy, realism encourages us to explore the world and check our conjectures. This book examines science in the making, a process it illustrates with many examples from the natural, social, and biosocial sciences. Therefore it centers on the research process and its philosophical presuppositions. It claims that the latter constitutes a sort of matrix for conceiving and nurturing scientific projects.

Ecological Awareness

Ecological Awareness Book
Author : Sigurd Bergmann,Heather Eaton
Publisher : LIT Verlag Münster
Release : 2011
ISBN : 3825819507
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Ecological Awareness, with seventeen authors from multiple disciplines, explores how religious practitioners have become increasingly aware of ecological challenges. It sheds new light on an essential function of belief systems, which function not only as cognitive and moral systems, but emerge from and affect the human body and its mode of perceiving our milieu and ourselves within it. The book also contributes to an increasing awareness of our embeddedness in larger life processes, as well as the awareness of life as a gift.

Religion Supernaturalism the Paranormal and Pseudoscience

Religion  Supernaturalism  the Paranormal and Pseudoscience Book
Author : Homayun Sidky
Publisher : Anthem Press
Release : 2019-11-30
ISBN : 1785271636
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"Religion, Supernaturalism, the Paranormal, and Pseudoscience" provides a comprehensive rejoinder to the challenges posed to science, scientific anthropology, evolutionary theory and rationality by the advocates of supernatural, paranormal, and pseudoscientific perspectives and modes of thought associated with the current rise of irrationalism, antiintellectualism, and emboldened religious fundamentalism and violence. Drawing upon H. Sidky’s scientific anthropological background and ethnographic field research of supernatural and paranormal beliefs and practices in several cultures over three decades, the book answers several important questions: Why do humans have a proclivity for the supernatural and paranormal thinking? Why has humanity remained shackled to sets of ideas inherited from a violent past that have no basis in reality and which bestow an illusionary solace, promote bloodshed, endless cruelties and fervent hatreds, and have come at a high cost? Why have ancient superstitions been held as sacred, inviolate truths while other aspects of the archaic belief systems of which they were a part have long been discarded? Why have not humans outgrown religion and paranormal beliefs?

Evolutionary Aesthetics

Evolutionary Aesthetics Book
Author : Eckart Voland,Karl Grammer
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-04-17
ISBN : 3662071428
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Evolutionary aesthetics is the attempt to understand the aesthetic judgement of human beings and their spontaneous distinction between "beauty" and "ugliness" as a biologically adapted ability to make important decisions in life. The hypothesis is - both in the area of "natural beauty" and in sexuality, with regard to landscape preferences, but also in the area of "artificial beauty" (i.e. in art and design) - that beauty opens up fitness opportunities, while ugliness holds fitness risks. In this book, this adaptive view of aesthetics is developed theoretically, presented on the basis of numerous examples, and its consequences for evolutionary anthropology are illuminated.

Evolution and the Foundations of Ethics

Evolution and the Foundations of Ethics Book
Author : John Mizzoni
Publisher : Lexington Books
Release : 2017-02-03
ISBN : 0739199846
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

If human biological evolution is part of our worldview, then how do commonplace notions of ethics fit in? To ask the question, “what does evolution imply about ethics?” we must first be clear about what we mean by evolution. Evolution and the Foundations of Ethics discusses four models of evolution, represented by Darwin, Dawkins, Gould, and Haught. We must also be clear about what we mean by ethics. Do we mean metaethics? If so, which variety? With metaethical theories (such as Error Theory, Expressivism, Moral Relativism, and Moral Realism), theorists are attempting to explain the general nature, status, and origins of ethics. In the first four chapters of this book (Part I), John Mizzoni examines how metaethical theories fit with evolution. Next, in asking about the implications of evolution for ethics,do we mean normative ethics? Theorists who work with normative ethical theories—such as Virtue Ethics, Natural Law Ethics, Social Contract Ethics, Utilitarian Ethics, Deontological Ethics, and Ethics of Care)—articulate and defend a normative ethics that people can and do use in a practical way when deliberating about specific actions, rules, and policies. The next six chapters (Part II) look at how normative ethical theories fit with evolution. A full reckoning of ethics and evolution demands that we consider the range of ethical elements, both metaethical and normative. Thus, this book looks at what several different models of evolution imply about four metaethical theories and six normative ethical theories. This book will be of interest to scholars interested in the intersection of evolutionary theory and ethical theory.

