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Eukaryotic Transcription Factors

Eukaryotic Transcription Factors Book
Author : David Latchman,David S. Latchman
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2010-07-28
ISBN : 9780080561035
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Transcription, or the process by which DNA produces RNA, is a central aspect of gene expression. Transcription factors regulate transcription during development and in disease states. As such, it is critical for researchers to gain a good understanding of the relationship between the structure of various families of transcription factors and their function, as well as roles in human disease. Since publication of the Fourth Edition, there have been major advances, notably in the areas of chromatin remodeling and genome-scale analyses. This complete update includes all new coverage of the latest developments, from enabling genomic technologies to studies on the importance of post-translational modifications beyond phosphorylation events. Potential of transcription factors as therapeutic targets in human disease Importance of histone modifications Use of genome-based sequence analysis and high-throughput methods Applications of the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay Transcriptional elongation Regulation by post-translational modifications Regulatory networks and bioinformatics

Transcription Factors

Transcription Factors Book
Author : Joseph Locker
Publisher : Garland Science
Release : 2012-10-12
ISBN : 1135323631
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Transcription factors are important in regulating gene expression, and their analysis is of paramount interest to molecular biologists studying this area. This book looks at the basic machinery of the cell involved in transcription in eukaryotes and factors that control transcription in eukaryotic cells. It examines the regulatory systems that modulate gene expression in all cells,a s well as the more specialized systems that regulate localized gene expression throughout the mammalian organism. Transcription Factors updates classical knowledge with recent advances to provide a full and comprehensive coverage of the field for postgraduates and researchers in molecular biology involved in the study of gene regulation.

Eukaryotic Transcription Factors

Eukaryotic Transcription Factors Book
Author : Oleg L. Polyanovsky,Alexander G. Stepchenko
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1990
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Eukaryotic Transcription Factors book written by Oleg L. Polyanovsky,Alexander G. Stepchenko, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Mechanisms of Transcription

Mechanisms of Transcription Book
Author : Fritz Eckstein,David M.J. Lilley
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 3642606911
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Mechanisms of Transcription presents a unique perspective on the fundamental processes of transcription. A collection of distinguished authors draws together the underlying mechanisms involved in the process of transcription. This includes RNA polymerase function and its interaction with promoter sequences, and the structures of the various components on the transcriptional machinery. Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems, NMR and crystallographic structures of a number of important eukaryotic transcription factors are discussed, as well as the role of chromatin structure.

Gene Control

Gene Control Book
Author : David Latchman
Publisher : Garland Science
Release : 2018-03-29
ISBN : 1136844201
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Gene Control offers a current description of how gene expression is controlled in eukaryotes, reviewing and summarizing the extensive primary literature into an easily accessible format. Gene Control is a comprehensively restructured and expanded edition of Latchman’s Gene Regulation: A Eukaryotic Perspective, Fifth Edition. The first part of the book deals with the fundamental processes of gene control at the levels of chromatin structure, transcription, and post-transcriptional processes. Three pairs of chapters deal with each of these aspects, first describing the basic process itself, followed by the manner in which it is involved in controlling gene expression. The second part of the book deals with the role of gene control in specific biological processes. Certain chapters deal with the importance of gene control in cellular signaling processes and for normal development of the embryo. Another chapter discusses the key roles played by gene-regulatory processes in the specification of differentiated cell types such as muscle cells and neurons. The final chapters discuss the consequences of errors in gene control; the relationship between gene misregulation and human diseases, especially cancer; and potential therapies designed specifically to target particular levels of gene control. Gene Control will be of value to students in biological sciences, as well as to scientists and clinicians interested in how genes are regulated in health and disease.

Mechanisms of Gene Expression

Mechanisms of Gene Expression Book
Author : Robert O J Weinzierl
Publisher : World Scientific
Release : 1999-08-10
ISBN : 1783262257
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A detailed knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the transcriptional control of gene expression is of fundamental importance to many areas of contemporary biomedical research, ranging from understanding basic issues (such as control of embryonic development) to practical applications in industry and medicine. Although elementary concepts of gene expression are described in all general molecular biology textbooks, the depth of coverage is often rather limited and recent discoveries are sometimes not adequately taken into consideration. This book presents much of the current thinking concerning molecular mechanisms of transcriptional control in a form easily accessible to undergraduates with an understanding of basic molecular biology concepts. It contains detailed information about the various pro- and eukaryotic transcriptional machineries that has recently become available through the combined efforts of geneticists, biochemists and structural biologists. The book will thus not only serve as an undergraduate text but also offer something new and interesting to more advanced readers and professional scientists who want to keep up to date with rapid advances in this field. Contents:RNA PolymerasesBasal Factors Recognize Promoters and Assemble the Pre-Initiation Transcription ComplexesGene-Specific Transcription FactorsCoactivators: Interface between Gene-Specific and Basal Transcription FactorsControl of RNA Elongation and TerminationRNAPI and RNAPIII Transcriptional MachineriesChromatinNuclear Matrix, Chromosome Scaffolds and Transcriptional FactoriesGene Expression Dynamics and Global Genome Transcription PatternsAppearing on the Horizon: Medical Applications Focusing on Transcriptional Control Mechanisms Readership: Undergraduate and graduate students in molecular biology, biochemistry and genetics. Keywords:Gene Expression;Genetics;Mechanisms;Basal Transcriptional Machinery

Transcriptional Regulation in Eukaryotes

Transcriptional Regulation in Eukaryotes Book
Author : Michael Carey,Michael F. Carey,Stephen T. Smale
Publisher : CSHL Press
Release : 2000
ISBN : 9780879696351
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In the genome era, the analysis of gene expression has become a critical requirement in many laboratories. But there has been no comprehensive source of strategic, conceptual, and technical information to guide this often complex task. Transcriptional Regulation in Eukaryotes answers that need. Written by two experienced investigators, Michael Carey and Stephen Smale at the UCLA School of Medicine, and based in part on the Gene Expression course taught at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, this book directly addresses all the concerns of a laboratory studying the regulation of a newly isolated gene and the biochemistry of a new transcription factor. This important and unique book is essential reading for anyone pursuing the analysis of gene expression in model systems or disease states.

Regulation of Eukaryotic Transcription by BHLH PAS Transcription Factors AhR and Arnt

Regulation of Eukaryotic Transcription by BHLH PAS Transcription Factors AhR and Arnt Book
Author : Nan Hao
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2012
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) is a Class I basic Helix-Loop-Helix/Per-Arnt-Sim (bHLH/PAS) transcription factor essential for adaptive response to xenobiotics. As for all bHLH/PAS proteins, it has a uniform molecular design that is composed of three functional domains, including a highly conserved N-terminal bHLH domain, a pair of degenerate PAS repeats (designated PAS.A and PAS.B), and a poorly conserved C-terminal transactivation domain. However, in contrast to the other proteins in the family, AhR is the only member known to bind xenobiotic ligand found in nature. The ligand binding domain (LBD) of AhR resides in its PAS.B region. Structure activity relationship analysis suggested that the ligand binding pocket of AhR is promiscuous, which can accommodate a large number of planar and hydrophobic compounds. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Halogenated Aromatic Hydrocarbons (HAHs) are by far the most common classes of AhR ligands. In addition, pharmaceutical compounds such as the hepatoprotective agent YH439 that fall outside the aromatic classification, have also been shown to activate AhR, presumably by functioning as AhR agonists. To better characterize the LBD of mouse AhR (mAhR), rational site-directed mutagenesis was performed based on the LBD sequences of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Unexpectedly, the mAhR H285Y mutant as well as previously identified A375I mutant were found to discriminate between ligands, suggesting that in contrast to the PAH/HAH ligands, the atypical ligand YH439 has a novel mode of interaction that does not require full access of the ligand binding cavity. All bHLH/PAS proteins function as obligate dimers. In order to form an active, DNA binding complex, the AhR have to dimerize with Class II bHLH/PAS protein Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (Arnt). This is mediated primarily via the N terminal bHLH and PAS.A domains. Furthermore, the data presented in this thesis suggest that both the [alpha]-helical connector and [beta]-strand structure of the PAS.A domains are required for AhR/Arnt heterodimerization, which is distinct from the [beta]-scaffold surfaces proposed for dimerization between the PAS.B domains of HIF-2[alpha] (Hypoxia Inducible Factor-2[alpha]) and Arnt. Intriguingly, interaction between Arnt and other Class I bHLH/PAS proteins were found to occur via the same dimerization interface, suggesting that the dimerization selectivity of common partner factor Arnt resides on a small number of key amino acids within a single dimerization interface of Arnt. In addition to the canonical AhR activation by xenobiotics, switching cells from adherent to suspension culture also activates the AhR, representing a non-xenobiotic, physiological activation of AhR signaling. This is further supported by the observation that AhR is recruited to the xenobiotic response element (XRE) of prototypical AhR target genes Cyp1a1, Cyp1b1 and Tiparp following both xenobiotic and suspension culture induced AhR activation. However, genome wide microarray analysis revealed significant differences between the two activation mechanisms in modulating target gene expression, implying the existence of a fine-tuning control to define the target gene specificity of AhR. Taken together, the work presented in this thesis explores the various mechanisms underlying AhR regulation with a special emphasis on specificity, which not only advances our current understanding on the non-canonical pathways of AhR activation, but also lends novel insights into how eukaryotic genes are regulated at the transcriptional level.