The Artful Species Aesthetics Art and Evolution

The Artful Species  Aesthetics  Art  and Evolution Book
Author : Stephen Davies
Publisher : OUP Oxford
Release : 2012-11-29
ISBN : 0191633119
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Artful Species explores the idea that our aesthetic responses and art behaviors are connected to our evolved human nature. Our humanoid forerunners displayed aesthetic sensibilities hundreds of thousands of years ago and the art standing of prehistoric cave paintings is virtually uncontested. In Part One, Stephen Davies analyses the key concepts of the aesthetic, art, and evolution, and explores how they might be related. He considers a range of issues,including whether animals have aesthetic tastes and whether art is not only universal but cross-culturally comprehensible. Part Two examines the many aesthetic interests humans take in animals and how these reflect our biological interests, and the idea that our environmental and landscape preferences arerooted in the experiences of our distant ancestors. In considering the controversial subject of human beauty, evolutionary psychologists have traditionally focused on female physical attractiveness in the context of mate selection, but Davies presents a broader view which decouples human beauty from mate choice and explains why it goes more with social performance and self-presentation. Part Three asks if the arts, together or singly, are biological adaptations, incidental byproducts of nonartadaptations, or so removed from biology that they rate as purely cultural technologies. Davies does not conclusively support any one of the many positions considered here, but argues that there are grounds, nevertheless, for seeing art as part of human nature. Art serves as a powerful and complexsignal of human fitness, and so cannot be incidental to biology. Indeed, aesthetic responses and art behaviors are the touchstones of our humanity.

Constructing Ethical Patterns in Times of Globalization

Constructing Ethical Patterns in Times of Globalization Book
Author : Matti Aleksi Kuokkanen
Publisher : BRILL
Release : 2012-01-20
ISBN : 9004224335
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Inspired by the Catholic theologian Hans Küng, this book searches for a model for global ethics by analysing the contemporary philosophical discussion. It demonstrates that the Western model is unable to reckon with exclusivism and difference and presents an alternative model.

Layman Looks at Philosophy

Layman Looks at Philosophy Book
Author : Cyril Tomkins
Publisher : eBook Partnership
Release : 2021-07-14
ISBN : 1839523220
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Scientists and philosophers often do not see eye to eye, particularly on the evolution of Man and his Mind. This book evaluates these differences from a layman's perspective. It also explores the origins of the main areas of philosophy and relates them to practical use at the individual, corporate or governmental level suggesting that a valuable practical role exists for philosophers.A layman explored his understanding of philosophical concepts and it revealed to him interesting debates about differences between philosophers and scientists relating to the evolution of Man, implications for understanding God and Religion and different approaches to the meaning of Consciousness and the Mind. The book also seeks the origin of ethics, fairness and compassion, as well as aesthetics and language. Based upon the areas of philosophy reviewed, a framework for a worthwhile existence is offered, which is applicable at individual, corporate or government level. The book ends with a simple model of social evolution, asks what philosophy is for and concludes that there are many issues philosophers should address.The book should appeal to general readers or students who are interested in, but not expert in, philosophy as well as philosophers and scientists specifically interested in the interface between science and philosophy in areas such as the evolution of Man and Consciousness and the Mind. Decision makers at individual, corporate or government level may like to consider how philosophical concepts inform their strategic judgements. The book might also be fun for other laymen wishing to pursue the route the author has taken.

The Cambridge Handbook of Evolutionary Ethics

The Cambridge Handbook of Evolutionary Ethics Book
Author : Michael Ruse,Robert J. Richards
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2017-08-11
ISBN : 1108509312
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Evolutionary ethics - the application of evolutionary ideas to moral thinking and justification - began in the nineteenth century with the work of Charles Darwin and Herbert Spencer, but was subsequently criticized as an example of the naturalistic fallacy. In recent decades, however, evolutionary ethics has found new support among both the Darwinian and the Spencerian traditions. This accessible volume looks at the history of thought about evolutionary ethics as well as current debates in the subject, examining first the claims of supporters and then the responses of their critics. Topics covered include social Darwinism, moral realism, and debunking arguments. Clearly written and structured, the book guides readers through the arguments on both sides, and emphasises the continuing relevance of evolutionary theory to our understanding of ethics today.

Real American Ethics Taking Responsibility for Our Country Large Print 16pt

Real American Ethics  Taking Responsibility for Our Country  Large Print 16pt  Book
Author : Albert Borgmann
Publisher : ReadHowYouWant.com
Release : 2010-10
ISBN : 1459605659
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

America is a wonderful and magnificent country that affords its citizens the broadest freedoms and the greatest prosperity in the world. But it also has its share of warts. It is embroiled in a war that many of its citizens consider unjust and even illegal. It continues to ravage the natural environment and ignore poverty both at home and abroad, and its culture is increasingly driven by materialism and consumerism. But America, for better or for worse, is still a nation that we have built. So why then, asks Albert Borgmann in this most timely and urgent work, are we failing to take responsibility for it? In Real American Ethics, Borgmann asks us to reevaluate our role in the making of American values. Taking his cue from Winston Churchill - who once observed that we shape our buildings, and then our buildings shape us - Borgmann considers the power of our most enduring institutions and the condition of our present moral makeup to propose inspired new ways in which we, as ordinary citizens, can act to improve our country. This, he shows, includes everything from where we choose to live and what we spend our money on to daunting tasks like the reshaping of our cities - habits and actions that can guide us to more accomplished and virtuous lives. Using prose that is easy and direct throughout, Borgmann's position is grounded neither by conservative nor liberal ideology, but in his understanding that he is a devoted citizen among many. In an age in which the blame game is the only game in town, this patriotic book is an eloquent reminder of the political strength we all wield when we work together.