Structure function Analysis of the Eukaryotic Transcription Factor SPT5

Structure function Analysis of the Eukaryotic Transcription Factor SPT5 Book
Author : Christine Emigh-Hutton
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2006
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Structure function Analysis of the Eukaryotic Transcription Factor SPT5 book written by Christine Emigh-Hutton, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Novel Optical Techniques for Exploring the DNA Binding Affinity and Specificity of Eukaryotic Transcription Factors and Transcription Factor Complexes

Novel Optical Techniques for Exploring the DNA Binding Affinity and Specificity of Eukaryotic Transcription Factors and Transcription Factor Complexes Book
Author : Andrew James Bonham
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2010
ISBN : 9781109727548
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Together, these techniques provide a novel and extendible platform for observing and understanding transcription factor complexes during transcriptional regulation, enabling previously difficult-to-approach biochemical investigations.

Eukaryotic Transcriptional Regulation

Eukaryotic Transcriptional Regulation Book
Author : Xochitl Chamorro Morgan
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2008
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Survival of cells and organisms requires that each of thousands of genes is expressed at the correct time in development, in the correct tissue, and under the correct conditions. Transcription is the primary point of gene regulation. Genes are activated and repressed by transcription factors, which are proteins that become active through signaling, bind, sometimes cooperatively, to regulatory regions of DNA, and interact with other proteins such as chromatin remodelers. Yeast has nearly six thousand genes, several hundred of which are transcription factors; transcription factors comprise around 2000 of the 22,000 genes in the human genome. When and how these transcription factors are activated, as well as which subsets of genes they regulate, is a current, active area of research essential to understanding the transcriptional regulatory programs of organisms. We approached this problem in two divergent ways: first, an in silico study of human transcription factor combinations, and second, an experimental study of the transcriptional response of yeast mutants deficient in DNA repair. First, in order to better understand the combinatorial nature of transcription factor binding, we developed a data mining approach to assess whether transcription factors whose binding motifs were frequently proximal in the human genome were more likely to interact. We found many instances in the literature in which over-represented transcription factor pairs co-regulated the same gene, so we used co-citation to assess the utility of this method on a larger scale. We determined that over-represented pairs were more likely to be co-cited than would be expected by chance. Because proper repair of DNA is an essential and highly-conserved process in all eukaryotes, we next used cDNA microarrays to measure differentially expressed genes in eighteen yeast deletion strains with sensitivity to the DNA cross-linking agent methyl methane sulfonate (MMS); many of these mutants were transcription factors or DNA-binding proteins. Combining this data with tools such as chromatin immunoprecipitation, gene ontology analysis, expression profile similarity, and motif analysis allowed us to propose a model for the roles of Iki3 and of YML081W, a poorly-characterized gene, in DNA repair.

Repetitive Protein Sequences in RNA Polymerase II and Transcription Factors as Regulatory Components of the Eukaryotic Transcription

Repetitive Protein Sequences in RNA Polymerase II and Transcription Factors as Regulatory Components of the Eukaryotic Transcription Book
Author : Hanspeter Gerber
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1995
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Repetitive Protein Sequences in RNA Polymerase II and Transcription Factors as Regulatory Components of the Eukaryotic Transcription book written by Hanspeter Gerber, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Transcription Factors in Eukaryotes

Transcription Factors in Eukaryotes Book
Author : Athanasios Papavassiliou
Publisher : International Thomson Publishing Services
Release : 1997
ISBN : 9780412125010
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Incl. structure/function relationships of transcription factors in the context of cytoplasmic & nuclear milieus etc.

Mechanisms of Gene Regulation

Mechanisms of Gene Regulation Book
Author : Carsten Carlberg,Ferdinand Molnár
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-06-06
ISBN : 9401777411
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This textbook aims to describe the fascinating area of eukaryotic gene regulation for graduate students in all areas of the biomedical sciences. Gene expression is essential in shaping the various phenotypes of cells and tissues and as such, regulation of gene expression is a fundamental aspect of nearly all processes in physiology, both in healthy and in diseased states. This pivotal role for the regulation of gene expression makes this textbook essential reading for students of all the biomedical sciences, in order to be better prepared for their specialized disciplines. A complete understanding of transcription factors and the processes that alter their activity is a major goal of modern life science research. The availability of the whole human genome sequence (and that of other eukaryotic genomes) and the consequent development of next-generation sequencing technologies have significantly changed nearly all areas of the biological sciences. For example, the genome-wide location of histone modifications and transcription factor binding sites, such as provided by the ENCODE consortium, has greatly improved our understanding of gene regulation. Therefore, the focus of this book is the description of the post-genome understanding of gene regulation. The purpose of this book is to provide, in a condensed form, an overview on the present understanding of the mechanisms of gene regulation. The authors are not aiming to compete with comprehensive treatises, but rather focus on the essentials. Therefore, the authors have favored a high figure-to-text ratio following the rule stating that “a picture tells more than thousand words”. The content of the book is based on the lecture course, which is given by Prof. Carlberg since 2001 at the University of Eastern Finland in Kuopio. The book is subdivided into 4 sections and 13 chapters. Following the Introduction there are three sections, which take a view on gene regulation from the perspective of transcription factors, chromatin and non-coding RNA, respectively. Besides its value as a textbook, Mechanisms of Gene Regulation will be a useful reference for individuals working in biomedical laboratories.

Repetitive Protein Sequences in RNA Polymerase II and Transcription Factors as Regulatory Components of the Eukaryotic Transcription Apparatus

Repetitive Protein Sequences in RNA Polymerase II and Transcription Factors as Regulatory Components of the Eukaryotic Transcription Apparatus Book
Author : Hanspeter Gerber
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1995
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Repetitive Protein Sequences in RNA Polymerase II and Transcription Factors as Regulatory Components of the Eukaryotic Transcription Apparatus book written by Hanspeter Gerber, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Mechanisms of Transcription

Mechanisms of Transcription Book
Author : Fritz Eckstein,David M.J. Lilley
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2011-10-17
ISBN : 9783642606922
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Mechanisms of Transcription presents a unique perspective on the fundamental processes of transcription. A collection of distinguished authors draws together the underlying mechanisms involved in the process of transcription. This includes RNA polymerase function and its interaction with promoter sequences, and the structures of the various components on the transcriptional machinery. Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems, NMR and crystallographic structures of a number of important eukaryotic transcription factors are discussed, as well as the role of chromatin structure.

Transcription Factor Target Search in Live Eukaryotic Cells

Transcription Factor Target Search in Live Eukaryotic Cells Book
Author : Lydia Boudarène
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2013
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Gene regulation is a tightly controlled mechanism throughout evolution. At the core of this process, transcription factors play a major role in transcription initiation by binding and inducing transcriptional machinery recruitment at gene regulatory sequences. To execute their function, transcription factors have to find and bind on their -10 base pair target sequence within a genome of billions of base pairs in timing consistent with biological processes. In the last 40 years, target search process has been widely studied theoretically as well as in vitro and in vivo in bacteria and yeast, but not in high eukaryotes. In the work presented in this thesis, we show the eukaryotic live cell observations of an exogenously introduced bacterial Tetracycline Repressor System binding on an artificial gene array of Tetracycline Operator target sites. The target search mechanism of the Tetracycline Repressor exhibits diffusion in the nucleus by combining a free three-dimensional local and global diffusion, non-specific binding and one-dimensional sliding on the DNA. The binding efficiency on the target was found to be orders of magnitude lower than expected, suggesting that parameters such as local protein concentration or chromatin organization have to be considered for a global understanding of gene expression regulation.

Gene Regulation

Gene Regulation Book
Author : David S. Latchman
Publisher : Garland Science
Release : 2002
ISBN : 9780748765300
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This lucid, well structured and jargon-free book provides an up-to-date and comprehensive account of the processes involved in gene expression and the mechanisms by which such expression is regulated. New information on how viruses modify host gene regulation has been included in this new edition. Methods used to analyze gene expression have also been given more attention, with a new section added on methods for examining DNA binding by transcriptional factors.